Identification

Name
Edetic Acid
Accession Number
DB00974  (APRD01327)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

A chelating agent (chelating agents) that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetic acid, ion(4−)
  • {[-(bis-carboxymethyl-amino)-ethyl]-carboxymethyl-amino}-acetic acid
  • 2,2',2'',2'''-(ethane-1,2-diyldinitrilo)tetraacetate
  • acide edetique
  • Acide ethylenediaminetetracetique
  • Acido edetico
  • Acidum edeticum
  • EDTA
  • EDTA, ion(4-)
  • Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
  • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
  • N,N'-1,2-Ethane diylbis-(N-(carboxymethyl)glycine)
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Disodium edetate dihydrate7FLD91C86K6381-92-6OVBJJZOQPCKUOR-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Edetate calcium disodium8U5D03495562-33-9SHWNNYZBHZIQQV-UHFFFAOYSA-J
Edetate copper disodium6V475AX06U14025-15-1KCFCAUKZKOSSBI-UHFFFAOYSA-J
Edetate disodium8NLQ36F6MM139-33-3ZGTMUACCHSMWAC-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Calcium Disodium VersenateInjection200 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2013-06-21Not applicableUs
Calcium Disodium VersenateInjection200 mg/mLIntramuscularGraceway Pharmaceuticals2009-07-092015-12-31Us
Calcium Disodium VersenateInjection200 mg/mLIntramuscular3 M Pharmaceuticals2009-07-092015-12-31Us
Calcium Disodium Versenate Liq 200mg/mlLiquid200 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous3 M Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of 3 M Canada Company1993-12-312006-07-24Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Foam Care Pcmx Surgical Hand ScrubEdetic Acid (.2 %) + Chloroxylenol (1.5 %)LiquidTopicalBallard Medical Products1990-12-312008-09-17Canada
Largal UltraEdetate disodium (15 g) + Cetrimonium bromide (750 mg)LiquidDentalSeptodont1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
Murine Supplemental TearsEdetate disodium (50 mg) + Benzalkonium chloride (10 mg)LiquidOphthalmicAbbott1980-12-312003-10-10Canada
International/Other Brands
Cheladrate (Pharmex) / Diso-Tate (O'Neal, Jones) / Endrate (Bersworth) / Uni Wash (United)
Categories
UNII
9G34HU7RV0
CAS number
60-00-4
Weight
Average: 292.2426
Monoisotopic: 292.090665498
Chemical Formula
C10H16N2O8
InChI Key
KCXVZYZYPLLWCC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H16N2O8/c13-7(14)3-11(4-8(15)16)1-2-12(5-9(17)18)6-10(19)20/h1-6H2,(H,13,14)(H,15,16)(H,17,18)(H,19,20)
IUPAC Name
2-({2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl}(carboxymethyl)amino)acetic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CN(CCN(CC(O)=O)CC(O)=O)CC(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the reduction of blood levels and depot stores of lead in lead poisoning (acute and chronic) and lead encephalopathy, in both pediatric populations and adults.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Edetate calcium is a heavy metal chelating agent. The calcium in edetate calcium can be displaced by divalent or trivalent metals to form a stable water soluble complex that can be excreted in the urine. In theory, 1 g of edetate calcium can theoretically bind 620 mg of lead, but in reality only about 5 mg per gram is actually excreted into the urine in lead poisoned patients. In addition to chelating lead, edetate calcium also chelates and eliminates zinc from the body. Edetate calcium also binds cadmium, copper, iron and manganese, but to a much lesser extent than either lead or zinc. Edetate calcium is relatively ineffective for use in treating mercury, gold or arsenic poisoning.

Mechanism of action

The pharmacologic effects of edetate calcium disodium are due to the formation of chelates with divalent and trivalent metals. A stable chelate will form with any metal that has the ability to displace calcium from the molecule, a feature shared by lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, iron and mercury. The amounts of manganese and iron metabolized are not significant. Copper is not mobilized and mercury is unavailable for chelation because it is too tightly bound to body ligands or it is stored in inaccessible body compartments. The excretion of calcium by the body is not increased following intravenous administration of edetate calcium disodium, but the excretion of zinc is considerably increased.

TargetActionsOrganism
ALead
chelator
Human
UIron
chelator
Human
UManganese cation
chelator
Human
Absorption

Poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Well absorbed following intramuscular injection.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Almost none of the compound is metabolized.

Route of elimination

It is excreted primarily by the kidney, with about 50% excreted in one hour and over 95% within 24 hours.2 Almost none of the compound is metabolized.

Half life

The half life of edetate calcium disodium is 20 to 60 minutes.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Inadvertent administration of 5 times the recommended dose, infused intravenously over a 24 hour period, to an asymptomatic 16 month old patient with a blood lead content of 56 mcg/dl did not cause any ill effects. Edetate calcium disodium can aggravate the symptoms of severe lead poisoning, therefore, most toxic effects (cerebral edema, renal tubular necrosis) appear to be associated with lead poisoning. Because of cerebral edema, a therapeutic dose may be lethal to an adult or a pediatric patient with lead encephalopathy. Higher dosage of edetate calcium disodium may produce a more severe zinc deficiency.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcenocoumarolEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved, Investigational
AloxiprinAloxiprin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Experimental
AlprostadilAlprostadil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved
Antithrombin III humanEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ArdeparinArdeparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Azficel-TThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Edetic Acid is combined with Azficel-T.Approved, Investigational
BecaplerminBecaplermin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
BivalirudinBivalirudin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
BuflomedilBuflomedil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Experimental
ButylphthalideButylphthalide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
CertoparinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
Citric AcidEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
DarexabanEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DersalazineDersalazine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
DesirudinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DextranEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EnoxaparinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EpinastineEpinastine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetateEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FluindioneEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Approved, Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumFondaparinux sodium may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
GabexateEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
Hemoglobin crosfumarilHemoglobin crosfumaril may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Experimental
HeparinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HydroxytyrosolHydroxytyrosol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
IbudilastIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Icosapent ethylIcosapent ethyl may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
IdraparinuxEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IfenprodilIfenprodil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IfetrobanIfetroban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
KetanserinKetanserin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
LepirudinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LinsidomineLinsidomine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Experimental
MelagatranEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
Methyl salicylateMethyl salicylate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MilrinoneMilrinone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved
NadroparinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved, Investigational
NaftopidilNaftopidil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
OtamixabanEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
Pentaerythritol TetranitrateEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
PhenindionePhenindione may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
PhenprocoumonPhenprocoumon may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Phenyl aminosalicylatePhenyl aminosalicylate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved
Potassium CitrateEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Potassium Citrate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Protein S humanEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
RamatrobanRamatroban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
RelcovaptanRelcovaptan may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
ReviparinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RidogrelRidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium CitrateEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sodium Citrate.Approved, Investigational
TesmilifeneTesmilifene may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Investigational
TrapidilTrapidil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved
Trolamine salicylateTrolamine salicylate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved
TroxerutinEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
WarfarinWarfarin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved
XimelagatranEdetic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Bersworth, F.C.; U.S. Patent 2,407,645; September 17,1946; assigned to The Martin Dennis Co.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015109
KEGG Drug
D00052
KEGG Compound
C00284
PubChem Compound
6049
PubChem Substance
46508301
ChemSpider
5826
BindingDB
50330325
ChEBI
42191
ChEMBL
CHEMBL858
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000594
PharmGKB
PA449439
HET
EDT
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
EDTA
AHFS Codes
  • 64:00.00 — Heavy Metal Antagonists
PDB Entries
1nnf / 1zlq / 2axn / 3l7k / 3l7m / 3rnj / 3t8n / 3wfa / 4oes / 5dsg
show 8 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2WithdrawnSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Infection NOS / Leukemias / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
3RecruitingPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Myocardial Infarction1
4WithdrawnDiagnosticHeavy Metal Toxicity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUrologic Diseases1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareCancers1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Graceway pharmaceuticals llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • 3m pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Graceway Pharmaceuticals
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • North America Genescience LLC
  • Septodont Inc.
  • Torrance Co.
  • V Sab Medical Labs Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntramuscular200 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous200 mg/mL
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous200 mg
LiquidTopical
LiquidDental
LiquidOphthalmic
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Endrate 150 mg/ml ampul1.44USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)237 °CNot Available
water solubility1000000 mg/L at 25 °CMEYLAN,WM et al. (1996)
logP-2.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.26 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-5.2ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.49ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.13ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area155.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity62.35 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8668
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7126
Caco-2 permeable-0.5739
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6377
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9296
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.972
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8473
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8457
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8271
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7616
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8959
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9225
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9306
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9174
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9288
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9891
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7715
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8307
Rat acute toxicity1.8974 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8158
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9341
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (10.2 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0f6x-2971000000-52370879752b5b63ccc2
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0f6x-2971000000-52370879752b5b63ccc2
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetracarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are carboxylic acids containing exactly four carboxyl groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Tetracarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Tetracarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acids / Trialkylamines / Amino acids / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Tetracarboxylic acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Amino acid or derivatives / Tertiary amine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Organopnictogen compound / Organic nitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
ethylenediamine derivative, polyamino carboxylic acid, tetracarboxylic acid (CHEBI:42191)

Targets

1. Lead
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Chelator
References
  1. Onnby L, Giorgi C, Plieva FM, Mattiasson B: Removal of heavy metals from water effluents using supermacroporous metal chelating cryogels. Biotechnol Prog. 2010 Sep-Oct;26(5):1295-302. doi: 10.1002/btpr.422. [PubMed:20945486]
  2. Chakraborty N, Banerjee A, Pal R: Accumulation of lead by free and immobilized cyanobacteria with special reference to accumulation factor and recovery. Bioresour Technol. 2011 Mar;102(5):4191-5. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.028. Epub 2010 Dec 13. [PubMed:21195608]
  3. Tian SK, Lu LL, Yang XE, Huang HG, Brown P, Labavitch J, Liao HB, He ZL: The impact of EDTA on lead distribution and speciation in the accumulator Sedum alfredii by synchrotron X-ray investigation. Environ Pollut. 2011 Mar;159(3):782-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.11.020. Epub 2010 Dec 18. [PubMed:21168940]
2. Iron
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chelator
References
  1. Hasegawa H, Rahman IM, Kinoshita S, Maki T, Furusho Y: Separation of dissolved iron from the aqueous system with excess ligand. Chemosphere. 2011 Feb;82(8):1161-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.048. Epub 2011 Jan 3. [PubMed:21208637]
3. Manganese cation
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chelator
References
  1. Broncel M, Wagner SC, Paul K, Hackenberger CP, Koksch B: Towards understanding secondary structure transitions: phosphorylation and metal coordination in model peptides. Org Biomol Chem. 2010 Jun 7;8(11):2575-9. doi: 10.1039/c001458c. Epub 2010 Mar 29. [PubMed:20485793]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine. Plays an important role in purine metabolism and in adenosine homeostasis. Modulates signaling by extracellular adenosine, an...
Gene Name
ADA
Uniprot ID
P00813
Uniprot Name
Adenosine deaminase
Molecular Weight
40764.13 Da
References
  1. Abu-Shady MR, Elshafei AM, el-Beih FM, Mohamed LA: Properties of adenosine deaminase in extracts of Asperigillus terricola. Acta Microbiol Pol. 1994;43(3-4):305-11. [PubMed:7740980]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Bournique B, Petry M, Gousset G: Usefulness of statistic experimental designs in enzymology: example with recombinant hCYP3A4 and 1A2. Anal Biochem. 1999 Dec 1;276(1):18-26. [PubMed:10585740]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- ...
Gene Name
PON3
Uniprot ID
Q15166
Uniprot Name
Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3
Molecular Weight
39607.185 Da
References
  1. Pla A, Rodrigo L, Hernandez AF, Gil F, Lopez O: Effect of metal ions and calcium on purified PON1 and PON3 from rat liver. Chem Biol Interact. 2007 Apr 5;167(1):63-70. Epub 2007 Jan 16. [PubMed:17292339]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID
P11511
Uniprot Name
Aromatase
Molecular Weight
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Moslemi S, Vibet A, Papadopoulos V, Camoin L, Silberzahn P, Gaillard JL: Purification and characterization of equine testicular cytochrome P-450 aromatase: comparison with the human enzyme. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1997 Sep;118(1):217-27. [PubMed:9418012]
  2. Bellino FL, Holben L: Placental estrogen synthetase (aromatase): evidence for phosphatase-dependent inactivation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Jul 14;162(1):498-504. [PubMed:2546553]
  3. Zhang F, Zhou D, Kao YC, Ye J, Chen S: Expression and purification of a recombinant form of human aromatase from Escherichia coli. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Nov 1;64(9):1317-24. [PubMed:12392814]
  4. Milczarek R, Sokolowska E, Hallmann A, Kaletha K, Klimek J: NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation inhibit aromatase activity in human placental microsomes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Jun;110(3-5):230-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2007.11.004. Epub 2008 Apr 20. [PubMed:18499441]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 21, 2018 22:13