Identification

Name
Testosterone
Accession Number
DB00624  (APRD00433, DB05720, DB05275)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Testosterone is a steroid sex hormone found in both men and women. In men, testosterone is produced primarily by the Leydig (interstitial) cells of the testes when stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). It functions to stimulate spermatogenesis, promote physical and functional maturation of spermatozoa, maintain accessory organs of the male reproductive tract, support development of secondary sexual characteristics, stimulate growth and metabolism throughout the body and influence brain development by stimulating sexual behaviors and sexual drive. In women, testosterone is produced by the ovaries (25%), adrenals (25%) and via peripheral conversion from androstenedione (50%). Testerone in women functions to maintain libido and general wellbeing. Testosterone exerts a negative feedback mechanism on pituitary release of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Testosterone may be further converted to dihydrotestosterone or estradiol depending on the tissue.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 17beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one
  • 4-androsten-17β-ol-3-one
  • Mertestate
  • Testosteron
  • Testosterona
  • Testostérone
  • Testosteronum
  • Virosterone
External IDs
4-08-00-00979 / BRN 3170544 / CCRIS 7082 / EINECS 206-253-5 / EINECS 227-712-6 / NSC-17591 / NSC-9700
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AndrodermPatch5 mgTransdermalAllergan2002-09-24Not applicableCanada
AndrodermPatch4 mg/1dTransdermalAllergan1995-09-29Not applicableUs
AndrodermPatch5 mg/1dTransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-05-072013-02-28Us
AndrodermPatch2 mg/1dTransdermalActavis Pharma Company1995-09-29Not applicableUs
AndrodermPatch2.5 mgTransdermalAllergan2000-12-19Not applicableCanada
AndrodermPatch2 mg/1dTransdermalAllergan1995-09-29Not applicableUs
AndrodermPatch24.3 mg/1TransdermalWatson Pharma, Inc.2006-09-192006-09-19Us
AndrodermPatch2.5 mg/1dTransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-11-132011-06-30Us
AndrodermPatch12.2 mg/1TransdermalWatson Pharma, Inc.2006-09-192006-09-19Us
AndrodermPatch4 mg/1dTransdermalActavis Pharma Company1995-09-29Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Taro-testosterone GelGel1 %TransdermalTaro Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2017-10-31Not applicableCanada
Taro-testosterone GelGel1 %TransdermalTaro Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2017-10-31Not applicableCanada
TestopelPellet75 mg/1SubcutaneousSlate Pharma2009-07-21Not applicableUs
TestopelPellet75 mg/1SubcutaneousEndo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-31Not applicableUs
TestosteroneGel10 mg/1gTransdermalActavis Pharma, Inc.2015-11-092015-10-20Us
TestosteroneGel, metered10 mg/0.5gTopicalPar Pharmaceutical2014-08-25Not applicableUs
TestosteroneSolution30 mg/1.5mLTopicalPrasco, Laboratories2017-01-232018-12-31Us
TestosteroneSolution30 mg/1.5mLTopicalCipla Limited2018-03-30Not applicableUs
TestosteroneGel16.2 mg/1gTopicalPerrigo New York Inc2018-10-12Not applicableUs
TestosteroneSolution30 mg/1.5mLTopicalPerrigo New York Inc.2017-06-28Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IntrinsaTestosterone (300 micrograms/24hours)PatchTransdermalWarner Chilcott2006-07-282012-07-16Eu
IntrinsaTestosterone (300 micrograms/24hours)PatchTransdermalWarner Chilcott2006-07-282012-07-16Eu
IntrinsaTestosterone (300 micrograms/24hours)PatchTransdermalWarner Chilcott2006-07-282012-07-16Eu
LivensaTestosterone (300 micrograms/24hours)PatchTransdermalWarner Chilcott Deutschland Gmb H2006-07-282012-04-16Eu
LivensaTestosterone (300 micrograms/24hours)PatchTransdermalWarner Chilcott Deutschland Gmb H2006-07-282012-04-16Eu
LivensaTestosterone (300 micrograms/24hours)PatchTransdermalWarner Chilcott Deutschland Gmb H2006-07-282012-04-16Eu
TestosteroneTestosterone (87.5 mg/1)PelletOralQualgen Llc2015-09-012018-02-13Us
TestosteroneTestosterone (25 mg/1)PelletOralQualgen Llc2015-09-012018-02-13Us
TestosteroneTestosterone (50 mg/1)PelletOralQualgen Llc2015-09-012018-02-13Us
TestosteroneTestosterone (200 mg/1)PelletOralQualgen Llc2015-09-012018-02-13Us
International/Other Brands
Androderm / Andronate 100 / Andronate 200 / Andropatch (GlaxoSmithKline) / Andropository 200 / Andryl 200 / Bio-T-Gel (BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.) / Fortigel / Intrinsa (Procter & Gamble) / Livensa (Procter & Gamble) / Nebido (Bayer) / Sustanon (Organon) / Synandrol F / Testamone 100 / Testaqua IM / Testoderm / Testoderm TTS / Testogel (Bayer) / Testolin / Testopatch (Pierre Fabre) / Testopel Pellets / Testrin-P.A / Testro AQ / Tostrelle / Tostrex / Virormone (Nordic Pharma)
Categories
UNII
3XMK78S47O
CAS number
58-22-0
Weight
Average: 288.4244
Monoisotopic: 288.20893014
Chemical Formula
C19H28O2
InChI Key
MUMGGOZAMZWBJJ-DYKIIFRCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H28O2/c1-18-9-7-13(20)11-12(18)3-4-14-15-5-6-17(21)19(15,2)10-8-16(14)18/h11,14-17,21H,3-10H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,17-,18-,19-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3aS,3bR,9aR,9bS,11aS)-1-hydroxy-9a,11a-dimethyl-1H,2H,3H,3aH,3bH,4H,5H,7H,8H,9H,9aH,9bH,10H,11H,11aH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-7-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C

Pharmacology

Indication

To be used as hormone replacement or substitution of diminished or absent endogenous testosterone. Use in males: For management of congenital or acquired hypogonadism, hypogonadism associated with HIV infection, and male climacteric (andopause). Use in females: For palliative treatment of androgen-responsive, advanced, inoperable, metastatis (skeletal) carcinoma of the breast in women who are 1-5 years postmenopausal; testosterone esters may be used in combination with estrogens in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause in women who do not respond to adequately to estrogen therapy alone.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is primarily secreted from the testes of males. In females, it is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands and by conversion of adrostenedione in the periphery. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. Examples include enhanced libido, energy, immune function, and protection against osteoporosis. On average, the adult male body produces about twenty times the amount of testosterone than an adult female's body does.

Mechanism of action

The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5α-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 2.5 times that of T. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAndrogen receptor
agonist
Human
UEstrogen receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
UMineralocorticoid receptorNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Approximately 10% of the testosterone dose applied on the skin surface is absorbed into systemic circulation

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

40% of testosterone in plasma is bound to sex hormone-binding globulin and 2% remains unbound and the rest is bound to albumin and other proteins.

Metabolism

Testosterone is metabolized to 17-keto steroids through two different pathways. The major active metabolites are estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Route of elimination

About 90% of a dose of testosterone given intramuscularly is excreted in the urine as glucuronic and sulfuric acid conjugates of testosterone and its metabolites; about 6% of a dose is excreted in the feces, mostly in the unconjugated form.

Half life

10-100 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Side effects include amnesia, anxiety, discolored hair, dizziness, dry skin, hirsutism, hostility, impaired urination, paresthesia, penis disorder, peripheral edema, sweating, and vasodilation.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
17-beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDisease
Aromatase DeficiencyDisease
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolic
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolic
Androstenedione MetabolismMetabolic
Androstenedione MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinTestosterone may increase the anticoagulant activities of (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinTestosterone may increase the anticoagulant activities of (S)-Warfarin.
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe metabolism of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be increased when combined with Testosterone.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Testosterone.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Testosterone.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be increased when combined with Testosterone.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Testosterone can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be increased when combined with Testosterone.
AbacavirTestosterone may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Merle G. Wovcha, Frederick J. Antosz, John M. Beaton, Alfred B. Garcia, Leo A. Kominek, "Process for preparing 9.alpha.-OH testosterone." U.S. Patent US4221868, issued November, 1977.

US4221868
General References
  1. Freeman ER, Bloom DA, McGuire EJ: A brief history of testosterone. J Urol. 2001 Feb;165(2):371-3. [PubMed:11176375]
  2. Hoberman JM, Yesalis CE: The history of synthetic testosterone. Sci Am. 1995 Feb;272(2):76-81. [PubMed:7817189]
  3. Authors unspecified: Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia in normal men. World Health Organization Task Force on methods for the regulation of male fertility. Lancet. 1990 Oct 20;336(8721):955-9. [PubMed:1977002]
  4. Dean JD, Carnegie C, Rodzvilla J, Smith T: Long-term effects of testim(r) 1% testosterone gel in hypogonadal men. Rev Urol. 2004;6 Suppl 6:S22-9. [PubMed:16985908]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000234
KEGG Drug
D00075
KEGG Compound
C00535
PubChem Compound
6013
PubChem Substance
46505691
ChemSpider
5791
BindingDB
8885
ChEBI
17347
ChEMBL
CHEMBL386630
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000841
PharmGKB
PA451627
IUPHAR
2858
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
TES
RxList
RxList Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Testosterone
ATC Codes
G03EA02 — Testosterone and estrogenG03BA03 — Testosterone
AHFS Codes
  • 68:08.00 — Androgens
PDB Entries
1afs / 1i9j / 1j96 / 1jtv / 1q13 / 1vpo / 2am9 / 2q7i / 2q7j / 2q7k
show 15 more
FDA label
Download (738 KB)
MSDS
Download (49.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingOtherInsulin Resistance1
0CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Painful Intercourse / Sexual Health Quality of Life / Vaginal Dryness1
0RecruitingSupportive CareAging1
0TerminatedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED) / Hypogonadism1
0WithdrawnTreatmentHypogonadism / Priapism / Sickle Cell Disorders1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceNormal Healthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherHypogonadism1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHypergonadism1
1CompletedNot AvailableHypogonadism1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAging1
1CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Participants1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedDiagnosticCachexia1
1CompletedDiagnosticContraception1
1CompletedDiagnosticMuscle Anabolism1
1CompletedDiagnosticSkin Androgenization1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionContraception1
1CompletedPreventionHypogonadism1
1CompletedPreventionMammographic Density1
1CompletedTreatmentAging1
1CompletedTreatmentConstitutional Delay in Growth and Puberty (CDGP) / Primary or Secondary Hypogonadism1
1CompletedTreatmentContraception / Hypogonadism2
1CompletedTreatmentFemale Sexual Dysfunction (FSD)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedTreatmentHypogonadal Males1
1CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism4
1CompletedTreatmentMuscle Anabolism1
1CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1RecruitingOtherHypogonadism1
1RecruitingTreatmentAging1
1RecruitingTreatmentHypogonadism1
1RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1RecruitingTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceIdiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism / Olfacto genital dysplasia1
1TerminatedPreventionHypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD)1
1WithdrawnOtherPost-menopausal Period1
1WithdrawnTreatmentHypogonadism1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableDisseminated Sclerosis1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceHypogonadism1
1, 2CompletedPreventionContraception2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAndrogen Deficiency / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Diseases / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentContraception1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentGender Dysphoria1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Males2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentFemale Infertility Due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve / Primary Ovarian Insufficiency1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCastration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedNot AvailableHypogonadism1
2CompletedBasic ScienceAthletic Performance / Testosterone / Women's Health: Female Athlete/Female Athlete Triad1
2CompletedBasic ScienceHypogonadism1
2CompletedSupportive CareSexual Dysfunction, Physiological1
2CompletedTreatmentAIDS Wasting Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentAging / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypogonadism / Insulin Resistance1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) / Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy1
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogens / Hypogonadism1
2CompletedTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN) / Depression / Eating Disorder / Feeling Anxious1
2CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostate Hypertrophy / Muscle Wasting / Sarcopenia / Testicular Hypogonadism1
2CompletedTreatmentCachexia / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentCancers / Hormonal Cycling / Prostate1
2CompletedTreatmentConstitutional Delay in Growth and Puberty (CDGP) / Primary or Secondary Hypogonadism1
2CompletedTreatmentContraception / Hypogonadism1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
2CompletedTreatmentBone destruction / Depression / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypogonadism / Sarcopenia1
2CompletedTreatmentEjaculatory Dysfunction / Hypogonadism1
2CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
2CompletedTreatmentFemale Sexual Dysfunction (FSD)1
2CompletedTreatmentFrailty / Muscle Weakness / Sarcopenia1
2CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) / Hypogonadism / Hypopituitarism1
2CompletedTreatmentHIV Wasting Syndrome / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHip Fractures / Muscle Weakness / Testosterone Deficiency1
2CompletedTreatmentHypergonadotropic Hypogonadism / Secondary Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism / Testicular Hypogonadism1
2CompletedTreatmentHypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD)3
2CompletedTreatmentHypogonadal Males1
2CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism8
2CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Low Testosterone1
2CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentMeibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD)1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity in Men1
2CompletedTreatmentOvarian Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentSex Behavior1
2CompletedTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism2
2CompletedTreatmentSecondary Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism3
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHypogonadotropism1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionTesticular Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPituitary gonadotropin hypofunction1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCentral Nervous System Diseases / Endocrine System Diseases / Genital Diseases, Male / Gonadal Disorders / Hypogonadism / Nervous System Diseases / Spinal Cord Diseases / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) / Trauma, Nervous System / Wounds and Injuries1
2RecruitingTreatmentCastration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) / Homologous Recombination Deficiency1
2RecruitingTreatmentMenopause1
2RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2SuspendedTreatmentBone destruction / Hypogonadism / Osteopenia1
2TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Tiredness1
2TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified2
2TerminatedTreatmentHypogonadism1
2TerminatedTreatmentIdiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentArthralgia/joint pain / Bone destruction / Cancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHypogonadism / Pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentBone Metabolism1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Multiple Sclerosis, Primary Progressive / Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) / Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
2WithdrawnTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2, 3CompletedHealth Services ResearchSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConstitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypergonadotropic Azospermia / Hypergonadotropic Cryptozoospermia / Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism / Klinefelter's Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMen With Low Testosterone Levels1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction: Rehabilitation Phase / Hypogonadism1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness Polyneuropathies1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentLeydig Cell Failure in Adult / Metabolic Syndromes / Testicular Cancer1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMuscle Weakness1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
3Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareArthralgia/joint pain / Cancer, Breast / Menopausal Hot Flushes / Musculoskeletal Complications / Sexual Dysfunctions1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAndropause1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism1
3CompletedNot AvailableOvarian Response1
3CompletedBasic ScienceHypogonadism1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancer Survivors / Sexual Dysfunctions / Sexuality and Reproductive Issues / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentAdult Male Hypogonadism2
3CompletedTreatmentAdult Male Hypogonadism / Testicular Hypogonadism1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogens (Deficiency) / Males1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypogonadism1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Advanced1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentElective Hip Replacement / Frailty / Hip Arthroplasty / Hip Fractures / Hypogonadism / Physical Frailty1
3CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED) / Hypogonadism1
3CompletedTreatmentHypergonadotropic Hypogonadism / Hypogonadism / Secondary Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism1
3CompletedTreatmentHypergonadotropic Hypogonadism / Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism1
3CompletedTreatmentHypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD)10
3CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism8
3CompletedTreatmentMobility Limitation1
3CompletedTreatmentSubfertility1
3CompletedTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism5
3CompletedTreatmentSecondary Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism3
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFertility Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHypogonadism1
3RecruitingBasic ScienceMuscle Hypotrophy / Muscle Wasting / Sarcopenia1
3RecruitingPreventionChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
3RecruitingTreatmentFrailty / Hip Fractures / Sarcopenia1
3RecruitingTreatmentHypogonadism / Pre-frail Seniors1
3RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities / Poor Ovarian Response1
3RecruitingTreatmentObesity and Hypogonadism1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentACL Reconstruction / Muscle Wasting / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Traumas1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAging / Malnutrition1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHypogonadism1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHypogonadism / Metabolic Syndromes1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentSex Disorders1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKlinefelter's Syndrome1
4CompletedNot AvailableHypogonadism1
4CompletedNot AvailableMuscle Weakness / Muscular Atrophy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAbuse of Anabolic Steroids / Steroid Doping1
4CompletedBasic ScienceTranssexualism1
4CompletedPreventionCaloric Restriction / Exercise1
4CompletedPreventionDrug-induced QT Interval Prolongation / Prolonged QT Interval in EKG and Sudden Death1
4CompletedScreeningHypogonadism3
4CompletedTreatmentAging / Bone destruction / Frailty1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Erectile Dysfunction (ED) / Hypogonadism / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypogonadism1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / Hypogonadism1
4CompletedTreatmentBrain Injury / Testosterone / Traumas1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Erectile Dysfunction (ED) / Testosterone Deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypogonadism1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
4CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED) / Hypogonadism1
4CompletedTreatmentFrailty / Sarcopenia1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified2
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism4
4CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) / Prostatic Hyperplasia1
4CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentHypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism2
4CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentSarcopenia1
4CompletedTreatmentSecondary Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic SciencePlacebos / Testosterone1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceGender Dysphoria1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular (CV) Disease / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Hypogonadism1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypogonadism1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertility, Female1
4RecruitingTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism1
4RecruitingTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism / Testosterone Deficiency1
4TerminatedSupportive CareAssess the Effects of a the 90-day Oral TS Study Regimen on PSA, IPSS, Haemoglobin and Haematocrit, and to Assess Adverse and Serious Adverse Events1
4TerminatedTreatmentHypogonadism1
4TerminatedTreatmentHypogonadism / Muscular Diseases / Sarcopenia1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareHypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAngina Pectoris1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Hypogonadism1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED) / Hypogonadotrophic Males1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypogonadism / Metabolic Syndromes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypogonadism / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypogonadism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPanhypopituitarism1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypogonadism1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHypogonadism2
4WithdrawnTreatmentHypogonadism / Low Testosterone / Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentSarcopenia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentCircadian / Exercise / Testosterone1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHypogonadism1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHypogonadism / Males1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTestosterone Deficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Menopausal Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceFeeling Anxious1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceTestosterone's Effects on Threat Perception/Response1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBMI >30 kg/m2 / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningPuberty, Precocious1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Hypogonadism1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorders / Gonadal Disorders / Hypogonadism1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypogonadism1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHysterectomy / Menopause / Oophorectomy / Testosterone Deficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKidney Diseases / Renal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKlinefelter's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherHypogonadism1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetic Male With Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCognition Disorders / Moods Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHypogonadism1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Hypogonadism1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOther Complications Associated With Artificial Fertilization1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentInfertilities1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Heather drug co inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Schering corp sub schering plough corp
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Private formulations inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Inwood laboratories inc sub forest laboratories inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Lannett co inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Alza corp
  • Unimed pharmaceuticals inc
  • Auxilium pharmaceuticals
  • Par pharmaceutical
  • Watson laboratories
  • Slate pharmaceuticals inc
  • Columbia laboratories inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Paddock laboratories inc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Synerx pharma llc
  • Endo pharmaceutical solutions inc
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Packagers
  • Abraxis BioScience Inc.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Andapharm
  • Anip Acquisition Co.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Auxilium Pharmaceuticals
  • Bartor Pharmaceutical
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Columbia Labs
  • Contract Pharm
  • Creekwood Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Cutis Pharma Inc.
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • DPT Laboratories Ltd.
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Global Pharmaceuticals
  • Indevus Pharmaceuticals
  • Laboratoires Besins International
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Lunsco Inc.
  • Marlex Pharmaceuticals
  • Martica Enterprises Inc.
  • Martin Surgical Supply
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • Microtest Laboratories Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • National Pharmaceuticals
  • Paddock Labs
  • Pharmaceutics International Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Pharmaforce Inc.
  • Pharmascience Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prasco Labs
  • Primedics Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandoz
  • Schering-Plough Inc.
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
  • Slate Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Star Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Syntho Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UNIMED
  • Unimed Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Valeant Ltd.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PatchTransdermal12.2 mg/1
PatchTransdermal2 mg/1d
PatchTransdermal2.5 mg
PatchTransdermal2.5 mg/1d
PatchTransdermal24.3 mg/1
PatchTransdermal4 mg/1d
PatchTransdermal5 mg/1d
PatchTransdermal5 mg
GelTransdermal1 %
GelTransdermal10 mg/1g
GelTransdermal12.5 mg
GelTransdermal16.2 mg/1g
SolutionTopical30 mg/1.5mL
SolutionTransdermal30 mg
Gel, meteredTopical10 mg/0.5g
PatchTransdermal300 micrograms/24hours
SuspensionIntramuscular100 mg
GelNasal4.5 %
GelNasal5.5 mg/1
Gel, meteredNasal5.5 mg/0.122g
TabletBuccal30 mg/1
GelTopical50 mg/5g
GelTransdermal50 mg/5g
PelletSubcutaneous75 mg/1
GelTopical10 mg/1g
GelTopical12.5 mg/1.25g
GelTopical16.2 mg/1g
GelTransdermal25 mg/2.5g
PelletOral100 mg/1
PelletOral200 mg/1
PelletOral25 mg/1
PelletOral37.5 mg/1
PelletOral50 mg/1
PelletOral87.5 mg/1
PelletOral
Gel, meteredTopical12.5 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
AndroGel Pump 1% Gel (1 Box Contains Two 75 gm Bottles)290.63USD box
Androderm 60 2.5 mg/24hr Patches 1 Box = 60 Patches278.56USD box
Androderm 30 5 mg/24hr Patches 1 Box = 30 Patches277.53USD box
AndroGel (each Box Contains Thirty - 50 mg/5 gm Packets) 150 gm Box274.58USD box
AndroGel (each Box Contains Thirty - 25 mg/2.5 gm Packets) 75 gm Box270.61USD box
Delatestryl 200 mg/ml Oil 5ml Vial93.98USD vial
Testosterone Cypionate 200 mg/ml Oil 10ml Vial88.99USD vial
Testosterone Cypionate 100 mg/ml Oil 10ml Vial57.99USD vial
Depo-Testosterone 200 mg/ml Oil 1ml Vial34.99USD vial
Testosterone cypionate powd32.74USD g
Testosterone Cypionate 200 mg/ml Oil 1ml Vial28.99USD vial
Depo-testosterone 200 mg/ml28.63USD ml
Testopel 75 mg pellets27.5USD pellet
Testosterone cyp 200 mg/ml23.18USD ml
Delatestryl 200 mg/ml vial19.86USD ml
Testred 10 mg capsule17.6USD capsule
Testosterone enan 200 mg/ml16.99USD ml
Testosterone Enanthate 200 mg/ml Oil16.66USD ml
Depo-Testosterone 200 mg/ml Oil13.23USD ml
Android 10 mg capsule11.91USD capsule
Delatestryl 200 mg/ml10.75USD ml
Testim 1% Gel 5 gm Tube10.08USD tube
Androderm 5 mg/24hr patch10.06USD patch
Methyltestosterone powder8.54USD g
Depo-Testosterone 100 mg/ml Oil7.87USD ml
Depo-testosterone 100 mg/ml vial7.67USD ml
Testosterone powder6.25USD g
Testosterone propionate powder6.25USD g
Testosterone cyp 100 mg/ml5.91USD ml
Androderm 2.5 mg/24hr patch5.03USD patch
Methitest 10 mg tablet4.84USD tablet
Striant 30 mg Miscellaneous4.32USD ea
Striant 30 mg mucoadhesive4.31USD each
Depo-Testosterone Cypionate 100 mg/ml2.98USD ml
Testim 1%(50 mg) gel2.47USD g
Testosterone Cypionate 100 mg/ml2.23USD ml
Androgel 1% gel pump1.92USD g
First-testosterone mc 2% cr0.91USD g
First 2% testosterone oint0.88USD g
First-Testosterone 2% Ointment0.86USD gm
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5152997No1993-12-112010-12-11Us
CA2366856No2006-05-162020-03-27Canada
CA1332570No1994-10-182011-10-18Canada
US6348210No1999-11-102019-11-10Us
US5840327No1996-08-152016-08-15Us
US6503894Yes2001-03-012021-03-01Us
US9132089Yes2001-03-022021-03-02Us
US9125816Yes2001-03-022021-03-02Us
US6299900No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US6818226No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US6923983No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US7320968No2005-01-182025-01-18Us
US7608605No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608606No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608607No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608608No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608609No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7608610No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US7935690No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US8063029No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US8178518No2003-04-212023-04-21Us
US6319913No1998-11-092018-11-09Us
US6579865No1998-11-092018-11-09Us
US6248358No1999-08-232019-08-23Us
US8466138No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8466137No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8741881No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8729057No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8759329No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8466136No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8486925No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US8754070No2006-10-122026-10-12Us
US9289586No2007-02-262027-02-26Us
US9180194No2006-06-022026-06-02Us
US8071075No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US8419307No2007-02-262027-02-26Us
US8784878No2003-07-132023-07-13Us
US8807861No2007-02-262027-02-26Us
US8435944No2007-09-272027-09-27Us
US8993520No2006-06-022026-06-02Us
US8877230No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8784882No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8574622No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8784869No2004-02-042024-02-04Us
US8338395No2006-02-272026-02-27Us
US7718640No2007-03-142027-03-14Us
US9295675No2014-02-112034-02-11Us
US8785426No2014-02-112034-02-11Us
US9622340No2014-02-112034-02-11Us
US9662340No2014-02-112034-02-11Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)155 °CPhysProp
water solubility23.4 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP3.32HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-4.34ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0333 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.99ALOGPS
logP3.37ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.52ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.88ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity84.43 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.88 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.973
Caco-2 permeable+0.8984
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6498
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5489
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8923
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7324
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8167
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7739
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9005
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.95
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9452
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6668
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8812
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8683
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9382
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9483
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9174
Rat acute toxicity1.6259 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8938
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7163
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (13.5 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-004i-3910000000-d6ace9b7f8aff4dd46d0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-053u-1920200000-db3504f562c54e6e1bbb
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-004l-3910000000-b43cd1ee268a855c8aa0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-004l-3910000000-356ddfa8ddf8e551278d
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0597-7920000000-dde7fba02fcbcec2d665
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-05fs-4920000000-ccd839134de79f179f9e
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00ds-0950000000-c65fc8043083ad93d169
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-004i-3910000000-d6ace9b7f8aff4dd46d0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-053u-1920200000-db3504f562c54e6e1bbb
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-004l-3910000000-b43cd1ee268a855c8aa0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-004l-3910000000-356ddfa8ddf8e551278d
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00dv-5940000000-5e22fba0c369374c75df
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-914b212f1dbb7fb7b1ac
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052b-9800000000-d2e38d44d2f16d0a4203
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052b-9300000000-6830823fa12b40e784a2
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-01-SG-2) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0597-7920000000-dde7fba02fcbcec2d665
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6E) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fs-4920000000-ccd839134de79f179f9e
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ds-0950000000-48c1f79091d708072f30
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-6900000000-3d818ffe03ecd499e078
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-7900000000-6db3d23d98d548cbbfaa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ukj-2690000000-14b953cb16c53d1e2744
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uka-2790000000-dcd6839af64c3ef6006e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-b5f0189f1d6f21b90673
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-21e1bde01931b051a4a3
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Androstane steroids
Direct Parent
Androgens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
3-oxo delta-4-steroids / 17-hydroxysteroids / Delta-4-steroids / Cyclohexenones / Secondary alcohols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Androgen-skeleton / 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid / 3-oxosteroid / Hydroxysteroid / Oxosteroid / 17-hydroxysteroid / Delta-4-steroid / Cyclohexenone / Cyclic alcohol / Secondary alcohol
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
3-oxo steroid, 17beta-hydroxy steroid, androstanoid (CHEBI:17347) / androstane, C19 steroids (androgens) and derivatives, Androstane and derivatives, Androgens (C00535) / C19 steroids (androgens) and derivatives (LMST02020002)

Targets

Details
1. Androgen receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription ...
Gene Name
AR
Uniprot ID
P10275
Uniprot Name
Androgen receptor
Molecular Weight
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Small EJ, Ryan CJ: The case for secondary hormonal therapies in the chemotherapy age. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 2):S66-71. [PubMed:17084172]
  2. Omwancha J, Brown TR: Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Oct;7(10):873-81. [PubMed:17086931]
  3. Petraki CD, Sfikas CP: Histopathological changes induced by therapies in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol. 2007 Jan;22(1):107-18. [PubMed:17128417]
  4. Maudsley S, Davidson L, Pawson AJ, Freestone SH, Lopez de Maturana R, Thomson AA, Millar RP: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone functionally antagonizes testosterone activation of the human androgen receptor in prostate cells through focal adhesion complexes involving Hic-5. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(5):285-300. Epub 2007 Jan 4. [PubMed:17202804]
  5. Lapauw B, Goemaere S, Crabbe P, Kaufman JM, Ruige JB: Is the effect of testosterone on body composition modulated by the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in elderly men? Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Mar;156(3):395-401. [PubMed:17322500]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. Estrogen receptor alpha
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Kojima H, Iida M, Katsura E, Kanetoshi A, Hori Y, Kobayashi K: Effects of a diphenyl ether-type herbicide, chlornitrofen, and its amino derivative on androgen and estrogen receptor activities. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):497-502. [PubMed:12676605]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates targ...
Gene Name
NR3C2
Uniprot ID
P08235
Uniprot Name
Mineralocorticoid receptor
Molecular Weight
107066.575 Da
References
  1. Takeda AN, Pinon GM, Bens M, Fagart J, Rafestin-Oblin ME, Vandewalle A: The synthetic androgen methyltrienolone (r1881) acts as a potent antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;71(2):473-82. Epub 2006 Nov 14. [PubMed:17105867]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Details
2. Cytochrome P450 19A1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID
P11511
Uniprot Name
Aromatase
Molecular Weight
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID
P05108
Uniprot Name
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
60101.87 Da
References
  1. Kostic TS, Stojkov NJ, Bjelic MM, Mihajlovic AI, Janjic MM, Andric SA: Pharmacological doses of testosterone upregulated androgen receptor and 3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase and impaired leydig cells steroidogenesis in adult rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jun;121(2):397-407. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr063. Epub 2011 Apr 6. [PubMed:21427060]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Sjoberg RL, Ducci F, Barr CS, Newman TK, Dell'osso L, Virkkunen M, Goldman D: A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Jan;33(2):425-30. Epub 2007 Apr 11. [PubMed:17429405]
  2. Hoff KM: Interaction of testosterone with monoamineoxidase in mouse brain maturation. Gen Pharmacol. 1977;8(1):55-7. [PubMed:590724]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Details
6. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Zhang T, Zhu Y, Gunaratna C: Rapid and quantitative determination of metabolites from multiple cytochrome P450 probe substrates by gradient liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Nov 25;780(2):371-9. [PubMed:12401364]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  4. Source [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-s...
Gene Name
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID
Q16696
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A13
Molecular Weight
56687.095 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID
Q9HB55
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A43
Molecular Weight
57669.21 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Regulation of renal oatp mRNA expression by testosterone. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F332-7. [PubMed:8779895]
  2. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894]
  3. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. [PubMed:11779196]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulf...
Gene Name
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID
Q9Y694
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 7
Molecular Weight
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. [PubMed:11779196]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibitory effects of CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2001 Feb;12(4):505-13. [PubMed:11231118]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presenc...
Gene Name
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID
Q14973
Uniprot Name
Sodium/bile acid cotransporter
Molecular Weight
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb;274(2 Pt 1):G370-5. [PubMed:9486191]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without...
Gene Name
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID
Q9H015
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 4
Molecular Weight
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Janvilisri T, Venter H, Shahi S, Reuter G, Balakrishnan L, van Veen HW: Sterol transport by the human breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) expressed in Lactococcus lactis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):20645-51. Epub 2003 Mar 28. [PubMed:12668685]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 15, 2018 04:36