Identification

Name
Corticotropin
Accession Number
DB01285  (DB09547)
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Vet Approved
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones
Description

Corticotropin (ACTH or adrenocorticotropic hormone) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. It is an important player in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Protein chemical formula
C207H308N56O58S
Protein average weight
4541.0658 Da
Sequences
>ACTH(1-39)
SYSMEHFRWGKPVGKKRRPVKVYPDGAEDQLAEAFPLEF
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • ACTH
  • Adrenocorticotrophin
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Corticotrophin
  • Cortigel
  • H.P. acthar gel
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acthar Gel Hp Inj 40unit/mlGel40 unitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousArmour Pharmaceutical Co.1987-12-311999-12-15Canada
Acthar Powder Inj 40unit/vialPowder, for solution40 unitIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousArmour Pharmaceutical Co.1988-12-311999-12-15Canada
H.P. ActharInjection80 [USP'U]/mLIntramuscular; SubcutaneousMallinckrodt Ard Inc.2013-01-07Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Acthar / Acthar Gel
Categories
UNII
K0U68Q2TXA
CAS number
12427-33-7

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as a diagnostic agent in the screening of patients presumed to have adrenocortical insufficiency.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Corticotropin acts through the stimulation of cell surface ACTH receptors, which are primarily located on the adrenocortical cells. Corticotropin stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland and boosts the synthesis of corticosteroids, mainly glucocorticoids but also sex steroids (androgens). Corticotropin is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms.

Mechanism of action

As a diagnostic aid (adrenocortical function), corticotropin combines with a specific receptor on the adrenal cell plasma membrane. In patients with normal adrenocortical function, it stimulates the initial reaction involved in the synthesis of adrenal steroids (including cortisol, cortisone, weak androgenic substances, and a limited quantity of aldosterone) from cholesterol by increasing the quantity of cholesterol within the mitochondria. Corticotropin does not significantly increase serum cortisol concentrations in patients with primary adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease). The mechanism of action of corticotropin in the treatment of infantile myoclonic seizures is unknown.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAdrenocorticotropic hormone receptor
agonist
Human
UCorticoliberin
agonist
Human
Absorption

Corticotropin is rapidly absorbed following intramuscular administration; the repository dosage form is slowly absorbed over approximately 8 to 16 hours.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

About 15 minutes following intravenous administration.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational, Withdrawn
AICA ribonucleotideThe therapeutic efficacy of AICA ribonucleotide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Experimental, Investigational
AllicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Allicin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
BalaglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Balaglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
BCG vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of BCG vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
Bempedoic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Bempedoic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
BuforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Buformin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational, Withdrawn
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
CarbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Carbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Experimental
CastanospermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castanospermine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Experimental
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
CiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Experimental
Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)The therapeutic efficacy of Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)The therapeutic efficacy of Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Corticotropin.Approved
DeoxyspergualinThe therapeutic efficacy of Deoxyspergualin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
DulaglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dulaglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Empagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
ExenatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Exenatide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
FingolimodCorticotropin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
G17DTThe therapeutic efficacy of G17DT can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
GI-5005The therapeutic efficacy of GI-5005 can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
GlibornurideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glibornuride can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational, Withdrawn
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
GlipizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glipizide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
GusperimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Gusperimus can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
Hepatitis A VaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hepatitis A Vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)The therapeutic efficacy of Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant) can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Withdrawn
INGN 201The therapeutic efficacy of INGN 201 can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
INGN 225The therapeutic efficacy of INGN 225 can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Insulin PorkThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Pork can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Corticotropin is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LinagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
LiraglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Liraglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
MiglitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglitol can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
MiglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglustat can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
MitiglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mitiglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Corticotropin is combined with Natalizumab.Approved, Investigational
NateglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Nateglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
PhenforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenformin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
PioglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
PramlintideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
Rabies virus inactivated antigen, AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Corticotropin is combined with Rabies virus inactivated antigen, A.Approved
Rabies virus inactivated antigen, AThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies virus inactivated antigen, A can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
RindopepimutThe therapeutic efficacy of Rindopepimut can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Corticotropin.Approved
RosiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
Rotavirus VaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rotavirus Vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Rubella virus vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rubella virus vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Salmonella typhi ty21a live antigenThe therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella typhi ty21a live antigen can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
SitagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sitagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
SotagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sotagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
SRP 299The therapeutic efficacy of SRP 299 can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
SulodexideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulodexide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
TecemotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tecemotide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
TG4010The therapeutic efficacy of TG4010 can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational
TofacitinibCorticotropin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.Approved, Investigational
TolazamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazamide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
TroglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Troglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Investigational, Withdrawn
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
VogliboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Voglibose can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Investigational
Yellow fever vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Yellow fever vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Zoster vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Zoster vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Wylie W. Vale, Jr., Mary P. Stenzel-Poore, "Corticotropin-releasing factor overproducing transgenic mice." U.S. Patent US6023011, issued June, 1993.

US6023011
General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00146
KEGG Compound
C02017
PubChem Substance
46506307
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201610
PharmGKB
PA449129
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Adrenocorticotropic_hormone
ATC Codes
H01AA01 — Corticotropin
MSDS
Download (72.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentOptic Neuritis1
1CompletedSupportive CareAdrenal Cortex Diseases / Infant Morbidity1
1CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
1CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Membranous Nephropathy1
1TerminatedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2CompletedTreatmentDermatomyositis / Polymyositis1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Infantile Spasms (IS)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentUveitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Sclerosis, Primary Progressive / Progressive Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis / Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Migraine1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHypercalcemia Due to Sarcoidosis / Sarcoidosis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProgressive IgA Nephropathy / Proteinuria1
3CompletedDiagnosticDevelopment1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Neuroblastoma / Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareDisseminated Sclerosis1
3RecruitingPreventionFSGS1
3RecruitingTreatmentGlomerulonephritis minimal lesion1
3RecruitingTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4CompletedDiagnosticInfantile Spasms (IS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Uveitis (AU) / Clinically Significant Macular Edema / Diffuse posterior uveitis / Scleritis / Uveitis / Uveitis, Intermediate1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / Glomerulonephritis minimal lesion1
4CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentGlomerulonephritis minimal lesion1
4CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Membranous Nephropathy / Proteinuria1
4CompletedTreatmentKidney Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentLupus Erythematosus Systemic Exacerbation1
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFSGS / Transplantation, Kidney / Transplantation, Renal1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlomerulonephritis membranous1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSarcoidosis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSarcoidosis, Pulmonary1
4RecruitingDiagnosticRheumatoid Arthritis1
4RecruitingTreatmentCNS Sarcoidosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentDermatomyositis / Juvenile Dermatomyositis1
4RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentLupus Erythematosus, Systemic1
4RecruitingTreatmentNephritis, Lupus1
4RecruitingTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentRepository Corticotropin Injection / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis2
4RecruitingTreatmentSLE Glomerulonephritis Syndrome, WHO Class V1
4RecruitingTreatmentSarcoidosis / Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary1
4RecruitingTreatmentUveitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiffuse posterior uveitis / Vasculitis Retinal1
4TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentProteinuria / Transplant Glomerulopathy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis1
4WithdrawnTreatmentIgA Nephropathy / Proteinuria1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableGlomerulonephritis minimal lesion1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAdrenal Insufficiency / Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticShock, Septic1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningOther Diseases or Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableDermatomyositis / Polymyositis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSarcoidosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperandrogenemia / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnterior Uveitis (AU) / Ocular Sarcoidosis / Panuveitis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentProteinuria1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentTransplant Glomerulopathy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAutonomic Nervous System / Baroreflexes / Stress, Physiological1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionWest Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentKidney Diseases1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
GelIntramuscular; Subcutaneous40 unit
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous40 unit
InjectionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous80 [USP'U]/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Acthar hp gel 80 unit/ml vial5584.56USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityEasily soluble in cold water, hot water.Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Melanocortin receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for corticotropin (ACTH). This receptor is mediated by G proteins (G(s)) which activate adenylate cyclase (cAMP).
Gene Name
MC2R
Uniprot ID
Q01718
Uniprot Name
Adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor
Molecular Weight
33926.28 Da
References
  1. Johnston H, King PJ, O'Shaughnessy PJ: Effects of ACTH and expression of the melanocortin-2 receptor in the neonatal mouse testis. Reproduction. 2007 Jun;133(6):1181-7. [PubMed:17636172]
  2. Carey LC, Su Y, Valego NK, Rose JC: Infusion of ACTH stimulates expression of adrenal ACTH receptor and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug;291(2):E214-20. Epub 2006 Feb 14. [PubMed:16478774]
  3. Hruby VJ, Cai M, Cain JP, Mayorov AV, Dedek MM, Trivedi D: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of ligands selective for the melanocortin-3 receptor. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(11):1107-19. [PubMed:17584128]
  4. Suri D, Alonso M, Weiss RE: A case of ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and severe congestive heart failure. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Nov;29(10):940-6. [PubMed:17185906]
  5. Lin L, Hindmarsh PC, Metherell LA, Alzyoud M, Al-Ali M, Brain CE, Clark AJ, Dattani MT, Achermann JC: Severe loss-of-function mutations in the adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTHR, MC2R) can be found in patients diagnosed with salt-losing adrenal hypoplasia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Feb;66(2):205-10. [PubMed:17223989]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Hormone regulating the release of corticotropin from pituitary gland (By similarity). Induces NLRP6 in intestinal epithelial cells, hence may influence gut microbiota profile (By similarity).
Gene Name
CRH
Uniprot ID
P06850
Uniprot Name
Corticoliberin
Molecular Weight
21421.505 Da
References
  1. Hellman P, Linder F, Hennings J, Hessman O, Eriksson B, Orlefors H, Akerstrom G: Bilateral adrenalectomy for ectopic Cushing's syndrome-discussions on technique and indication. World J Surg. 2006 May;30(5):909-16. [PubMed:16467980]
  2. Dinan TG, Quigley EM, Ahmed SM, Scully P, O'Brien S, O'Mahony L, O'Mahony S, Shanahan F, Keeling PW: Hypothalamic-pituitary-gut axis dysregulation in irritable bowel syndrome: plasma cytokines as a potential biomarker? Gastroenterology. 2006 Feb;130(2):304-11. [PubMed:16472586]
  3. Zhao LF, Iwasaki Y, Oki Y, Tsugita M, Taguchi T, Nishiyama M, Takao T, Kambayashi M, Hashimoto K: Purinergic receptor ligands stimulate pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in AtT-20 pituitary corticotroph cells. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006 Apr;18(4):273-8. [PubMed:16503922]
  4. Wagner U, Wahle M, Moritz F, Wagner U, Hantzschel H, Baerwald CG: Promoter polymorphisms regulating corticotrophin-releasing hormone transcription in vitro. Horm Metab Res. 2006 Feb;38(2):69-75. [PubMed:16523405]
  5. Matejec R, Uhlich H, Hotz C, Muhling J, Harbach HW, Bodeker RH, Hempelmann G, Teschemacher H: Corticotropin-releasing hormone reduces pressure pain sensitivity in humans without involvement of beta-endorphin(1-31), but does not reduce heat pain sensitivity. Neuroendocrinology. 2005;82(3-4):185-97. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16534240]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system pl...
Gene Name
HSD3B2
Uniprot ID
P26439
Uniprot Name
3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2
Molecular Weight
42051.845 Da
References
  1. Bassett MH, Suzuki T, Sasano H, De Vries CJ, Jimenez PT, Carr BR, Rainey WE: The orphan nuclear receptor NGFIB regulates transcription of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. implications for the control of adrenal functional zonation. J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 3;279(36):37622-30. Epub 2004 Jun 18. [PubMed:15208301]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) plays an important role in normal bone growth, calcium metabolism, and tissue differentiation.
Gene Name
CYP27B1
Uniprot ID
O15528
Uniprot Name
25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56503.475 Da
References
  1. Dunbar DR, Khaled H, Evans LC, Al-Dujaili EA, Mullins LJ, Mullins JJ, Kenyon CJ, Bailey MA: Transcriptional and physiological responses to chronic ACTH treatment by the mouse kidney. Physiol Genomics. 2010 Feb 4;40(3):158-66. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00088.2009. Epub 2009 Nov 17. [PubMed:19920212]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Has a role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent 24-hydroxylation of calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) and calcitriol (1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)). The enzyme can...
Gene Name
CYP24A1
Uniprot ID
Q07973
Uniprot Name
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
58874.695 Da
References
  1. Dunbar DR, Khaled H, Evans LC, Al-Dujaili EA, Mullins LJ, Mullins JJ, Kenyon CJ, Bailey MA: Transcriptional and physiological responses to chronic ACTH treatment by the mouse kidney. Physiol Genomics. 2010 Feb 4;40(3):158-66. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00088.2009. Epub 2009 Nov 17. [PubMed:19920212]

Drug created on May 23, 2007 23:14 / Updated on November 06, 2017 06:43