Accession Number
DB00982  (APRD00140)
Small Molecule

Isotretinoin is a medication used for the treatment of severe acne. It is sometimes used in prevention of certain skin cancers. It is a retinoid, meaning it derives from vitamin A and is found in small quantities naturally in the body. Isotretinoin binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), thereby regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. This agent also exhibits immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses and inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, thereby decreasing polyamine synthesis and keratinization.

  • (7E,9E,11E,13Z)-retinoic acid
  • 13-cis-retinoic acid
  • 13-cis-Vitamin A acid
  • 13-RA
  • cis-RA
  • Isotretinoin
  • Isotretinoína
  • Isotrétinoine
  • Isotretinoino
  • Isotretinoinum
  • Neovitamin A acid
External IDs
RO 4-3780 / RO-4-3780
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AbsoricaCapsule30 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2012-06-08Not applicableUs
AbsoricaCapsule35 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2015-02-17Not applicableUs
AbsoricaCapsule20 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2012-06-08Not applicableUs
AbsoricaCapsule25 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2015-02-17Not applicableUs
AbsoricaCapsule10 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2012-06-08Not applicableUs
AbsoricaCapsule40 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2012-06-08Not applicableUs
AccutaneCapsule, liquid filled40 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.1982-05-072010-12-22Us
AccutaneCapsule, liquid filled20 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.1982-05-072010-12-22Us
AccutaneCapsule, liquid filled10 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.1982-05-072010-12-22Us
AccutaneCapsule, liquid filled40 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-08-072010-12-29Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AmnesteemCapsule10 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-202008-09-16Us
AmnesteemCapsule40 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-11-11Not applicableUs
AmnesteemCapsule10 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-11-02Not applicableUs
AmnesteemCapsule20 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-11-11Not applicableUs
AmnesteemCapsule40 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-07-14Not applicableUs
AmnesteemCapsule10 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-11-11Not applicableUs
AmnesteemCapsule20 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-09-14Not applicableUs
ClaravisCapsule, liquid filled10 mg/1OralTeva2003-05-09Not applicableUs00555 1054 86 nlmimage10 d5306ae3
ClaravisCapsule20 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-09-14Not applicableUs00555 1055 86 nlmimage10 e33071d3
ClaravisCapsule, liquid filled40 mg/1OralTeva2003-05-09Not applicableUs0555 105720180913 8702 1bha88n
International/Other Brands
Accutane / Amnesteem / Claravis
CAS number
Average: 300.4351
Monoisotopic: 300.20893014
Chemical Formula
InChI Key
(2Z,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid



For the treatment of severe recalcitrant nodular acne

Associated Conditions

Isotretinoin, a retinoid, is indicated in the treatment of severe recalcitrant nodular acne. Nodules are inflammatory lesions with a diameter of 5 mm or greater. The nodules may become suppurative or hemorrhagic. "Severe," by definition, means "many" as opposed to "few or several" nodules. Clinical improvement in nodular acne patients occurs in association with a reduction in sebum secretion. The decrease in sebum secretion is temporary and is related to the dose and duration of treatment with Accutane, and reflects a reduction in sebaceous gland size and an inhibition of sebaceous gland differentiation.

Mechanism of action

Isotretinoin noticeably reduces the production of sebum and shrinks the sebaceous glands. It stabilises keratinization and prevents comedones from forming. It also reduces inflammation in moderate-severe inflammatory acne. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, however it is known that it alters DNA transcription.

URetinoic acid receptor alpha
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding


Not Available
Route of elimination

Isotretinoin and its metabolites are further metabolized into conjugates, which are then excreted in urine and feces. The metabolites of isotretinoin and any conjugates are ultimately excreted in the feces and urine in relatively equal amounts (total of 65% to 83%).

Half life

17-50 hours

  • 96 +/- 6.27 L/hr [severe recalcitrant nodular acne pediatric Patients, 12 to 15 Years]

Isotretinoin is teratogenic. It also causes mucocutaneous side effects suck as cheilitis, dry skin, and dry eyes.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcipimoxThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Isotretinoin is combined with Acipimox.
AclidiniumAclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineAcrivastine may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with a full glass of water Do not take supplements containing Vitamin A.
  • Take with high-fat meal to increase absorption.


Synthesis Reference

Ashok Kumar, Dharmendra Singh, Ganesh Devidas Mahale, Ragnesh Kumar Rana, Mahesh Kharade, "PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF HIGHLY PURE ISOTRETINOIN." U.S. Patent US20080207946, issued August 28, 2008.

General References
  1. Berard A, Azoulay L, Koren G, Blais L, Perreault S, Oraichi D: Isotretinoin, pregnancies, abortions and birth defects: a population-based perspective. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;63(2):196-205. [PubMed:17214828]
  2. Holmes SC, Bankowska U, Mackie RM: The prescription of isotretinoin to women: is every precaution taken? Br J Dermatol. 1998 Mar;138(3):450-5. [PubMed:9580798]
  3. Amichai B, Shemer A, Grunwald MH: Low-dose isotretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Apr;54(4):644-6. [PubMed:16546586]
  4. Seukeran DC, Cunliffe WJ: Acne vulgaris in the elderly: the response to low-dose isotretinoin. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Jul;139(1):99-101. [PubMed:9764156]
  5. Tirado Sanchez A, Leon Dorantes G: [Erectile dysfunction during isotretinoin therapy]. Actas Urol Esp. 2005 Nov-Dec;29(10):974-6. [PubMed:16447596]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
D10AD04 — IsotretinoinD10AD54 — Isotretinoin, combinationsD10BA01 — Isotretinoin
AHFS Codes
  • 84:92.00 — Misc. Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Solid Neoplasm1
1CompletedNot AvailableSkin Infections (Acne)1
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma / Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue / Intraocular Lymphoma / Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas / Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Small Intestine Lymphoma / Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Stage IV Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific / Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM)1
1CompletedTreatmentAnus Neoplasms / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentChildhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3) / Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor / Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma / Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma / Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma1
1CompletedTreatmentEpidermolysis Bullosa1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedTreatmentLocalized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentTumors, Solid1
1SuspendedTreatmentRecurrent Neuroblastoma / Refractory Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma1
1TerminatedTreatmentAdult Anaplastic Astrocytoma / Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma / Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma / Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma / Adult Glioblastoma / Adult Gliosarcoma / Adult Mixed Glioma / Adult Oligodendroglioma / Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaplastic Gliomas / Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Leukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Thrombocytopenias1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRenal Cancers1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingOtherNeuroblastomas1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentLeukemias1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentRenal Cell Cancer, Recurrent / Stage III Renal Cell Cancer / Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEffects of Immunotherapy / Neoplasm, Residual / Neuroblastomas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKlinefelter's Syndrome / Male Infertility / Y-chromosome Microdeletions1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
2CompletedPreventionActinic Keratosis (AK)1
2CompletedPreventionLung Cancers / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
2CompletedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentCervical Cancers / Esophageal Cancers / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Lung Cancers / Non-Melanomatous Skin Cancer / Penile Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentCollapsing Glomerulopathy / Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental1
2CompletedTreatmentEpidermal p53 Expression / Solar Elastosis1
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2CompletedTreatmentJuvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm1
2CompletedTreatmentMycosis Fungoides (MF) / Neoplasms, Hematologic / T-Cell Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Neuroblastoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTinea infections1
2RecruitingTreatmentGanglioneuroblastoma / High-Risk Neuroblastoma / NMYC Gene Amplification1
2RecruitingTreatmentMale Infertility, Azoospermia1
2RecruitingTreatmentNewly Diagnosed High Risk Neuroblastoma1
2TerminatedTreatmentCervical Cancers1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentRefractory, primary Neuroblastoma1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLeukemias1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPhotodamage / Solar Elastosis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLocalized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3CompletedTreatmentCervix, Dysplasia / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Neuroblastoma / Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
3CompletedTreatmentLocalized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain / Tumors, Central Nervous System1
3CompletedTreatmentPapulopustular Rosacea (PPR)1
3CompletedTreatmentRenal Cancers1
3CompletedTreatmentSevere Nodular Acne1
3RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Ganglioneuroblastoma / Childhood Neuroblastoma / INRG Stage L2 / INRG Stage M / INRG Stage MS / NMYC Gene Amplification / Recurrent Neuroblastoma1
3SuspendedTreatmentAnaplastic Medulloblastoma / Medulloblastomas / Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma / Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma / Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNeuroblastomas2
3WithdrawnPreventionLung Cancers1
3WithdrawnTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcne1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAdverse Effects of Medical Drugs1
4CompletedPreventionVitreoretinopathy, Proliferative1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAcne Vulgaris1
4RecruitingOtherCYP2D6 Polymorphism1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentQuality of Life / Seborrheic Dermatitis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMedulloblastomas / Pinealoblastoma / Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified / Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma / Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma / Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcne1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMelanoma (Skin) / Non-Melanomatous Skin Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcne Scars - Mixed Atrophic and Hypertrophic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDisseminated Neuroblastoma / Ganglioneuroblastoma / Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastomas3
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentToxic Epidermal Necrolysis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentNeuroblastomas1


Not Available
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Mylan
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
Dosage forms
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral35 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral10 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral40 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg
CapsuleOral40 mg
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral20 mg/1
CapsuleOral40 mg/1
CapsuleOral30 mg/1
CapsuleOral20 mg
CapsuleOral30 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral30 mg/1
GelTopical0.05 %
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral10 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral30 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral40 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral20 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral20 mg/1
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Accutane 20 mg capsule23.77USD capsule
Amnesteem 40 mg capsule22.6USD capsule
Claravis 40 mg capsule22.6USD capsule
Amnesteem 20 mg capsule19.45USD capsule
Claravis 20 mg capsule18.7USD capsule
Claravis 30 mg capsule16.45USD capsule
Amnesteem 10 mg capsule16.4USD capsule
Claravis 10 mg capsule15.77USD capsule
Accutane 40 mg capsule14.88USD capsule
Accutane 10 mg capsule10.55USD capsule
Sotret 40 mg capsule10.08USD capsule
Sotret 20 mg capsule8.67USD capsule
Sotret 30 mg capsule8.44USD capsule
Sotret 10 mg capsule7.31USD capsule
Clarus 40 mg Capsule2.14USD capsule
Clarus 10 mg Capsule1.05USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)


Experimental Properties
logP4.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00477 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity97.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9925
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9311
Caco-2 permeable+0.7603
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6144
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8912
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8088
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8639
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8221
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6025
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8831
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9301
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9252
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8944
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5554
Rat acute toxicity2.1455 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9562
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9538
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0009000000-12dbd83959268dee6dbf
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-4900000000-31c9262cbbf0bad5b738
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fsl-9600000000-c6681587f0a9ae7a712e
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Diterpenoids / Medium-chain fatty acids / Methyl-branched fatty acids / Unsaturated fatty acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Retinoic acid / Diterpenoid / Retinoid skeleton / Medium-chain fatty acid / Branched fatty acid / Methyl-branched fatty acid / Fatty acyl / Unsaturated fatty acid / Fatty acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
retinoic acid (CHEBI:6067) / Retinoids (LMPR01090021)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
50770.805 Da
  1. Dahl AR, Grossi IM, Houchens DP, Scovell LJ, Placke ME, Imondi AR, Stoner GD, De Luca LM, Wang D, Mulshine JL: Inhaled isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is an effective lung cancer chemopreventive agent in A/J mice at low doses: a pilot study. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Aug;6(8):3015-24. [PubMed:10955779]
  2. Zouboulis CC: Isotretinoin revisited: pluripotent effects on human sebaceous gland cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Oct;126(10):2154-6. [PubMed:16983322]
  3. Vu-Dac N, Gervois P, Torra IP, Fruchart JC, Kosykh V, Kooistra T, Princen HM, Dallongeville J, Staels B: Retinoids increase human apo C-III expression at the transcriptional level via the retinoid X receptor. Contribution to the hypertriglyceridemic action of retinoids. J Clin Invest. 1998 Aug 1;102(3):625-32. [PubMed:9691099]
  4. Taylor LE, Bennett GD, Finnell RH: Altered gene expression in murine branchial arches following in utero exposure to retinoic acid. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1995 Jan-Mar;15(1):13-25. [PubMed:7601910]
  5. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [PubMed:9204085]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 16, 2019 05:57