Anesthetics, General

Name
Anesthetics, General
Accession Number
DBCAT000563
Description

Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)

ATC Classification
Drugs
DrugDrug Description
EnfluraneA halogenated inhalational anesthetic agent used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and for analgesia during labor and delivery.
EtomidateA short-acting intravenous anesthetic indicated for the induction of anesthesia and supplementation of subpotent anesthesia during short operative procedures.
SufentanilAn opioid used to induce and maintain anesthesia, to act as an analgesic in labor and delivery, and to treat severe, acute pain.
IsofluraneAn inhaled general anesthetic used in surgery.
AlfentanilAn opioid agonist used to induce and maintain anesthesia, as well as an analgesic.
PropofolA medication used in general anesthesia and for sedation.
RemifentanilAn opioid analgesic used in anesthesia.
HalothaneA general inhalation anesthetic used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
DesfluraneA general inhalation anesthetic for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.
KetamineA rapid-acting general anesthetic and NMDA receptor antagonist used for induction of anesthesia diagnostic and surgical procedures typically in combination with a muscle relaxant.
SevofluraneA inhalation anaesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia during surgical procedures.
Nitrous oxideAn inhalatory gas used as an adjunct to improve oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in certain neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure.
PropanididAn intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
TrichloroethyleneTrichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent, not to be confused with the similar 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as chlorothene. It has been sold under a variety of...
XenonNot Annotated
Diethyl etherNot Annotated
Sodium oxybateA central nervous system depressant used to treat cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy.
MethohexitalAn anesthetic used to induce deep sedation.
ThiopentalA barbiturate used to induce general anesthesia, treat convulsions, and reduce intracranial pressure.
FentanylAn opioid analgesic used in anesthesia, for breakthrough cancer pain, or round the clock pain management.
DiazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine with rapid onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures.
MethoxyfluraneFor use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
ThiamylalUsed for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidUsed as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance.
UrethaneUrethane, formerly marketed as an inactive ingredient in Profenil injection, was determined to be carcinogenic and was removed from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1963.
TiletamineThis drug is a dissociative anesthetic agent that falls under the drug category of NMDA receptor antagonists. Tiletamine is chemically similar to another dissociative anesthetic, ketamine. Tiletamine hydrochloride, the salt...
AnileridineAn opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain.
AlfaxaloneAlfaxalone, also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone, is a neuroactive steroid and general anaesthetic. It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan, and is licensed for use...
ChloroformChloroform is an organic small molecule, member of the family of the chloromethanes that presents a formula of CHCl3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on...
EnibomalNot Annotated
PhenoperidineNot Annotated
Vinyl etherNot Annotated
TetracaineA local anaesthetic agent used to induce local analgesia in the eyes and skin during medical procedures.
HexobarbitalFor the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful...
FospropofolA sedative-­hypnotic agent indicated for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) sedation in adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.
DexmedetomidineAn alpha-2 agonist used for sedation during various procedures.
ClonidineAn alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat hypertension and severe cancer pain, among other conditions, and to treat withdrawal symptoms from various substances. It is also used to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and to prevent migraines.
EsketamineA NMDA receptor antagonist used for treatment-resistant depression.
Drugs & Drug Targets
DrugTargetType
EnfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
EnfluraneGlutamate (NMDA) receptortarget
EnfluraneVoltage-gated Potassium Channelstarget
EnfluraneSarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1target
EnfluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
EnfluraneSerum albumincarrier
EnfluraneGABA(A) Receptortarget
EnfluraneVoltage-dependent calcium channeltarget
EnfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
EtomidateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
EtomidateAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
EtomidateSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1carrier
EtomidateCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
EtomidateCytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrialenzyme
EtomidateGABA(A) Receptortarget
SufentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
SufentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
SufentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
SufentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
IsofluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
IsofluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
IsofluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
IsofluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
IsofluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
IsofluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
IsofluraneCalmodulintarget
IsofluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
IsofluraneSerum albumincarrier
IsofluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
IsofluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1enzyme
IsofluraneGABA(A) Receptortarget
IsofluraneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
IsofluraneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2target
AlfentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
AlfentanilAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
AlfentanilSerum albumincarrier
AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
AlfentanilP-glycoprotein 1transporter
PropofolCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
PropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
PropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
PropofolSerum albumincarrier
PropofolSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
PropofolSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
PropofolFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
PropofolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
PropofolGABA(A) Receptortarget
PropofolP-glycoprotein 1transporter
RemifentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
RemifentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
RemifentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
HalothaneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
HalothaneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
HalothaneCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1target
HalothaneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
HalothaneIntermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4target
HalothaneRhodopsintarget
HalothaneG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2target
HalothaneG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1target
HalothaneGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2target
HalothaneNeuropeptide S receptortarget
HalothaneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
HalothaneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
HalothaneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Btarget
HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
HalothanePotassium channel subfamily K member 3target
HalothanePotassium channel subfamily K member 9target
HalothaneSerum albumincarrier
HalothaneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
HalothaneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
HalothaneGABA(A) Receptortarget
HalothanePlasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPasetarget
DesfluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DesfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DesfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DesfluraneGABA(A) Receptortarget
DesfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DesfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DesfluraneSerum albumincarrier
DesfluraneCalcium transporting ATPasestarget
KetamineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
KetamineNeurokinin 1 receptortarget
KetamineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
KetamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
KetamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
KetamineDopamine D2 receptortarget
KetamineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
KetamineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
KetamineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
KetamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
KetamineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
KetamineMu-type opioid receptortarget
KetamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2target
Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1target
Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
KetamineAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunittarget
KetamineCholinesterasetarget
KetamineNitric oxide synthase, braintarget
SevofluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
SevofluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
SevofluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
SevofluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
SevofluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
SevofluraneSerum albumincarrier
SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
SevofluraneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
SevofluraneGABA(A) Receptortarget
SevofluraneMitochondrial potassium channeltarget
Sodium oxybateSuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
Sodium oxybateHydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
MethohexitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
MethohexitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ThiopentalFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
ThiopentalGlutamate receptor 2target
ThiopentalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
ThiopentalCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
ThiopentalMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
ThiopentalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
FentanylMu-type opioid receptortarget
FentanylDelta-type opioid receptortarget
FentanylCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
FentanylCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
FentanylP-glycoprotein 1transporter
FentanylKappa-type opioid receptortarget
FentanylP-glycoprotein 1target
FentanylSerum albumincarrier
Fentanylalpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DiazepamSerum albumincarrier
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DiazepamP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DiazepamProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DiazepamGABA(A) Receptortarget
DiazepamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
MethoxyfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
MethoxyfluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
MethoxyfluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
MethoxyfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
MethoxyfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
MethoxyfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
MethoxyfluraneGABA(A) Receptortarget
ThiamylalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 8target
ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11target
ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
ThiamylalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 2transporter
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 4transporter
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidGamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptortarget
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
UrethaneCytosolic phospholipase A2enzyme
UrethaneMyeloperoxidaseenzyme
UrethaneAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
AnileridineMu-type opioid receptortarget
TetracaineRyanodine receptor 1target
TetracaineRyanodine receptor 2target
TetracaineVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
HexobarbitalProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
FospropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
FospropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
FospropofolAlkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozymeenzyme
FospropofolSerum albumincarrier
DexmedetomidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
ClonidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
ClonidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
ClonidineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
ClonidineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
ClonidineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
ClonidineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
ClonidineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
ClonidineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
ClonidineSerum albumincarrier
EsketamineNMDA receptortarget
EsketamineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
EsketamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
EsketamineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
EsketamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
EsketamineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
EsketamineElongation factor 2target
EsketamineBrain-derived neurotrophic factortarget
EsketamineBDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptortarget