Identification

Name
Nitric Oxide
Accession Number
DB00435  (APRD01142)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also a toxic air pollutant produced by automobile engines and power plants.

Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant.

The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity. It reacts with the ozone in air to form nitrogen dioxide, signalled by the appearance of the reddish-brown color.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (.)NO
  • (NO)(.)
  • [NO]
  • EDRF
  • endothelium-derived relaxing factor
  • Mononitrogen monoxide
  • Monoxido de nitrogeno
  • Monoxyde d'azote
  • Nitric oxide
  • nitrogen monooxide
  • Nitrogen monoxide
  • Nitrosyl
  • NO
  • NO(.)
  • Oxido de nitrogeno(ii)
  • Oxido nitrico
  • Oxyde azotique
  • Oxyde nitrique
  • Stickstoff(ii)-oxid
  • Stickstoffmonoxid
External IDs
OHM-11771
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
INOmaxGas.98 mg/LRespiratory (inhalation)INO Therapeutics1999-12-23Not applicableUs
InomaxInhalant800 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)Linde Healthcare Ab2001-08-01Not applicableEu
INOmaxGas800 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)INO Therapeutics2005-11-23Not applicableCanada
InomaxInhalant400 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)Linde Healthcare Ab2001-08-01Not applicableEu
INOmaxGas.123 mg/LRespiratory (inhalation)INO Therapeutics1999-12-232015-12-29Us
InomaxInhalant800 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)Linde Healthcare Ab2001-08-01Not applicableEu
InomaxInhalant400 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)Linde Healthcare Ab2001-08-01Not applicableEu
INOmaxGas100 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)INO Therapeutics2005-11-232015-07-31Canada
KinoxGas100 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Usa Llc2016-05-03Not applicableCanada
KinoxGas800 ppmRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Usa Llc2016-05-03Not applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nitric Oxide Nitrogen MixNitric Oxide (5 mL/L) + Nitrogen (955 mL/L)GasRespiratory (inhalation)Airgas Specialty Gases2010-05-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
31C4KY9ESH
CAS number
10102-43-9
Weight
Average: 30.0061
Monoisotopic: 29.997988627
Chemical Formula
NO
InChI Key
MWUXSHHQAYIFBG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/NO/c1-2
IUPAC Name
nitroso
SMILES
[N]=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of term and near-term (>34 weeks) neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs as a primary developmental defect or as a condition secondary to other diseases such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia, sepsis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and pulmonary hypoplasia. In these states, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, which results in hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. In neonates with PPHN, Nitric oxide improves oxygenation (as indicated by significant increases in PaO2). Nitric oxide appears to increase the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) by dilating pulmonary vessels in better entilated areas of the lung, redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from lung regions with low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios toward regions with normal ratios.

Mechanism of action

Nitric oxide is a compound produced by many cells of the body. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase and increasing intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which then leads to vasodilation. When inhaled, nitric oxide produces pulmonary vasodilation.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGuanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2
inducer
Human
UMetallothionein-1ANot AvailableHuman
UIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Nitric oxide is absorbed systemically after inhalation.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

via pulmonary capillary bed

Route of elimination

Nitrate has been identified as the predominant nitric oxide metabolite excreted in the urine, accounting for >70% of the nitric oxide dose inhaled.

Half life

2–6 seconds

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)Disease
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)Disease
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolic
Prolinemia Type IIDisease
Hyperprolinemia Type IDisease
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)Disease
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDisease
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDisease
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)Disease
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]Disease
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Nitric Oxide can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
AmiodaroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiodarone is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Nitric Oxide.Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
AtorvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
CabergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabergoline is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
CitalopramThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Nitric Oxide can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
DihydroergocornineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocornine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
DihydroergocristineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocristine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Experimental
DihydroergocryptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocryptine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Experimental
DihydroergotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergotamine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DuloxetineNitric Oxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efonidipine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
ErgonovineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergonovine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
ErgotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergotamine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoldopam is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
FluvastatinThe serum concentration of Fluvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Nitric Oxide.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
IndoraminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Nitric Oxide.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
LacidipineNitric Oxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lercanidipine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaNitric Oxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LisurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisuride is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofexidine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is combined with Nitric Oxide.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
MetergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metergoline is combined with Nitric Oxide.Experimental
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved
MethylergometrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylergometrine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved
MethysergideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methysergide is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
MevastatinThe serum concentration of Mevastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Experimental
MexiletineThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moxonidine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicergoline is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nilvadipine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Nitric Oxide can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
PergolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pergolide is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Phentolamine.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Pipamperone.Approved, Investigational
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
RisperidoneNitric Oxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Rotigotine.Approved
RucaparibThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SimeprevirThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Streptokinase.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TergurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terguride is combined with Nitric Oxide.Experimental
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitric Oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
UbidecarenoneThe serum concentration of Ubidecarenone can be increased when it is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Nitric Oxide can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Stephen M. Campbell, Chen-Youn Sue, "Nitric oxide for vapor phase elimination of styrene and acrylonitrile popcorn polymer in bulk SAN production." U.S. Patent US5272231, issued November, 1968.

US5272231
General References
  1. Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L: Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2007 Jan;87(1):315-424. [PubMed:17237348]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0003378
KEGG Drug
D00074
KEGG Compound
C00533
PubChem Compound
145068
PubChem Substance
46506897
ChemSpider
127983
ChEBI
16480
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200689
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001056
PharmGKB
PA450635
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Nitric_Oxide
ATC Codes
R07AX01 — Nitric oxide
AHFS Codes
  • 24:12.08 — Nitrates and Nitrites
MSDS
Download (52.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedDiagnosticPulmonary Vascular Disorder1
0CompletedTreatmentEndothelial Dysfunction1
0TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Insufficiency1
1CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Embolism (PE)1
1CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
1CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH) / Sickle Cell Disorders1
1TerminatedTreatmentSepsis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBronchiolitis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentAcidosis, Respiratory / Chronic Lung Diseases / Hypoxemia1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentPressure Ulcers / Ulcer, Leg1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentPressure Ulcers1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Chest Syndrome / Sickle Cell Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
2CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentMalaria, Cerebral1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)2
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Embolism (PE)1
2CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders / Thoracic Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentTinea infections1
2CompletedTreatmentTransplantation, Lung1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceStrokes1
2RecruitingTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Mycobacterium abscessus infection1
2RecruitingTreatmentHeart Arrest, Out-Of-Hospital1
2RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2RecruitingTreatmentTinea Pedis1
2TerminatedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) / ST Elevation MI / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
2TerminatedTreatmentCardiac Transplant / Chronic Lung Diseases / Lung Transplant / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) / Sickle Cell Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentChronic Ulcer of Lower Extremity1
2TerminatedTreatmentInfections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci / Skin Ulcers1
2TerminatedTreatmentRight Ventricular Infarction1
2TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHemolysis / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcute Chest Syndrome / Sickle Cell Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDefect, Congenital Heart1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Diseases1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity1
3CompletedDiagnosticCongenital Heart Disease With Pulmonary Hypertension / Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension / Prophylaxis of cardiomyopathy1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentSepsis1
3RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
3RecruitingTreatmentBronchiolitis1
3TerminatedPreventionIschemia-Reperfusion Injury1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnoxemia / Respiratory Insufficiency1
3WithdrawnTreatmentHypoxic Respiratory Failure With Pulmonary Hypertension1
4CompletedDiagnosticPremature Births1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentInfants / Persistent foetal circulation disorders / Respiratory Failure1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypertension, Pulmonary, of Newborn, Persistent / Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome / Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of Newborn (PPHN)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIschemia/Reperfusion Injury / Oxidative Injury / Transplantation, Liver1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePremature and Term-near-term Neonates With Pulmonary Hypertension1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Ino therapeutics inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
GasRespiratory (inhalation).123 mg/L
GasRespiratory (inhalation).98 mg/L
GasRespiratory (inhalation)100 ppm
GasRespiratory (inhalation)800 ppm
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)400 ppm
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)800 ppm
GasRespiratory (inhalation)
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5485827No1993-01-232013-01-23Us
CA2186892No2007-11-272015-04-03Canada
US5732693Yes1997-06-132017-06-13Us
US5752504Yes1997-06-132017-06-13Us
US8282966Yes2009-12-302029-12-30Us
US8291904Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us
US8293284Yes2009-12-302029-12-30Us
US8431163Yes2009-12-302029-12-30Us
US8776794Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us
US8776795Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us
US8573210Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us
US8795741Yes2009-12-302029-12-30Us
US8846112Yes2009-12-302029-12-30Us
US6125846Yes1997-11-162017-11-16Us
US9265911Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us
US9295802Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us
US9279794Yes2014-08-192034-08-19Us
US8573209Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us
US9408993Yes2011-07-062031-07-06Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-163.6 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)-151.7 °CPhysProp
water solubility9.49E+004 mg/LNot Available
logP0Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity2.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9968
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9785
Caco-2 permeable+0.6149
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.9034
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.957
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9892
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8973
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8884
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.888
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7535
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7402
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9383
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.896
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8796
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9754
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8945
Ames testAMES toxic0.5342
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.8336
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9371
Rat acute toxicity2.5108 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8524
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9756
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (6.86 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-8a2dd9da1fc114d013b3
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-8a2dd9da1fc114d013b3
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-8a2dd9da1fc114d013b3
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-e998110984a05853a05d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-e998110984a05853a05d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-e998110984a05853a05d

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Other non-metal organides
Sub Class
Other non-metal oxides
Direct Parent
Other non-metal oxides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Other non-metal oxide / Inorganic oxide
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
reactive nitrogen species, reactive oxygen species, nitrogen oxide, inorganic radical (CHEBI:16480)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Heme binding
Specific Function
Has guanylyl cyclase on binding to the beta-1 subunit.Isoform 2 acts as a negative regulator of guanylyl cyclase activity as it forms non-functional heterodimers with the beta subunits.
Gene Name
GUCY1A2
Uniprot ID
P33402
Uniprot Name
Guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
81749.185 Da
References
  1. Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA: Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 1991 Jun;43(2):109-42. [PubMed:1852778]
  2. Mancuso C, Navarra P, Preziosi P: Roles of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Neurochem. 2010 May;113(3):563-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06606.x. Epub 2010 Jan 20. [PubMed:20089135]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Metallothioneins have a high content of cysteine residues that bind various heavy metals; these proteins are transcriptionally regulated by both heavy metals and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name
MT1A
Uniprot ID
P04731
Uniprot Name
Metallothionein-1A
Molecular Weight
6120.19 Da
References
  1. Aravindakumar CT, Ceulemans J, De Ley M: Nitric oxide induces Zn2+ release from metallothionein by destroying zinc-sulphur clusters without concomitant formation of S-nitrosothiol. Biochem J. 1999 Nov 15;344 Pt 1:253-8. [PubMed:10548558]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first and rate limiting step of the catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway (PubMed:17671174). Involved in the peripheral immune tolerance, cont...
Gene Name
IDO1
Uniprot ID
P14902
Uniprot Name
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
45325.89 Da
References
  1. Samelson-Jones BJ, Yeh SR: Interactions between nitric oxide and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Biochemistry. 2006 Jul 18;45(28):8527-38. [PubMed:16834326]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Electron carrier activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALDH2
Uniprot ID
P05091
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56380.93 Da
References
  1. Moon KH, Kim BJ, Song BJ: Inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by nitric oxide-mediated S-nitrosylation. FEBS Lett. 2005 Nov 7;579(27):6115-20. Epub 2005 Oct 11. [PubMed:16242127]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Nakano R, Sato H, Watanabe A, Ito O, Shimizu T: Conserved Glu318 at the cytochrome P450 1A2 distal site is crucial in the nitric oxide complex stability. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 12;271(15):8570-4. [PubMed:8621484]
  2. Mulero-Navarro S, Santiago-Josefat B, Pozo-Guisado E, Merino JM, Fernandez-Salguero PM: Down-regulation of CYP1A2 induction during the maturation of mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture: role of nitric oxide accumulation. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Oct;18(8):2265-72. [PubMed:14622187]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Aitken AE, Lee CM, Morgan ET: Roles of nitric oxide in inflammatory downregulation of human cytochromes P450. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Mar 15;44(6):1161-8. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.12.010. Epub 2007 Dec 23. [PubMed:18206661]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Watabe M, Isogai Y, Numazawa S, Yoshida T: Role of c-Myc in nitric oxide-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 3A4. Life Sci. 2003 Nov 21;74(1):99-108. [PubMed:14575816]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 19, 2018 10:47