Anesthetics, General

Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00228EnfluraneA halogenated inhalational anesthetic agent used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and for analgesia during labor and delivery.
DB00292EtomidateA short-acting intravenous anesthetic indicated for the induction of anesthesia and supplementation of subpotent anesthesia during short operative procedures.
DB00708SufentanilAn opioid used to induce and maintain anesthesia, to act as an analgesic in labor and delivery, and to treat severe, acute pain.
DB00753IsofluraneAn inhaled general anesthetic used in surgery.
DB00802AlfentanilAn opioid agonist used to induce and maintain anesthesia, as well as an analgesic.
DB00818PropofolA medication used in general anesthesia and for sedation.
DB00899RemifentanilAn opioid analgesic used in anesthesia.
DB01159HalothaneA general inhalation anesthetic used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
DB01189DesfluraneA general inhalation anesthetic for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.
DB01221KetamineA rapid-acting general anesthetic and NMDA receptor antagonist used for induction of anesthesia diagnostic and surgical procedures typically in combination with a muscle relaxant.
DB01236SevofluraneA inhalation anaesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia during surgical procedures.
DB06690Nitrous oxideAn inhalatory gas used as an adjunct to improve oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in certain neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure.
DB13234PropanididAn intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
DB13323TrichloroethyleneTrichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent, not to be confused with the similar 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as chlorothene. It has been sold under a variety of...
DB13453XenonNot Annotated
DB13598Diethyl etherNot Annotated
DB09072Sodium oxybateA central nervous system depressant used to treat cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy.
DB00474MethohexitalAn anesthetic used to induce deep sedation.
DB00599ThiopentalA barbiturate used to induce general anesthesia, treat convulsions, and reduce intracranial pressure.
DB00813FentanylAn opioid analgesic used in anesthesia, for breakthrough cancer pain, or round the clock pain management.
DB00829DiazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine with rapid onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures.
DB01028MethoxyfluraneFor use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
DB01154ThiamylalUsed for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidUsed as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance.
DB04827UrethaneUrethane, formerly marketed as an inactive ingredient in Profenil injection, was determined to be carcinogenic and was removed from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1963.
DB11549TiletamineThis drug is a dissociative anesthetic agent that falls under the drug category of NMDA receptor antagonists. Tiletamine is chemically similar to another dissociative anesthetic, ketamine. Tiletamine hydrochloride, the salt...
DB00913AnileridineAn opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain.
DB11371AlfaxaloneAlfaxalone, also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone, is a neuroactive steroid and general anaesthetic. It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan, and is licensed for use...
DB11387ChloroformChloroform is an organic small molecule, member of the family of the chloromethanes that presents a formula of CHCl3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on...
DB13229EnibomalNot Annotated
DB13605PhenoperidineNot Annotated
DB13690Vinyl etherNot Annotated
DB09085TetracaineA local anaesthetic agent used to induce local analgesia in the eyes and skin during medical procedures.
DB01355HexobarbitalFor the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful...
DB06716FospropofolA sedative-­hypnotic agent indicated for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) sedation in adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.
DB00633DexmedetomidineAn alpha-2 agonist used for sedation during various procedures.
DB00575ClonidineAn alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat hypertension and severe cancer pain, among other conditions, and to treat withdrawal symptoms from various substances. It is also used to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and to prevent migraines.
DB11823EsketamineA NMDA receptor antagonist used for treatment-resistant depression.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00228EnfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB00228EnfluraneGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)target
DB00228EnfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB00228EnfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB00228EnfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB00228EnfluraneIntermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4target
DB00228EnfluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00228EnfluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB00228EnfluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00292EtomidateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00292EtomidateAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00292EtomidateSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1carrier
DB00292EtomidateCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00292EtomidateCytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00292EtomidateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00708SufentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB00753IsofluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB00753IsofluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00753IsofluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB00753IsofluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB00753IsofluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00753IsofluraneCalmodulintarget
DB00753IsofluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB00753IsofluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00753IsofluraneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00753IsofluraneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00802AlfentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00802AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00802AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00802AlfentanilAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00802AlfentanilSerum albumincarrier
DB00802AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00802AlfentanilP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00818PropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00818PropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00818PropofolSerum albumincarrier
DB00818PropofolSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
DB00818PropofolSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
DB00818PropofolFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00818PropofolGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00899RemifentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00899RemifentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00899RemifentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB01159HalothaneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01159HalothaneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01159HalothaneCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1target
DB01159HalothaneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01159HalothaneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01159HalothaneIntermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4target
DB01159HalothaneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01159HalothaneRhodopsintarget
DB01159HalothaneG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2target
DB01159HalothaneG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1target
DB01159HalothaneGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2target
DB01159HalothaneNeuropeptide S receptortarget
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01159HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB01159HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Btarget
DB01159HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
DB01159HalothanePotassium channel subfamily K member 3target
DB01159HalothanePotassium channel subfamily K member 9target
DB01159HalothaneSerum albumincarrier
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01159HalothaneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01189DesfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01189DesfluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01189DesfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01189DesfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01189DesfluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01189DesfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB01189DesfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01189DesfluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB01221KetamineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB01221KetamineNeurokinin 1 receptortarget
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01221KetamineDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB01221KetamineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01221KetamineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01221KetamineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2target
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1target
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB01221KetamineAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunittarget
DB01221KetamineCholinesterasetarget
DB01221KetamineNitric oxide synthase, braintarget
DB01236SevofluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01236SevofluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01236SevofluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01236SevofluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01236SevofluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01236SevofluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB01236SevofluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB09072Sodium oxybateSuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB09072Sodium oxybateHydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00474MethohexitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00474MethohexitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00599ThiopentalFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00599ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00599ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00599ThiopentalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00599ThiopentalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00599ThiopentalCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
DB00599ThiopentalMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00599ThiopentalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00813FentanylMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00813FentanylP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00813FentanylKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylP-glycoprotein 1target
DB00813FentanylSerum albumincarrier
DB00813Fentanylalpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
DB00829DiazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00829DiazepamSerum albumincarrier
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00829DiazepamP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00829DiazepamProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01028MethoxyfluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01028MethoxyfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01154ThiamylalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01154ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 8target
DB01154ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11target
DB01154ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01154ThiamylalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01154ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 2transporter
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 4transporter
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidGamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptortarget
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB04827UrethaneCytosolic phospholipase A2enzyme
DB04827UrethaneMyeloperoxidaseenzyme
DB04827UrethaneAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00913AnileridineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB09085TetracaineRyanodine receptor 1target
DB09085TetracaineRyanodine receptor 2target
DB09085TetracaineVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01355HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01355HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01355HexobarbitalProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB01355HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01355HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB01355HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB01355HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB06716FospropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB06716FospropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB06716FospropofolAlkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozymeenzyme
DB06716FospropofolSerum albumincarrier
DB00633DexmedetomidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00575ClonidineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineSerum albumincarrier
DB11823EsketamineNMDA receptortarget
DB11823EsketamineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB11823EsketamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB11823EsketamineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB11823EsketamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB11823EsketamineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB11823EsketamineElongation factor 2target
DB11823EsketamineBrain-derived neurotrophic factortarget
DB11823EsketamineBDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptortarget