|DB00228||Enflurane||Used for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia during surgery and cesarean section and also used for analgesia during vaginal delivery.|
|DB00292||Etomidate||Used in the induction of general anesthesia.|
|DB00708||Sufentanil||The indications for this drug are as follows:
1. As an analgesic adjunct in the maintenance of balanced general anesthesia in patients who are intubated and ventilated.
2. As a primary anesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with 100% oxygen in patients undergoing major surgical procedures, in patients who are intubated and ventilated, such as cardiovascular surgery or neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position, to provide favorable myocardial and cerebral oxygen balance or when extended postoperative ventilation is anticipated.
3. For epidural administration as an analgesic combined with low dose (usually 12.5 mg per administration) bupivacaine usually during labor and vaginal delivery
4. The sublingual form is indicated for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments.
|DB00753||Isoflurane||For induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00802||Alfentanil||For the management of postoperative pain and the maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00818||Propofol||Used for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia and for management of refractory status epilepticus. |
|DB00899||Remifentanil||For use during the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB01159||Halothane||For the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia|
|DB01189||Desflurane||For use as an inhalation agent for induction and/or maintenance of anesthesia for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.|
|DB01221||Ketamine||Ketamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.[L1336, FDA label]
Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.[A31873] These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.[L1337, A31874]|
|DB01236||Sevoflurane||Used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adult and pediatric patients for inpatient and outpatient surgery.|
|DB06690||Nitrous oxide||Not Available|
|DB09072||Sodium oxybate||For the treatment of cataplexy in narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in narcolepsy.|
|DB00474||Methohexital||Methohexital is indicated for use as an intravenous anaesthetic. It has also been commonly used to induce deep sedation.|
|DB00599||Thiopental||For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders.|
|DB00813||Fentanyl||For the treatment of cancer patients with severe pain that breaks through their regular narcotic therapy.|
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB01028||Methoxyflurane||For use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia|
|DB01154||Thiamylal||Used for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.|
|DB01440||gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid||Used as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance. |
|DB00913||Anileridine||For treatment and management of pain (systemic) and for use as an anesthesia adjunct.|
|DB09085||Tetracaine||The combination lidocaine and tetracaine patch is indicated for local dermal analgesia for superficial dermatological procedures and superficial venous access. The combination lidocaine and tetracaine cream is intended to provide topical local analgesia for superficial dermatological procedures.
|DB01355||Hexobarbital||For the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.|
|DB06716||Fospropofol||For monitored anaesthesia care sedation in patients undergoing diagnostic procedures like bronchoscopy and colonscopy or minor surgical procedures like arthroscopy and bunionectomy. |
|DB00633||Dexmedetomidine||For sedation of initially intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting, also used in pain relief; anxiety reduction and analgesia|
|DB00575||Clonidine||May be used as an adjunct in the treatment of hypertension, as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone, for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients, prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).|
|DB11823||Esketamine||This drug is indicated in conjunction with an oral antidepressant for the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in adults [FDA label].
Note: Esketamine is not approved as an anesthetic agent. The safety and effectiveness of esketamine as an anesthetic agent have not been established to this date [FDA label]. |