|DB00314||Capreomycin||Used in the treatment of tuberculosis in combination with other drugs.|
|DB01111||Colistimethate||For the treatment of acute or chronic infections due to sensitive strains of certain gram-negative bacilli, particularly _Pseudomonas aeruginosa_.|
|DB00803||Colistin||For the treatment of acute or chronic infections due to sensitive strains of certain gram-negative bacilli, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa.|
|DB01082||Streptomycin||For the treatment of tuberculosis. May also be used in combination with other drugs to treat tularemia (Francisella tularensis), plague (Yersia pestis), severe M. avium complex, brucellosis, and enterococcal endocarditis (e.g. E. faecalis, E. faecium).|
|DB01172||Kanamycin||For treatment of infections where one or more of the following are the known or suspected pathogens: E. coli, Proteus species (both indole-positive and indole-negative), E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, and Acinetobacter species.|
|DB01017||Minocycline||For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae, upper respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis.|
|DB00254||Doxycycline||Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of various infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, as well other types of bacteria. A complete list of organisms is available in the FDA label and in the "indications" section of this drug entry [FDA label].
The following are some of the major infections that may be treated with doxycycline [FDA label]:
Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydia psittaci
Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence
Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis
**A note regarding anti-microbial resistance**
It is important to note that doxycycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.
Up to 44 percent of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 74 percent of Streptococcus faecalis have been found to be resistant to tetracyclines. Therefore, tetracyclines such as doxycycline should not be used to treat streptococcal infections unless the microorganism has been demonstrated to be susceptible [FDA label].|
|DB00256||Lymecycline||For the treatment of infections and to treat acne. It may also be used to treat urinary tract infections, gum disease, and other bacterial infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. Lymecycline is also used commonly as a prophylactic treatment for infection by Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). It is also effective against Yersinia pestis and malaria and is also prescribed for the treatment of Lyme disease.|
|DB00931||Metacycline||For the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis|
|DB01301||Rolitetracycline||Rolitetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in cases needing high concentrations or when oral administration is impractical.|
|DB00453||Clomocycline||For the treatment and management of Brucellosis, mycoplasma infection, acne vulgaris, chlamydial infection;Chronic bronchitis|
|DB00560||Tigecycline||For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the following conditions: Complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only), Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus grp. (includes S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacteroides fragilis. Complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only), Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus anginosus grp. (includes S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium perfringens, and Peptostreptococcus micros.|
|DB00759||Tetracycline||Used to treat bacterial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, tick fevers, Q fever, rickettsialpox and Brill-Zinsser disease. May be used to treat infections caused by Chlamydiae spp., B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease), and upper respiratory infections caused by typical (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis) and atypical organisms (C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila). May also be used to treat acne. Tetracycline may be an alternative drug for people who are allergic to penicillin.|
|DB00595||Oxytetracycline||Oxytetracycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by a variety of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pasteurella pestis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (respiratory infections), and Diplococcus pneumoniae.|
|DB00618||Demeclocycline||Used primarily to treat Lyme disease, acne, and bronchitis. Also indicated (but rarely used) to treat urinary tract infections, gum disease, malaria, and other bacterial infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. One of its other registered uses is the treatment of hyponatremia (low blood sodium concentration) due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) where fluid restriction alone has been ineffective. |
|DB09093||Chlortetracycline||Used in the manufacuring of medicated animal feeds [FDA Label].|
|DB01035||Procainamide||For the treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.|
|DB00908||Quinidine||For the treatment of ventricular pre-excitation and cardiac dysrhythmias|
|DB00468||Quinine||For the treatment of malaria and leg cramps|
|DB00608||Chloroquine||For the suppressive treatment and for acute attacks of malaria due to P. vivax, P.malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum, Second-line agent in treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis|
|DB00903||Etacrynic acid||For the treatment of high blood pressure and edema caused by diseases like congestive heart failure, liver failure, and kidney failure.|
|DB00512||Vancomycin||A variety of dosage forms (for example, oral, injections, etc.) exist for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam-resistant) staphylococci [FDA Label].
Additionally, a unique FDA approved oral liquid treatment is also available and indicated for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea and enterocolitis caused by _Staphylococcus aureus_, including methicillin-resistant strains [L1196].|
|DB00684||Tobramycin||For the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. Also being investigated for use in the treatment of sinus infections.|
|DB00798||Gentamicin||For treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, Proteus species (indole-positive and indole-negative), E. coli, Klebsiella-Enterobactor-Serratia species, Citrobacter species and Staphylococcus species (coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative).|
|DB00994||Neomycin||Topical uses include treatment for superficial eye infections caused by susceptible bacteria (used in combination with other antiinfectives), treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible bacteria, treatment or prevention of bacterial infections in skin lesions, and use as a continuous short-term irrigant or rinse to prevent bacteriuria and gram negative rod bacteremia in abacteriuric patients with indwelling catheters. May be used orally to treat hepatic encephalopathy, as a perioperative prophylactic agent, and as an adjunct to fluid and electrolyte replacement in the treatment of diarrhea caused to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). |
|DB00452||Framycetin||For the treatment of bacterial blepharitis, bacterial bonjunctivitis, corneal injuries, corneal ulcers and meibomianitis. For the prophylaxis of ocular infections following foreign body removal|
|DB00955||Netilmicin||For the treatment of bacteremia, septicaemia, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infection, burns, wounds, and peri-operative infections caused by susceptible strains.|
|DB01421||Paromomycin||For the treatment of acute and chronic intestinal amebiasis (it is not effective in extraintestinal amebiasis). Also for the management of hepatic coma as adjunctive therapy.|
|DB04626||Apramycin||For the treatment of bacterial infections in animals.|
|DB06696||Arbekacin||Arbekacin is used for the short term treatment of multi-resistant bacterial infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).|
|DB12615||Plazomicin||Plazomicin is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years of age or older with Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI) including Pyelonephritis, who have limited or no alternative treatment options. It should only be used to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible microorganisms [FDA Label]. |
|DB00083||Botulinum toxin type A||For the treatment of cervical dystonia in adults to decrease the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain associated with cervical dystonia. Also for the treatment of severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis that is inadequately managed with topical agents and for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm associated with dystonia, including benign essential blepharospasm or VII nerve disorders in patients 12 years of age and above. Also used cosmetically to temporarily improve the appearance of moderate-to-severe frown lines between the eyebrows (glabellar lines) as well as for the treatment of excessive underarm sweating.|
|DB00042||Botulinum Toxin Type B||For the treatment of patients with cervical dystonia to reduce the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain associated with cervical dystonia.|
|DB00781||Polymyxin B sulfate||For treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and blood stream, caused by susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.|
|DB01190||Clindamycin||For the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria, including Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus, anaerobic streptococci, Clostridium spp., and microaerophilic streptococci. May be useful in polymicrobic infections such as intra-abdominal or pelvic infections, osteomyelitis, diabetic foot ulcers, aspiration pneumonia and dental infections. May also be used to treat MSSA and respiratory infections caused by S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes in patients who are intolerant to other indicated antibiotics or who are infected with resistant organism. May be used vaginally to treat vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginosa. Clindamycin reduces the toxin producing effects of S. aureus and S. pyogenes and as such, may be particularly useful for treating necrotizing fasciitis. May be used topically to treat acne.|
|DB00091||Ciclosporin||Cyclosporine is officially approved for different conditions listed below:
* Prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants. For this indication, it can be used concomitantly with azathioprine and corticosteroids.
* Treatment of patients with severe active, rheumatoid arthritis when the patient no longer responds to methotrexate.
* Concomitantly with methotrexate for the treatment of patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis when patients do not respond to methotrexate treatment alone.
* Treatment of adult nonimmunocompromised patients with severe, recalcitrant, plaque psoriasis that have failed to respond to at least one systemic therapy or when systemic therapies are not tolerated or contraindicated.[FDA label]
* Its ophthalmic solution is indicated to increase tear production in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients from 4 years old.[L5158]
* Prevention of graft rejection following bone marrow transplantation and in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
* Treatment of steroid dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to glomerular diseases such as minimal change nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis or membranous glomerulonephritis in adults and children.[F3091]
Away from all this approved and reviewed indications, cyclosporine is commonly used on dermatology for the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, blistering disorders, and connective tissue diseases.[A174085]|
|DB01627||Lincomycin||Lincomycin is an antibiotic used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.|
|DB13249||Magnesium silicate||Magnesium silicate is used to absorb moisture, prevent caking, and to improve the feel of a product. In the pharmaceutical companies, it is used as a dietary supplement, as part of the formulation ingredients in drug production, in antacid and antiulcer preparations, as a component of antiepileptic drugs, in antifungal topical agents and in the treatment of acne and as a facial moisturizer.[L2603]
When complexed with arginine, magnesium silicate can be used as an antiatherosclerotic agent and to promote bone and cartilage formation in mammals.[T186]|
|DB11189||Magnesium glycinate||Not Available|
|DB09281||Magnesium trisilicate||For the treatment of peptic ulcers.
Relieving indigestion and heartburn.|
|DB13786||Magnesium orotate||Not Available|
|DB13359||Magnesium aspartate||Not Available|
|DB11230||Magnesium Aluminum Silicate||Magnesium aluminum silicate is used as an over the counter antacid for the self-treatment of heartburn, sour stomach, or acid indigestion [FDA Label].|
|DB09407||Magnesium chloride||Magnesium chloride is used in several medical and topical (skin related) applications. Magnesium chloride usp, anhydrous uses as electrolyte replenisher, pharmaceutic necessity for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis fluids.
|DB13749||Magnesium gluconate||Magnesium gluconate is a mineral supplement which is used to prevent and treat low levels of magnesium. Magnesium is very important for the normal physiologic functioning of cells, nerves, muscles, bones, and the heart. Generally, a well-balanced diet provides the necessary amounts of magnesium for homeostasis. However, certain conditions causing chronic magnesium deficiency may decrease levels of magnesium. These conditions include treatment with diuretics, a poor diet, alcoholism, or other medical conditions (e.g., severe diarrhea/vomiting, stomach/intestinal absorption problems, poorly controlled diabetes) [L2600].|
|DB14077||Magnesium stearate||Not Available|
|DB13996||Magnesium acetate||Not Available|
|DB00653||Magnesium sulfate||Used for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia. Also used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant.|
|DB09409||Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate||Used as magnesium salf-containing laxatives to prevent constipation. It can bring synergistic effect to restore normal bowel function when using in combination with aluminum salts that induce bowel retention [T28]. Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate is used as a source of water and electrolytes when combined with dextrose and other salts to form intravenous infusions. This injection can be used for patients with carbohydrate or magnesium deficiency, insulin hypoglycemia, constipation or hypertension during pregnancy.|
|DB11110||Magnesium citrate||Magnesium citrate has been used in bowel preparations prior to a colonoscopy as a cathartic agent.[T215]
It is also used in over-the-counter products to relieve occasional constipation.[L2841]
Magnesium citrate can be one of the forms used for the administration of dietary supplements.[L2842]|
|DB01377||Magnesium oxide||Magnesium hydroxide is used as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation (irregularity) and as an antacid to relieve indigestion, sour stomach, and heartburn.|
|DB09481||Magnesium carbonate||Used as an over the counter antacid [L593].|
|DB01378||Magnesium cation||Not Available|
|DB09104||Magnesium hydroxide||Magnesium hydroxide can be used as an antacid or a laxative depending on the administered dose.
As an antacid, it is used for the temporary relief of heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach or acid indigestion.
As a laxative, it is used for the relief of occasional constipation by promoting bowel movements for 30 minutes and up to 6 hours.
|DB04729||Gentamicin C1a||Not Available|
|DB06827||Viomycin||Viomycin is an essential component in the drug cocktail currently used to fight infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.|
|DB00657||Mecamylamine||For the treatment of moderately severe to severe essential hypertension and in uncomplicated cases of malignant hypertension|
|DB00319||Piperacillin||For the treatment of polymicrobial infections.|
|DB01219||Dantrolene||For use, along with appropriate supportive measures, for the management of the fulminant hypermetabolism of skeletal muscle characteristic of malignant hyperthermia crises in patients of all ages. Also used preoperatively, and sometimes postoperatively, to prevent or attenuate the development of clinical and laboratory signs of malignant hyperthermia in individuals judged to be malignant hyperthermia susceptible.|