Identification

Name
Minocycline
Accession Number
DB01017  (APRD00547)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A tetracycline analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant staphylococcus infections. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (4S,4AS,5ar,12as)-4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide
  • 7-Dimethylamino-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline
  • Minociclina
  • Minociclinum
  • Minocyclin
  • Minocyclinum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Minocycline hydrochloride0020414E5U13614-98-7GLMUAFMGXXHGLU-VQAITOIOSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ArestinPowder1 mg/1OralOraPharma, Inc.2011-03-21Not applicableUs
Arestin MicrospheresPowder1 mgOralOrapharma Inc2008-07-27Not applicableCanada
DynacinCapsule100 mg/1OralMEDICIS, The Dermatology Company2006-11-28Not applicableUs
DynacinCapsule75 mg/1OralMEDICIS, The Dermatology Company2006-11-28Not applicableUs
DynacinCapsule50 mg/1OralMEDICIS, The Dermatology Company2006-11-28Not applicableUs
Enca 100mgCapsule100 mgOralPrempharm Inc2003-10-032009-08-05Canada
Enca 50mgCapsule50 mgOralPrempharm Inc2003-10-032009-08-05Canada
MinocinCapsule, coated pellets75 mg/1OralOnset Dermatologics LLC1990-05-312014-11-03Us
MinocinCapsule, coated pellets50 mg/1OralOnset Dermatologics, LLC1990-05-31Not applicableUs
MinocinKit50 mg/1Onset Dermatologics, LLC2013-06-172016-01-31Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-minocycline Cap 100mgCapsule100 mgOralApotex Corporation1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-minocycline Cap 50mgCapsule50 mgOralApotex Corporation1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dom-minocycline CapsulesCapsule50 mgOralDominion Pharmacal2000-11-24Not applicableCanada
Dom-minocycline CapsulesCapsule100 mgOralDominion Pharmacal2000-11-24Not applicableCanada
DynacinTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2003-05-012011-06-01Us
DynacinTablet100 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2011-06-20Not applicableUs
DynacinTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2003-05-012011-06-01Us
DynacinTablet75 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2011-06-20Not applicableUs
DynacinTablet, film coated75 mg/1OralMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2003-05-012011-06-01Us
DynacinTablet50 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2011-06-20Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Aknemin / Apo-Minocycline / Klinomycin / Minoderm / Minomycin / Minopen / Minox / Minoz / Vectrin
Categories
UNII
FYY3R43WGO
CAS number
10118-90-8
Weight
Average: 457.4764
Monoisotopic: 457.184900233
Chemical Formula
C23H27N3O7
InChI Key
DYKFCLLONBREIL-KVUCHLLUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C23H27N3O7/c1-25(2)12-5-6-13(27)15-10(12)7-9-8-11-17(26(3)4)19(29)16(22(24)32)21(31)23(11,33)20(30)14(9)18(15)28/h5-6,9,11,17,27,29-30,33H,7-8H2,1-4H3,(H2,24,32)/t9-,11-,17-,23-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC3=C(C(O)=CC=C3N(C)C)C(=O)C1=C(O)[C@]1(O)C(=O)C(C(N)=O)=C(O)[C@@H](N(C)C)[C@]1([H])C2

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae, upper respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Minocycline, the most lipid soluble and most active tetracycline antibiotic, is, like doxycycline, a long-acting tetracycline. Minocycline's effects are related to the inhibition of protein synthesis. Although minocycline's broader spectrum of activity, compared to other members of the group, includes activity against Neisseria meningitidis, its use as a prophylaxis is no longer recomended because of side effects (dizziness and vertigo). Current research is examining the possible neuroprotective effects of minocycline against progression of Huntington's Disease, an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. The neuroprotective action of minocycline may include its inhibitory effect on 5-lipoxygenase, an inflammatory enzyme associated with brain aging.

Mechanism of action

Minocycline passes directly through the lipid bilayer or passively diffuses through porin channels in the bacterial membrane. Tetracyclines like minocycline bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit, preventing the binding of tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex and interfering with protein synthesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
A30S ribosomal protein S9
inhibitor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
A30S ribosomal protein S4
inhibitor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
U16S rRNA
inhibitor
Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
UInterleukin-1 beta
modulator
Human
UArachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
inhibitor
Human
UMatrix metalloproteinase-9
inhibitor
Human
UVascular endothelial growth factor A
inhibitor
Human
UCaspase-1
negative modulator
Human
UCaspase-3
negative modulator
Human
UCytochrome c
negative modulator
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and absorption is not significantly impaired by ingestion of food or milk. Oral bioavailability is 100%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

55% to 76%

Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

11-22 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Minocycline has been observed to cause a dark discoloration of the thyroid in experimental animals (rats, minipigs, dogs and monkeys). In the rat, chronic treatment with minocycline has resulted in goiter accompanied by elevated radioactive iodine uptake and evidence of thyroid tumor production. Minocycline has also been found to produce thyroid hyperplasia in rats and dogs. LD50=2380 mg/kg (rat, oral), LD50=3600 mg/kg (mouse, oral)

Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Minocycline Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Minocycline is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Minocycline is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Minocycline is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Minocycline is combined with Acenocoumarol.
Acetylcysteine zincAcetylcysteine zinc can cause a decrease in the absorption of Minocycline resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AcipimoxThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Minocycline is combined with Acipimox.
AcitretinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minocycline is combined with Acitretin.
AcyclovirThe excretion of Acyclovir can be decreased when combined with Minocycline.
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minocycline is combined with Adapalene.
Adefovir DipivoxilThe excretion of Adefovir Dipivoxil can be decreased when combined with Minocycline.
Food Interactions
  • Calcium and iron needs increased with long term use.
  • Do not take Aluminum or magnesium antacids or supplements while on this medication.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Zita Mendes, Jose Rafael Antunes, Susana Marto, William Heggie, "Crystalline Minocycline Base and Processes for its Preparation." U.S. Patent US20100286417, issued November 11, 2010.

US20100286417
General References
  1. Gough A, Chapman S, Wagstaff K, Emery P, Elias E: Minocycline induced autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome. BMJ. 1996 Jan 20;312(7024):169-72. [PubMed:8563540]
  2. Chen M, Ona VO, Li M, Ferrante RJ, Fink KB, Zhu S, Bian J, Guo L, Farrell LA, Hersch SM, Hobbs W, Vonsattel JP, Cha JH, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits caspase-1 and caspase-3 expression and delays mortality in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Nat Med. 2000 Jul;6(7):797-801. [PubMed:10888929]
  3. Tikka TM, Koistinaho JE: Minocycline provides neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia. J Immunol. 2001 Jun 15;166(12):7527-33. [PubMed:11390507]
  4. Nirmalananthan N, Greensmith L: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: recent advances and future therapies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2005 Dec;18(6):712-9. [PubMed:16280684]
  5. Song Y, Wei EQ, Zhang WP, Zhang L, Liu JR, Chen Z: Minocycline protects PC12 cells from ischemic-like injury and inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activation. Neuroreport. 2004 Oct 5;15(14):2181-4. [PubMed:15371729]
  6. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015152
KEGG Drug
D05045
KEGG Compound
C07225
PubChem Compound
54675783
PubChem Substance
46504772
ChemSpider
16735907
BindingDB
50046515
ChEBI
50694
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1434
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000405
PharmGKB
PA450519
HET
MIY
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Minocycline
ATC Codes
A01AB23 — MinocyclineJ01AA20 — Combinations of tetracyclinesJ01AA08 — Minocycline
AHFS Codes
  • 52:04.04 — Antibacterials
  • 08:12.24 — Tetracyclines
PDB Entries
2drd / 2wq5 / 2xpv / 3aod / 3v3n / 4a99 / 4ac0 / 4dx5 / 4u8v / 4u8y
show 2 more
FDA label
Download (3.02 MB)
MSDS
Download (73.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas1
1CompletedOtherSkin Infections (Acne)1
1CompletedTreatmentAneurysms / Arteriovenous Malformations1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentNormal Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentPrimary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)1
1CompletedTreatmentSkin Diseases1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNormal Healthy Volunteers1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPeriapical Periodontitis1
1RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
1RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
1RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1RecruitingTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1
1TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Renal Insufficiency, Acute / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
1TerminatedTreatmentIrradiation; Adverse Effect1
1TerminatedTreatmentStrokes1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Gliomas1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentFirst Episode Psychosis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentIntracerebral Hemorrhage2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentStroke, Acute1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Drinking / Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Craving / Inflammatory Reaction / Neurocognitive Dysfunction1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBrain Injury1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentRetinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)2
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentSubarachnoid Aneurysm Hemorrhage1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentHIV-associated Cognitive Impairment / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
1, 2WithdrawnSupportive CareLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOropharynx Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma2
2CompletedPreventionPain, Chronic / Post-Operative Pain1
2CompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Carcinoma, Breast / Pain, Acute / Peripheral Neuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2CompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)1
2CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentRash1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenia and Disorders With Psychotic Features1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceBack Pain / Back Pain Lower Back Chronic / Back Pain With Radiation / Back Pain Without Radiation / Low Back Pain (LBP) / Pain, Chronic1
2RecruitingTreatmentAge- Related Macular Degeneration1
2RecruitingTreatmentAt Risk Mental State (ARMS) / Psychosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2RecruitingTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPapulopustular Rosacea (PPR)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPapulopustular Rosacea (PPR) / Rosaceas1
2TerminatedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Optic Neuritis1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
2Unknown StatusPreventionRetinal Detachment1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPost-operative Intercostal Neuralgia1
2WithdrawnPreventionCarotid Stenosis1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
2, 3Unknown StatusPreventionSpinal Tumors, Trauma Patients, Minocycline1
3CompletedPreventionClinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) / Early Single Relapse of Multiple Sclerosis1
3CompletedPreventionNegative and Cognitive Symptoms in Schizophrenia1
3CompletedTreatmentAdult Periodontitis1
3CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Bipolar II Depression / Depression, Bipolar1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentPeri-Implantitis2
3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
3RecruitingPreventionCarcinoma of the Rectum / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Prostate Cancer / Renal Carcinoma1
3RecruitingPreventionPeriodontal Diseases / Strokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAmphetamine Dependence / Heroin Dependence1
3RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Depression, Bipolar / Moods Disorders1
3RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
3RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentIdiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentOral Lichen Planus1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne1
4CompletedTreatmentAntidepressive Agents / Depressive Disorder, Treatment Resistant / Depressive Disorders / Moods Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile / Minocycline / Regressive Autism1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentModerate to Advanced Chronic Periodontitis1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuropathic Pain Caused by Lumbar Radicular Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders2
4CompletedTreatmentBacterial blepharitis1
4RecruitingOtherSchizophrenic Disorders / Tobacco Use1
4RecruitingTreatmentBacterial Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar1
4RecruitingTreatmentPTSD1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
4TerminatedTreatmentStroke, Acute1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4WithdrawnTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Periodontal Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGram-Negative Bacterial Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceOpioid Dependence / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Kidney Insufficiency / Acute Renal Failure (ARF)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Skin Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLung Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMeibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchMemory Disturbances1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherBipolar Disorder (BD) / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAnxiety Disorders / Depression / Recurrent Breast Cancer / Stage IA Breast Cancer / Stage IB Breast Cancer / Stage II Breast Cancer / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer / Stage IIIB Breast Cancer / Stage IIIC Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentProsthetic Joint Infection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareCancers1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Medicis pharmaceutical corp
  • Triax pharmaceuticals llc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • Orapharma inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Matrix laboratories ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Medicis Pharmaceutical Corporation
Packagers
  • AAIPharma Inc.
  • Actavis Group
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Global Pharmaceuticals
  • Impax Laboratories Inc.
  • Johnson & Johnson Healthcare
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medicis Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ohm Laboratories Inc.
  • OraPharma
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Professional Co.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Triax Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • USV Ltd.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wellspring Pharmaceutical
  • Wyeth Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral100 mg
CapsuleOral50 mg
PowderOral1 mg/1
PowderOral1 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral75 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral75 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsOral75 mg/1
InjectionIntravenous100 mg/1
Kit100 mg/1
Kit50 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsOral100 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsOral50 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral135 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral80 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral75 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral105 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral105 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral115 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral135 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral55 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral65 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral80 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral135 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Minocin PAC 100 mg Kit Box695.5USD box
Minocin kit 100 mg combo668.17USD kit
Minocin kit 50 mg combo334.78USD kit
Minocin 100 mg vial59.64USD vial
Arestin 1 mg microsphere30.0USD each
Solodyn 135 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn 45 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn 65 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn 90 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn er 115 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 135 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 45 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 65 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 90 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Minocycline hcl powder21.0USD g
Minocycline HCl 135 mg 24 Hour tablet19.21USD tablet
Minocycline HCl 45 mg 24 Hour tablet19.21USD tablet
Dynacin 100 mg tablet13.37USD tablet
Dynacin 75 mg tablet13.12USD tablet
Minocin 100 mg capsule12.05USD capsule
Minocin 100 mg pelletized cap11.11USD pellet
Dynacin 50 mg tablet8.76USD tablet
Dynacin 75 mg capsule7.15USD capsule
Minocycline hcl 100 mg tablet6.15USD tablet
Minocin 50 mg pelletized cap5.56USD pellet
Minocin 50 mg capsule5.24USD capsule
Minocycline hcl 75 mg tablet5.14USD tablet
Dynacin 50 mg capsule3.85USD capsule
Minocycline HCl 100 mg capsule3.53USD capsule
Minocycline hcl 50 mg tablet3.5USD tablet
Minocycline HCl 75 mg capsule2.06USD capsule
Minocycline 75 mg capsule1.98USD capsule
Minocycline HCl 50 mg capsule1.77USD capsule
Minocin 100 mg Capsule1.34USD capsule
Apo-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Mylan-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Novo-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Pms-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Ratio-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Sandoz Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Minocin 50 mg Capsule0.69USD capsule
Apo-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Mylan-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Novo-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Pms-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Ratio-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Sandoz Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA1330533No1994-07-052011-07-05Canada
US5908838No1998-02-192018-02-19Us
US7790705No2005-06-242025-06-24Us
US7919483No2007-03-072027-03-07Us
US8252776No2005-06-242025-06-24Us
US8268804No2005-06-242025-06-24Us
US8722650No2005-06-242025-06-24Us
US9192615No2011-11-172031-11-17Us
US7541347No2007-04-022027-04-02Us
US7544373No2007-04-022027-04-02Us
US9278105No2011-05-122031-05-12Us
US9084802No2011-05-122031-05-12Us
US7699609No2002-03-292022-03-29Us
US6682348No2002-03-292022-03-29Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility5.2E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.05SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.07 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.03ALOGPS
logP-3.3ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-2.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area164.63 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity122.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability45.9 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7469
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9783
Caco-2 permeable+0.5711
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7366
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7968
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7036
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9536
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8145
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9036
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6805
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9088
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9232
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9081
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9058
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7561
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8909
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9091
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.4354 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9954
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6783
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0001900000-6e678a7f126753a02d03
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0139100000-ff75a26ae387147257db
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0293000000-c2ff616578522f961ba6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0390000000-d52131f98ad1d88e178c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fki-1690000000-e5a98a7122d0379c17ce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-1980000000-8e1add1bcba675eab919
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2940000000-5fb719a03faa19bc3ece
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-6920000000-fb4c9cde9587edd4015e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9300000000-6299955440e9be195128
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-6f7513e3aaa9e86725ec
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0011900000-ed3a433871dc9cea2d9f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0559300000-4e1a4ba6692c21980cae
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0696000000-f57972687a1b0ffe9411
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1491000000-1847e0c78206ea2f84c3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-0000900000-ae91ec031bca8b95216e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0001900000-0bc6e4a0b16f4acd3d1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uei-1149100000-2ea03125f37fabe56999
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-1192000000-476045d8accb26d18bb4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-015i-1390000000-f6a75360809f9018052a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-015i-1890000000-25e6cc490ffec05c4a72
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1910000000-792e383cfc54a9b8ebd6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ue9-1900000000-661b85ea2afa687f93a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udr-4900000000-098a637ebcf57aa77319
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-be1710159c584212b699
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-0000900000-bd4b9a1921d45f27be9d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0001900000-96106fbade202303433e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udl-0219400000-07d734cb9f459b083f55
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f8i-1159000000-8e48b5ce1c715cfd049f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0000900000-1d9e5a4995f9165bd72f

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetracyclines. These are polyketides having an octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide skeleton, substituted with many hydroxy and other groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Class
Tetracyclines
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Tetracyclines
Alternative Parents
Naphthacenes / Anthracenecarboxylic acids and derivatives / Tetralins / Aryl ketones / Dialkylarylamines / Cyclohexenones / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Aralkylamines / Vinylogous acids / Tertiary alcohols
show 8 more
Substituents
Tetracycline / Naphthacene / Tetracene / Anthracene carboxylic acid or derivatives / Tetralin / Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine / Aryl ketone / Dialkylarylamine / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Cyclohexenone
show 24 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tetracyclines, tetracenomycin (CHEBI:50694) / Linear tetracyclines (C07225) / Linear tetracyclines (LMPK07000002)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
The C-terminal tail plays a role in the affinity of the 30S P site for different tRNAs. Mutations that decrease this affinity are suppressed in the 70S ribosome.
Gene Name
rpsI
Uniprot ID
P0A7X3
Uniprot Name
30S ribosomal protein S9
Molecular Weight
14856.105 Da
References
  1. Zhanel GG, Homenuik K, Nichol K, Noreddin A, Vercaigne L, Embil J, Gin A, Karlowsky JA, Hoban DJ: The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines. Drugs. 2004;64(1):63-88. [PubMed:14723559]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Translation repressor activity, nucleic acid binding
Specific Function
One of two assembly initiator proteins for the 30S subunit, it binds directly to 16S rRNA where it nucleates assembly of the body of the 30S subunit.With S5 and S12 plays an important role in trans...
Gene Name
rpsD
Uniprot ID
P0A7V8
Uniprot Name
30S ribosomal protein S4
Molecular Weight
23468.915 Da
References
  1. Zhanel GG, Homenuik K, Nichol K, Noreddin A, Vercaigne L, Embil J, Gin A, Karlowsky JA, Hoban DJ: The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines. Drugs. 2004;64(1):63-88. [PubMed:14723559]
3. 16S rRNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Protein domain specific binding
Specific Function
Potent proinflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, ...
Gene Name
IL1B
Uniprot ID
P01584
Uniprot Name
Interleukin-1 beta
Molecular Weight
30747.7 Da
References
  1. Sadowski T, Steinmeyer J: Minocycline inhibits the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase in articular chondrocytes. J Rheumatol. 2001 Feb;28(2):336-40. [PubMed:11246672]
  2. Oringer RJ, Al-Shammari KF, Aldredge WA, Iacono VJ, Eber RM, Wang HL, Berwald B, Nejat R, Giannobile WV: Effect of locally delivered minocycline microspheres on markers of bone resorption. J Periodontol. 2002 Aug;73(8):835-42. [PubMed:12211491]
  3. Amin AR, Attur MG, Thakker GD, Patel PD, Vyas PR, Patel RN, Patel IR, Abramson SB: A novel mechanism of action of tetracyclines: effects on nitric oxide synthases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Nov 26;93(24):14014-9. [PubMed:8943052]
  4. Steinmeyer J, Daufeldt S, Taiwo YO: Pharmacological effect of tetracyclines on proteoglycanases from interleukin-1-treated articular cartilage. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Jan 1;55(1):93-100. [PubMed:9413935]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Song Y, Wei EQ, Zhang WP, Zhang L, Liu JR, Chen Z: Minocycline protects PC12 cells from ischemic-like injury and inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activation. Neuroreport. 2004 Oct 5;15(14):2181-4. [PubMed:15371729]
  2. Song Y, Wei EQ, Zhang WP, Ge QF, Liu JR, Wang ML, Huang XJ, Hu X, Chen Z: Minocycline protects PC12 cells against NMDA-induced injury via inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activation. Brain Res. 2006 Apr 26;1085(1):57-67. Epub 2006 Mar 30. [PubMed:16574083]
  3. Chu LS, Fang SH, Zhou Y, Yu GL, Wang ML, Zhang WP, Wei EQ: Minocycline inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activation and brain inflammation after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007 Jun;28(6):763-72. [PubMed:17506934]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves...
Gene Name
MMP9
Uniprot ID
P14780
Uniprot Name
Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Molecular Weight
78457.51 Da
References
  1. Brundula V, Rewcastle NB, Metz LM, Bernard CC, Yong VW: Targeting leukocyte MMPs and transmigration: minocycline as a potential therapy for multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2002 Jun;125(Pt 6):1297-308. [PubMed:12023318]
  2. Sutton TA, Kelly KJ, Mang HE, Plotkin Z, Sandoval RM, Dagher PC: Minocycline reduces renal microvascular leakage in a rat model of ischemic renal injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Jan;288(1):F91-7. Epub 2004 Sep 7. [PubMed:15353401]
  3. Koistinaho M, Malm TM, Kettunen MI, Goldsteins G, Starckx S, Kauppinen RA, Opdenakker G, Koistinaho J: Minocycline protects against permanent cerebral ischemia in wild type but not in matrix metalloprotease-9-deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Apr;25(4):460-7. [PubMed:15674236]
  4. Lee CZ, Yao JS, Huang Y, Zhai W, Liu W, Guglielmo BJ, Lin E, Yang GY, Young WL: Dose-response effect of tetracyclines on cerebral matrix metalloproteinase-9 after vascular endothelial growth factor hyperstimulation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006 Sep;26(9):1157-64. Epub 2006 Jan 4. [PubMed:16395286]
  5. Machado LS, Kozak A, Ergul A, Hess DC, Borlongan CV, Fagan SC: Delayed minocycline inhibits ischemia-activated matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 after experimental stroke. BMC Neurosci. 2006 Jul 17;7:56. [PubMed:16846501]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding
Specific Function
Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of...
Gene Name
VEGFA
Uniprot ID
P15692
Uniprot Name
Vascular endothelial growth factor A
Molecular Weight
27042.205 Da
References
  1. Sasamura H, Takahashi A, Miyao N, Yanase M, Masumori N, Kitamura H, Itoh N, Tsukamoto T: Inhibitory effect on expression of angiogenic factors by antiangiogenic agents in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2002 Mar 4;86(5):768-73. [PubMed:11875741]
  2. Yao JS, Chen Y, Zhai W, Xu K, Young WL, Yang GY: Minocycline exerts multiple inhibitory effects on vascular endothelial growth factor-induced smooth muscle cell migration: the role of ERK1/2, PI3K, and matrix metalloproteinases. Circ Res. 2004 Aug 20;95(4):364-71. Epub 2004 Jul 15. [PubMed:15256478]
  3. Rocchetti R, Talevi S, Margiotta C, Calza R, Corallini A, Possati L: Antiangiogenic drugs for chemotherapy of bladder tumours. Chemotherapy. 2005 Oct;51(6):291-9. Epub 2005 Oct 13. [PubMed:16224178]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Thiol protease that cleaves IL-1 beta between an Asp and an Ala, releasing the mature cytokine which is involved in a variety of inflammatory processes. Important for defense against pathogens. Cle...
Gene Name
CASP1
Uniprot ID
P29466
Uniprot Name
Caspase-1
Molecular Weight
45158.215 Da
References
  1. Chen M, Ona VO, Li M, Ferrante RJ, Fink KB, Zhu S, Bian J, Guo L, Farrell LA, Hersch SM, Hobbs W, Vonsattel JP, Cha JH, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits caspase-1 and caspase-3 expression and delays mortality in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Nat Med. 2000 Jul;6(7):797-801. [PubMed:10888929]
  2. Sanchez Mejia RO, Ona VO, Li M, Friedlander RM: Minocycline reduces traumatic brain injury-mediated caspase-1 activation, tissue damage, and neurological dysfunction. Neurosurgery. 2001 Jun;48(6):1393-9; discussion 1399-401. [PubMed:11383749]
  3. Vincent JA, Mohr S: Inhibition of caspase-1/interleukin-1beta signaling prevents degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes and galactosemia. Diabetes. 2007 Jan;56(1):224-30. [PubMed:17192486]
  4. Kim HS, Suh YH: Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 23;196(2):168-79. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.040. Epub 2008 Oct 11. [PubMed:18977395]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Phospholipase a2 activator activity
Specific Function
Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. At the onset of apoptosis it proteolytically cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) at a '216-Asp-|-Gly-217' ...
Gene Name
CASP3
Uniprot ID
P42574
Uniprot Name
Caspase-3
Molecular Weight
31607.58 Da
References
  1. Chen M, Ona VO, Li M, Ferrante RJ, Fink KB, Zhu S, Bian J, Guo L, Farrell LA, Hersch SM, Hobbs W, Vonsattel JP, Cha JH, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits caspase-1 and caspase-3 expression and delays mortality in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Nat Med. 2000 Jul;6(7):797-801. [PubMed:10888929]
  2. Arvin KL, Han BH, Du Y, Lin SZ, Paul SM, Holtzman DM: Minocycline markedly protects the neonatal brain against hypoxic-ischemic injury. Ann Neurol. 2002 Jul;52(1):54-61. [PubMed:12112047]
  3. Dommergues MA, Plaisant F, Verney C, Gressens P: Early microglial activation following neonatal excitotoxic brain damage in mice: a potential target for neuroprotection. Neuroscience. 2003;121(3):619-28. [PubMed:14568022]
  4. Lee SM, Yune TY, Kim SJ, Park DW, Lee YK, Kim YC, Oh YJ, Markelonis GJ, Oh TH: Minocycline reduces cell death and improves functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in the rat. J Neurotrauma. 2003 Oct;20(10):1017-27. [PubMed:14588118]
  5. Baptiste DC, Hartwick AT, Jollimore CA, Baldridge WH, Seigel GM, Kelly ME: An investigation of the neuroprotective effects of tetracycline derivatives in experimental models of retinal cell death. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Nov;66(5):1113-22. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [PubMed:15304547]
  6. Kim HS, Suh YH: Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 23;196(2):168-79. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.040. Epub 2008 Oct 11. [PubMed:18977395]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfe...
Gene Name
CYCS
Uniprot ID
P99999
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome c
Molecular Weight
11748.69 Da
References
  1. Zhu S, Stavrovskaya IG, Drozda M, Kim BY, Ona V, Li M, Sarang S, Liu AS, Hartley DM, Wu DC, Gullans S, Ferrante RJ, Przedborski S, Kristal BS, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits cytochrome c release and delays progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice. Nature. 2002 May 2;417(6884):74-8. [PubMed:11986668]
  2. Matsuki S, Iuchi Y, Ikeda Y, Sasagawa I, Tomita Y, Fujii J: Suppression of cytochrome c release and apoptosis in testes with heat stress by minocycline. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Dec 19;312(3):843-9. [PubMed:14680842]
  3. Chu HC, Lin YL, Sytwu HK, Lin SH, Liao CL, Chao YC: Effects of minocycline on Fas-mediated fulminant hepatitis in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;144(2):275-82. [PubMed:15665864]
  4. Heo K, Cho YJ, Cho KJ, Kim HW, Kim HJ, Shin HY, Lee BI, Kim GW: Minocycline inhibits caspase-dependent and -independent cell death pathways and is neuroprotective against hippocampal damage after treatment with kainic acid in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006 May 8;398(3):195-200. Epub 2006 Feb 15. [PubMed:16469440]
  5. Mansson R, Hansson MJ, Morota S, Uchino H, Ekdahl CT, Elmer E: Re-evaluation of mitochondrial permeability transition as a primary neuroprotective target of minocycline. Neurobiol Dis. 2007 Jan;25(1):198-205. Epub 2006 Oct 24. [PubMed:17067803]
  6. Kim HS, Suh YH: Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 23;196(2):168-79. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.040. Epub 2008 Oct 11. [PubMed:18977395]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters mediate the transport of tetracycline. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;88(1):69-76. [PubMed:11855680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters mediate the transport of tetracycline. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;88(1):69-76. [PubMed:11855680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID
Q9NSA0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 11
Molecular Weight
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters mediate the transport of tetracycline. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;88(1):69-76. [PubMed:11855680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulf...
Gene Name
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID
Q9Y694
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 7
Molecular Weight
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters mediate the transport of tetracycline. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;88(1):69-76. [PubMed:11855680]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 16, 2018 08:33