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Identification
NameGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid
Accession NumberDB01440
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit
DescriptionGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid, commonly abbreviated GHB, is a therapeutic drug which is illegal in multiple countries. It is currently regulated in the US and sold by Jazz Pharmaceuticals under the name Xyrem. However, it is important to note that GHB is a designated Orphan drug (in 1985). Today Xyrem is a Schedule III drug; however GHB remains a Schedule I drug and the illicit use of Xyrem falls under penalties of Schedule I. GHB is a naturally occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits and almost all other living creatures in small amounts. It is used illegally under the street names Juice, Liquid Ecstasy or simply G, either as an intoxicant, or as a date rape drug. Xyrem is a central nervous system depressant that reduces excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
3-carboxypropoxy acid
4-hydroxy-butyric acid
4-hydroxybutanoate
4-hydroxybutanoic acid
4-Hydroxybutyric acid
gamma-Hydroxybutyrate
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
GHB
oxy-n-butyric acid
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII30IW36W5B2
CAS number591-81-1
WeightAverage: 103.0966
Monoisotopic: 103.03951909
Chemical FormulaC4H7O3
InChI KeySJZRECIVHVDYJC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H8O3/c5-3-1-2-4(6)7/h5H,1-3H2,(H,6,7)/p-1
IUPAC Name
4-hydroxybutanoate
SMILES
OCCCC([O-])=O
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsGHB has at least two distinct binding sites in the central nervous system. GHB is an agonist at the newly-characterized GHB receptor, which is excitatory, and it is a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor, which is inhibitory. GHB is a naturally-occurring substance that acts in a similar fashion to some neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain. GHB is probably synthesized from GABA in GABAergic neurons, and released when the neurons fire.
Mechanism of actionGHB reaches much higher concentrations in the brain and activates GABAB receptors, which are primarily responsible for its sedative effects. GHB receptors are densely expressed in many areas of the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, and these are the receptors that GHB displays the highest affinity for. There has been somewhat limited research into the GHB receptor; however, there is evidence that activation of the GHB receptor in some brain areas results in the release of glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter. Activation of both the GHB receptor and GABA(B) is responsible for the addictive profile of GHB. GHB's effect on dopamine release is biphasic,[19] low concentrations stimulate dopamine release via the GHB receptor.[20] Higher concentrations inhibit dopamine release via GABA(B) receptors as do other GABA(B) agonists such as baclofen and phenibut.[21] After an initial phase of inhibition, dopamine release is then increased via the GHB receptor. This explains the paradoxical mix of sedative and stimulatory properties of GHB, as well as the so-called "rebound" effect, experienced by individuals using GHB as a sleeping agent, wherein they awake suddenly after several hours of GHB-induced deep sleep. That is to say that, over time, the concentration of GHB in the system decreases below the threshold for significant GABAB receptor activation and activates predominantly the GHB receptor, leading to wakefulness.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Solute carrier family 52, riboflavin transporter, member 2Proteinyes
agonist
HumanQ9HAB3 details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1Proteinyes
agonist
HumanP18505 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution
  • 190 to 384 mL/kg
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationAnimal studies indicate that metabolism is the major elimination pathway for sodium oxybate, producing carbon dioxide and water via the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle and secondarily by beta-oxidation. Succinic acid enters the Krebs cycle where it is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water. Fecal and renal excretion is negligible. 5% renal elimination.
Half life30 to 60 minutes
Clearance
  • apparent oral cl=9.1 mL/min/kg [healthy adults receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]
  • 4.5 mL/min/kg [cirrhotic patients without ascites receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]
  • 4.1 mL/min/kg [cirrhotic patients with ascites receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]
ToxicityAt higher doses, GHB may induce nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, agitation, visual disturbances, depressed breathing, amnesia, unconsciousness, and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,1,1,2 TetrafluoroethaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with 1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane.Investigational
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Asenapine.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Azaperone.Vet Approved
AzelastineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brimonidine.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Bromazepam.Approved, Illicit
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.Experimental
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
EthanolGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etifoxine.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.Approved
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
HydrocodoneGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lu AA21004.Investigational
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Melperone.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
MethotrimeprazineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
MetyrosineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Oxetacaine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
ParaldehydeGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pregnanolone.Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Promethazine.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
RotigotineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.Experimental
Sage 547The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Sage 547.Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
SuvorexantGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tiapride.Investigational
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
Uc1010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Uc1010.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Joseph Klosa, “Production of nonhygroscopic salts of 4-hydroxybutyric acid.” U.S. Patent US4393236, issued March, 1963.

US4393236
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7851
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9171
Caco-2 permeable+0.5539
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8415
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.981
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9223
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8341
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9043
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7878
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8141
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9518
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9541
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9642
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9721
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9884
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9331
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7478
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9967
Rat acute toxicity1.7448 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9579
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.97
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Xyrem 500 mg/ml oral solution5.33USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2355293 No2005-08-162019-12-22Canada
US6780889 No2000-07-042020-07-04Us
US7765106 No2004-06-162024-06-16Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility711.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.6ALOGPS
logP-0.51ChemAxon
logS0.77ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity34.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.17 KB)
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentStraight chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Organic anion
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Riboflavin transporter. Riboflavin transport is Na(+)-independent but moderately pH-sensitive. Activity is strongly inhibited by riboflavin analogs, such as lumiflavin. Weakly inhibited by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). In case of infection by retroviruses, acts as a cell receptor to retroviral envelopes similar to the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV-A).
Gene Name:
SLC52A2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAB3
Molecular Weight:
45776.61 Da
References
  1. Castelli MP, Mocci I, Pistis M, Peis M, Berta D, Gelain A, Gessa GL, Cignarella G: Stereoselectivity of NCS-382 binding to gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Jun 20;446(1-3):1-5. [PubMed:12098579 ]
  2. Castelli MP, Ferraro L, Mocci I, Carta F, Carai MA, Antonelli T, Tanganelli S, Cignarella G, Gessa GL: Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to activate G protein and to produce the sedative/hypnotic effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. J Neurochem. 2003 Nov;87(3):722-32. [PubMed:14535954 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Maitre M, Humbert JP, Kemmel V, Aunis D, Andriamampandry C: [A mechanism for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) as a drug and a substance of abuse]. Med Sci (Paris). 2005 Mar;21(3):284-9. [PubMed:15745703 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Functions as high-affinity pyruvate transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID:
O60669
Molecular Weight:
52199.745 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID:
O15427
Molecular Weight:
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. [PubMed:11101640 ]
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Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:09 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23