Anesthetics, General

Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00228EnfluraneUsed for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia during surgery and cesarean section and also used for analgesia during vaginal delivery.
DB00292EtomidateUsed in the induction of general anesthesia.
DB00708SufentanilThe indications for this drug are as follows: 1. As an analgesic adjunct in the maintenance of balanced general anesthesia in patients who are intubated and ventilated. 2. As a primary anesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with 100% oxygen in patients undergoing major surgical procedures, in patients who are intubated and ventilated, such as cardiovascular surgery or neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position, to provide favorable myocardial and cerebral oxygen balance or when extended postoperative ventilation is anticipated. 3. For epidural administration as an analgesic combined with low dose (usually 12.5 mg per administration) bupivacaine usually during labor and vaginal delivery 4. The sublingual form is indicated for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments. [FDA label]
DB00753IsofluraneFor induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
DB00802AlfentanilFor the management of postoperative pain and the maintenance of general anesthesia.
DB00818PropofolUsed for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia and for management of refractory status epilepticus.
DB00899RemifentanilFor use during the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
DB01159HalothaneFor the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
DB01189DesfluraneFor use as an inhalation agent for induction and/or maintenance of anesthesia for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.
DB01221KetamineKetamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.[L1336, FDA label] Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.[A31873] These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.[L1337, A31874]
DB01236SevofluraneUsed for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adult and pediatric patients for inpatient and outpatient surgery.
DB06690Nitrous oxideNot Available
DB13234PropanididNot Available
DB13323TrichloroethyleneNot Available
DB09072Sodium oxybateFor the treatment of cataplexy in narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in narcolepsy.
DB00474MethohexitalMethohexital is indicated for use as an intravenous anaesthetic. It has also been commonly used to induce deep sedation.
DB00599ThiopentalFor use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders.
DB00813FentanylFor the treatment of cancer patients with severe pain that breaks through their regular narcotic therapy.
DB00829DiazepamUsed in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
DB01028MethoxyfluraneFor use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
DB01154ThiamylalUsed for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidUsed as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance.
DB04827UrethaneNot Available
DB00913AnileridineFor treatment and management of pain (systemic) and for use as an anesthesia adjunct.
DB11371AlfaxaloneNot Available
DB11823EsketamineNot Available
DB13229EnibomalNot Available
DB09085TetracaineThe combination lidocaine and tetracaine patch is indicated for local dermal analgesia for superficial dermatological procedures and superficial venous access. The combination lidocaine and tetracaine cream is intended to provide topical local analgesia for superficial dermatological procedures.
DB01355HexobarbitalFor the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.
DB06716FospropofolFor monitored anaesthesia care sedation in patients undergoing diagnostic procedures like bronchoscopy and colonscopy or minor surgical procedures like arthroscopy and bunionectomy.
DB00633DexmedetomidineFor sedation of initially intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting, also used in pain relief; anxiety reduction and analgesia
DB00575ClonidineMay be used as an adjunct in the treatment of hypertension, as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone, for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients, prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00228EnfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB00228EnfluraneGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)target
DB00228EnfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB00228EnfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB00228EnfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB00228EnfluraneIntermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4target
DB00228EnfluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00228EnfluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB00228EnfluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00292EtomidateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00292EtomidateAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00292EtomidateSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1carrier
DB00292EtomidateCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00292EtomidateCytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00292EtomidateCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB00292EtomidateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00708SufentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB00753IsofluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB00753IsofluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00753IsofluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB00753IsofluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB00753IsofluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00753IsofluraneCalmodulintarget
DB00753IsofluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB00753IsofluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1enzyme
DB00753IsofluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00753IsofluraneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00753IsofluraneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00802AlfentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00802AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00802AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00802AlfentanilAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00802AlfentanilSerum albumincarrier
DB00802AlfentanilCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00802AlfentanilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00818PropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00818PropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00818PropofolSerum albumincarrier
DB00818PropofolSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
DB00818PropofolSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
DB00818PropofolFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00818PropofolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00818PropofolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00818PropofolGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00899RemifentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00899RemifentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00899RemifentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB01159HalothaneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01159HalothaneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01159HalothaneCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1target
DB01159HalothaneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01159HalothaneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01159HalothaneIntermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4target
DB01159HalothaneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01159HalothaneRhodopsintarget
DB01159HalothaneG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2target
DB01159HalothaneG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1target
DB01159HalothaneGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2target
DB01159HalothaneNeuropeptide S receptortarget
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01159HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB01159HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Btarget
DB01159HalothaneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
DB01159HalothanePotassium channel subfamily K member 3target
DB01159HalothanePotassium channel subfamily K member 9target
DB01159HalothaneSerum albumincarrier
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01159HalothaneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01159HalothaneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01189DesfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01189DesfluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01189DesfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01189DesfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01189DesfluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01189DesfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB01189DesfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01189DesfluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB01221KetamineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB01221KetamineSubstance-P receptortarget
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01221KetamineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01221KetamineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01221KetamineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01221KetamineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2target
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1target
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB01221KetamineAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunittarget
DB01221KetamineCholinesterasetarget
DB01221KetamineNitric oxide synthase, braintarget
DB01236SevofluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01236SevofluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01236SevofluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01236SevofluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01236SevofluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01236SevofluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB01236SevofluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneSerum albumincarrier
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01236SevofluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB09072Sodium oxybateSuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB09072Sodium oxybateHydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00474MethohexitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00474MethohexitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00599ThiopentalFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00599ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00599ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00599ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00599ThiopentalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00599ThiopentalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00599ThiopentalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00599ThiopentalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00599ThiopentalMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00599ThiopentalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00813FentanylMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00813FentanylMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00813FentanylKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylMultidrug resistance protein 1target
DB00829DiazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00829DiazepamSerum albumincarrier
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00829DiazepamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00829DiazepamProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01028MethoxyfluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01028MethoxyfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01154ThiamylalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01154ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 8target
DB01154ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11target
DB01154ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01154ThiamylalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01154ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 2transporter
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 4transporter
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidGamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptortarget
DB01440gamma-Hydroxybutyric acidGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB04827UrethaneCytosolic phospholipase A2enzyme
DB04827UrethaneMyeloperoxidaseenzyme
DB04827UrethaneAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00913AnileridineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB09085TetracaineRyanodine receptor 1target
DB09085TetracaineRyanodine receptor 2target
DB09085TetracaineVoltage gated sodium channeltarget
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01355HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01355HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01355HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01355HexobarbitalProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01355HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB01355HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01355HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB01355HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB01355HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB01355HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06716FospropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB06716FospropofolGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB06716FospropofolAlkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozymeenzyme
DB06716FospropofolSerum albumincarrier
DB00633DexmedetomidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00633DexmedetomidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00575ClonidineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget