Identification

Name
Sodium oxybate
Accession Number
DB09072
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Sodium oxybate (Xyrem) is a central nervous system depressant used for the treatment of cataplexy and extreme daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy. It is the sodium salt of gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) which is an endogenous compound and a metabolite of the neurotransmitter GABA. The exact mechanism of action for treating EDS and cataplexy is not known but is is hypothesised that its therapeutic effects are due to GABA(B) effects on noradrenergic, dopaminaergic and thalamocorticol neurons. The drug follows non-linear pharmacokinetics. As it has been associated with misuse/abuse it is strictly controlled and all patients and prescribers must enroll in the sodium oxybate REMs program in order to gain access to the medication.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Oxybate sodium
External IDs
NSC-84223 / WY-3478
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
XyremSolution500 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2007-08-03Not applicableCanada
XyremSolution.5 g/mLOralJazz Pharmaceuticals2002-07-17Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
7G33012534
CAS number
502-85-2
Weight
Average: 126.087
Monoisotopic: 126.02928837
Chemical Formula
C4H7NaO3
InChI Key
XYGBKMMCQDZQOZ-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H8O3.Na/c5-3-1-2-4(6)7;/h5H,1-3H2,(H,6,7);/q;+1/p-1
IUPAC Name
sodium 4-hydroxybutanoate
SMILES
[Na+].OCCCC([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of cataplexy in narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in narcolepsy.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Sodium oxybate works through an unknown mechanism to treat narcolepsy by inducing sleep within about 5-15 minutes of administration.

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of action is unknown. It is the sodium salt of the endogenous compound gamma hydroxybutyrate which is a metabolite of the GABA neurotransmitter and it's thought that it's therapeutic effects are mediated via GABA B actions at noradrenergic, dopaminergic and thalamocortical neurons.

Absorption

Absolute bioavailability is approximately 88%. Tmax of 30.7-51.9min [2].

Volume of distribution

Vd of 37.7-67.7 [2]

Protein binding

Less then 1% is protein bound at concentrations ranging from 3 mcg/L to 300 mcg/L.

Metabolism

Animal studies indicate that the major elimination pathway is metabolism by the creation of carbon dioxide and water through the Krebs cycle and secondarily by beta-oxidation. In the primary pathway hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of sodium oxybate to succinic semialdehyde which is then transformed to succinic acid by succinic semmialdehyde dehydrogenase. Succinic acid is then turned into carbon dioxide and water in the Krebs cycle. Succinic semialdehyde is also metabolised into carbon dioxide and water by a transhydrofenase in the presence of alpha ketoglutarate.

Route of elimination

The major metabolite is carbon dioxide which is cleared by expiration, less then 5% appears as the unchanged drug in the urine within 6-8 hours after dosing.

Half life

0.5 to 1 hour.

Clearance

Total clearance of 895-1361mL/min [2].

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose may include; depressed consciousness that may fluctuate rapidly between a confusional, agitated combative state with ataxia and coma, emesis, diaphoresis, headache and impaired psychomotor skills. Depth of coma varies with the amount ingested and myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures have been reported. Oral LD50 of 9690mg/kg in rats [MSDS].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcepromazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Aceprometazine.Approved
AdipiplonSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Alphaprodine.Illicit
AmisulprideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amitriptyline.Approved
AmobarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amperozide.Experimental
AripiprazoleSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Articaine.Approved
AsenapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.Approved
AzaperoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azaperone.Vet Approved
AzelastineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved
BarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Barbital.Illicit
BenperidolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Benzocaine.Approved
Benzyl alcoholSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BMS-906024BMS-906024 may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Investigational
BrexpiprazoleSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Brimonidine.Approved
BromisovalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Bromisoval.Experimental
BromperidolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Bromperidol.Investigational
BrompheniramineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Brotizolam.Approved, Withdrawn
BupivacaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Bupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butabarbital.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butamben.Approved
ButethalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Butorphanol.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CamazepamCamazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved, Illicit
CanertinibSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Canertinib.Investigational
CarbamazepineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Carfentanil.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Carisoprodol.Approved
CE-326597CE-326597 may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Investigational
CetirizineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlormezanoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Chlormezanone.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorphenamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CinchocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clonidine.Approved
ClopenthixolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClothiapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clothiapine.Experimental
ClozapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Clozapine.Approved
CocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Codeine.Approved, Illicit
CyclizineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Cyclobenzaprine.Approved
CyproheptadineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Cyproheptadine.Approved
DantroleneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dantrolene.Approved
DapiprazoleSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DelorazepamDelorazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved, Illicit
DeramciclaneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Desflurane.Approved
DesipramineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dezocine.Approved
Diethyl etherSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Diethyl ether.Experimental
DifenoxinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DimenhydrinateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dixyrazine.Experimental
DoramectinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxefazepamDoxefazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Experimental
DoxepinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Doxepin.Approved
DoxylamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Doxylamine.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPESodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Dyclonine.Approved
EcgonineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EltanoloneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Eltanolone.Investigational
EnfluraneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EthanolEthanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved
EthchlorvynolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethchlorvynol.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethyl chloride.Experimental
Ethyl loflazepateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Etifoxine.Withdrawn
EtomidateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Etomidate.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fexofenadine.Approved
FlibanserinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flibanserin.Approved
FluanisoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fluanisone.Experimental
FlumazenilFlumazenil may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved
FlunarizineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fluphenazine.Approved
FluspirileneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fluspirilene.Approved
Fluticasone propionateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fluticasone propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit
GabapentinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gabapentin.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
GepironeSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Heroin.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hexobarbital.Approved
HydrocodoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydromorphone.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydroxyzine.Approved
IloperidoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Iloperidone.Approved
ImipramineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndiplonSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Indiplon.Investigational
IsofluraneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketobemidone.Approved
LamotrigineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved
LevocabastineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levorphanol.Approved
LidocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Lithium.Approved
LofentanilSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Lofentanil.Illicit
LoprazolamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Loratadine.Approved
LoxapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Loxapine.Approved
LurasidoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Magnesium Sulfate.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Maprotiline.Approved
MebicarSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mebicar.Experimental
MeclizineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Meclizine.Approved
MedetomidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Melperone.Approved
MepivacaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Meptazinol.Experimental
MesoridazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mesoridazine.Approved
MetaxaloneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methohexital.Approved
MethotrimeprazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methoxyflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methsuximide.Approved
MethylecgonineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methylecgonine.Experimental
MethylphenobarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetyrosineSodium oxybate may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MolindoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Molindone.Approved
MorphineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Morphine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nalbuphine.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NetazepideNetazepide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Investigational
Nitrous oxideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NorfluraneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Norflurane.Investigational
NormethadoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Nortriptyline.Approved
OlanzapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ondansetron.Approved
OpiumSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit
OsanetantSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Osanetant.Investigational
OxethazaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Oxethazaine.Investigational
OxprenololSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Oxybuprocaine.Approved
OxycodoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paliperidone.Approved
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Penfluridol.Experimental
PentazocineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pentazocine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved
PerazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Perazine.Investigational
PerospironeSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Perphenazine.Approved
PethidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pethidine.Approved
PF-477736PF-477736 may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Investigational
PhenazocineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenibutSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenibut.Experimental
PhenobarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoperidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenytoinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pimozide.Approved
PipamperoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipamperone.Approved
PipotiazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pipotiazine.Approved
PirenzepinePirenzepine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Approved
PiritramideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleSodium oxybate may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pramocaine.Approved
PregabalinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Prilocaine.Approved
PrimidoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Prochlorperazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Promethazine.Approved
PropanididSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propanidid.Experimental
ProparacaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Propoxycaine.Approved
ProtriptylineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Protriptyline.Approved
ProxibarbalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Proxibarbal.Experimental
PSD502Sodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Quetiapine.Approved
QuinisocaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Quinisocaine.Experimental
RacloprideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Raclopride.Investigational
RemifentanilSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Remifentanil.Approved
RemoxiprideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Reserpine.Approved
RisperidoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ritanserin.Investigational
RomifidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleSodium oxybate may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineSodium oxybate may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Sodium oxybate.Approved
ScopolamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SepranoloneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sepranolone.Investigational
SertindoleSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SJG-136SJG-136 may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.Investigational
StiripentolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sulpiride.Approved
SultoprideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sultopride.Experimental
TandospironeSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tapentadol.Approved
TetrabenazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThiamylalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thioridazine.Withdrawn
ThiothixeneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TiletamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tilidine.Experimental
TizanidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tizanidine.Approved
TolcaponeSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved
TramadolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
Tricaine methanesulfonateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Trichloroethylene.Experimental
TrifluoperazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Trifluoperazine.Approved
TrifluperidolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triprolidine.Approved
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Sodium oxybate can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Veralipride.Experimental
VigabatrinSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Vigabatrin.Approved
Vinyl etherSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Vinyl ether.Experimental
VortioxetineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Vortioxetine.Approved
XenonSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Xenon.Experimental
XylazineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZiconotideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZonisamideSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZotepineSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Lemon MD, Strain JD, Farver DK: Sodium oxybate for cataplexy. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Mar;40(3):433-40; quiz 581-2. Epub 2006 Feb 28. [PubMed:16507620]
  2. Brenneisen R, Elsohly MA, Murphy TP, Passarelli J, Russmann S, Salamone SJ, Watson DE: Pharmacokinetics and excretion of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in healthy subjects. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(8):625-30. [PubMed:15538955]
External Links
ChemSpider
9983
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200682
ATC Codes
N01AX11 — Sodium oxybateN07XX04 — Sodium oxybate
AHFS Codes
  • 28:92.00 — Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents
FDA label
Download (428 KB)
MSDS
Download (179 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedBasic ScienceNarcolepsy, Excessive Daytime Sleepiness1
1CompletedPreventionSedative Abuse1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAlternating Hemiplegia of Childhood1
2CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia1
2CompletedTreatmentInsomnia Related to Schizophrenia (307.42) / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentTremor, Essential1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentSleep-wake Disturbances in Motor-phase Parkinson's Disease1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAnxiety, Post Traumatic / PTSD1
2WithdrawnTreatmentMechanically Ventilated ICU Patients1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceSpasmodic Dysphonia / Vocal Fold Nodules / Voice Tremor1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNarcolepsy With Cataplexy1
3CompletedNot AvailableNarcolepsy1
3CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia4
3CompletedTreatmentNarcolepsy2
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCluster Headache1
3RecruitingTreatmentCataplexy / Excessive Daytime Sleepiness / Narcolepsy1
4CompletedNot AvailableMyalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceSleep1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4CompletedTreatmentNarcolepsy With Cataplexy1
4CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceNarcolepsy With Cataplexy1
4TerminatedTreatmentMild Alzheimer's Disease1
4TerminatedTreatmentMyalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMyalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAutistic Disorder / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAmyloid-beta1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSpasmodic Dysphonia / Voice Tremor1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableOlder Adults1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOral.5 g/mL
SolutionOral500 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US7765106No2004-06-162024-06-16Us
US6780889No2000-07-042020-07-04Us
US7668730No2004-06-162024-06-16Us
US7765107No2004-06-162024-06-16Us
US7851506No1999-12-222019-12-22Us
US7895059No2002-12-172022-12-17Us
US8263650No1999-12-222019-12-22Us
US8324275No1999-12-222019-12-22Us
US8457988No2002-12-172022-12-17Us
US8589182No2002-12-172022-12-17Us
US8731963No2002-12-172022-12-17Us
US8772306No2013-03-152033-03-15Us
US8952062No1999-12-222019-12-22Us
US9050302No2013-03-152033-03-15Us
US7262219No2000-07-042020-07-04Us
US8859619No1999-12-222019-12-22Us
US9539330No1999-12-222019-12-22Us
US9486426No2013-03-152033-03-15Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)145-146MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility660.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.34ALOGPS
logP-0.51ChemAxon
logS0.72ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity34.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are hydroxy acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Hydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Short-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Short-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Fatty acids and conjugates / Carboxylic acid salts / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Primary alcohols / Organic zwitterions / Organic sodium salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Short-chain hydroxy acid / Fatty acid / Carboxylic acid salt / Organic alkali metal salt / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic sodium salt / Organic oxide / Organic salt
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID
P51649
Uniprot Name
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Kim YG, Lee S, Kwon OS, Park SY, Lee SJ, Park BJ, Kim KJ: Redox-switch modulation of human SSADH by dynamic catalytic loop. EMBO J. 2009 Apr 8;28(7):959-68. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2009.40. Epub 2009 Mar 19. [PubMed:19300440]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Homo sapiens
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the cofactor-independent reversible oxidation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) to succinic semialdehyde (SSA) coupled to reduction of 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG)...
Gene Name
ADHFE1
Uniprot ID
Q8IWW8
Uniprot Name
Hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
50307.42 Da
References
  1. Struys EA, Verhoeven NM, Ten Brink HJ, Wickenhagen WV, Gibson KM, Jakobs C: Kinetic characterization of human hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase: relevance to D-2-hydroxyglutaric and gamma-hydroxybutyric acidurias. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):921-30. [PubMed:16435184]

Drug created on May 14, 2015 11:10 / Updated on October 21, 2017 09:34