Identification

Name
Midomafetamine
Accession Number
DB01454
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental, Illicit, Investigational
Description

An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • Ecstasy
  • MDMA
  • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Midomafetamine hydrochlorideKNB4E1K0AVNot AvailableLUWHVONVCYWRMZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Categories
UNII
KE1SEN21RM
CAS number
42542-10-9
Weight
Average: 193.2423
Monoisotopic: 193.110278729
Chemical Formula
C11H15NO2
InChI Key
SHXWCVYOXRDMCX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H15NO2/c1-8(12-2)5-9-3-4-10-11(6-9)14-7-13-10/h3-4,6,8,12H,5,7H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
[1-(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)propan-2-yl](methyl)amine
SMILES
CNC(C)CC1=CC2=C(OCO2)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety associated with terminal cancer. MDMA is one of the four most widely used illicit drugs in the U.S.

Pharmacodynamics

MDMA acts as a releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Mechanism of action

It enters neurons via carriage by the monoamine transporters. Once inside, MDMA inhibits the vesicular monoamine transporter, which results in increased concentrations of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine into the cytoplasm, and induces their release by reversing their respective transporters through a process known as phosphorylation. It also acts as a weak 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonist. MDMA's unusual entactogenic effects have been hypothesized to be, at least partly, the result of indirect oxytocin secretion via activation of the serotonin system. Oxytocin is a hormone released following events like hugging, orgasm, and childbirth, and is thought to facilitate bonding and the establishment of trust. Based on studies in rats, MDMA is believed to cause the release of oxytocin, at least in part, by both directly and indirectly agonizing the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
negative modulator
Human
ASynaptic vesicular amine transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent dopamine transporter
negative modulator
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
agonist
Human
ASodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
negative modulator
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic: CYP450 extensively involved, especially CYP2D6

MDMA is known to be metabolized by two main metabolic pathways: (1) O-demethylenation followed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-catalyzed methylation and/or glucuronide/sulfate conjugation; and (2) N-dealkylation, deamination, and oxidation to the corresponding benzoic acid derivatives conjugated with glycine. The metabolism may be primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes (CYP2D6 (in humans, but CYP2D1 in mice), and CYP3A4) and COMT. Complex, nonlinear pharmacokinetics arise via autoinhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP2D8, resulting in zeroth order kinetics at higher doses. It is thought that this can result in sustained and higher concentrations of MDMA if the user takes consecutive doses of the drug.

Route of elimination

renal

Half life

6–10 (though duration of effects is typically actually 3–5 hours)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypertensive activities of Midomafetamine.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Midomafetamine.
AcepromazineAcepromazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of Midomafetamine.
AceprometazineAceprometazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of Midomafetamine.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Midomafetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetophenazineAcetophenazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of Midomafetamine.
AcrivastineMidomafetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Acrivastine.
AlcaftadineMidomafetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine.
AlfentanilMidomafetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Alfentanil.
AlimemazineMidomafetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Alimemazine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Freudenmann RW, Oxler F, Bernschneider-Reif S: The origin of MDMA (ecstasy) revisited: the true story reconstructed from the original documents. Addiction. 2006 Sep;101(9):1241-5. [PubMed:16911722]
  2. Jayanthi LD, Ramamoorthy S: Regulation of monoamine transporters: influence of psychostimulants and therapeutic antidepressants. AAPS J. 2005 Oct 27;7(3):E728-38. [PubMed:16353949]
  3. Verrico CD, Miller GM, Madras BK: MDMA (Ecstasy) and human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters: implications for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Jan;189(4):489-503. Epub 2005 Oct 12. [PubMed:16220332]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C07577
PubChem Compound
1615
PubChem Substance
46506404
ChemSpider
1556
BindingDB
50010588
ChEBI
1391
ChEMBL
CHEMBL43048
PharmGKB
PA131887008
Wikipedia
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Moods Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
0CompletedBasic ScienceSocial Cognition1
0Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableAmphetamine-Related Disorders1
1CompletedNot AvailableDrug Interactions / Metabolism1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAmphetamine-Related Disorders / Moods Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders5
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Substance-Related Disorders1
1CompletedOtherSubstance-Related Disorders1
1Enrolling by InvitationBasic SciencePsychological Effects of Study Drug1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHepatic Impairment / Pharmacokinetics1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceFear Extinction / Startle Response1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2CompletedPreventionPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentFeeling Anxious1
2CompletedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders5
2CompletedTreatmentSocial Anxiety in Autistic Adults1
2RecruitingTreatmentPTSD1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAmphetamine-Related Disorders / Moods Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMDMA Discontinuation Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMDMA Mechanism of Action1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.22 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.65ALOGPS
logP1.86ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area30.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity54.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9639
Caco-2 permeable+0.6781
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6447
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8631
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8926
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7568
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8507
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5776
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5325
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7626
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8324
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7708
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6331
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6106
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5857
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6597
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9001
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5643
Rat acute toxicity2.7501 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9585
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9417
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0bti-0900000000-1a28636828a7b4fba7a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-9f6740a4cf53bb143e38
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-ae25129bb130708d0a99
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-d6f476419cc850f4c75b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a5i-0900000000-856b4946fd17f215f5d6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4r-1900000000-a75796025d8746c75458
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a6r-4900000000-9902e8afbb6b491db024
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-9500000000-45882ee03a98bc7eca6f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fba-9200000000-e98cccad079b0b085d33
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-9100000000-2c72b7f5adc413801f6d

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzodioxoles. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to either isomers of dioxole. Dioxole is a five-membered unsaturated ring of two oxygen atoms and three carbon atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzodioxoles
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Benzodioxoles
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / Benzenoids / Oxacyclic compounds / Dialkylamines / Acetals / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Benzodioxole / Aralkylamine / Benzenoid / Oxacycle / Secondary amine / Secondary aliphatic amine / Acetal / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
benzodioxoles, amphetamines (CHEBI:1391)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Shankaran M, Yamamoto BK, Gudelsky GA: Involvement of the serotonin transporter in the formation of hydroxyl radicals induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Dec 3;385(2-3):103-10. [PubMed:10607865]
  2. Whitworth TL, Herndon LC, Quick MW: Psychostimulants differentially regulate serotonin transporter expression in thalamocortical neurons. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 1;22(1):RC192. [PubMed:11756522]
  3. Szabo Z, McCann UD, Wilson AA, Scheffel U, Owonikoko T, Mathews WB, Ravert HT, Hilton J, Dannals RF, Ricaurte GA: Comparison of (+)-(11)C-McN5652 and (11)C-DASB as serotonin transporter radioligands under various experimental conditions. J Nucl Med. 2002 May;43(5):678-92. [PubMed:11994534]
  4. Boot BP, Mechan AO, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA: MDMA- and p-chlorophenylalanine-induced reduction in 5-HT concentrations: effects on serotonin transporter densities. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct 25;453(2-3):239-44. [PubMed:12398910]
  5. Saldana SN, Barker EL: Temperature and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine alter human serotonin transporter-mediated dopamine uptake. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jan 16;354(3):209-12. [PubMed:14700733]
  6. Bogen IL, Haug KH, Myhre O, Fonnum F: Short- and long-term effects of MDMA ("ecstasy") on synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of neurotransmitters in vitro and ex vivo. Neurochem Int. 2003 Sep-Oct;43(4-5):393-400. [PubMed:12742084]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles...
Gene Name
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID
Q05940
Uniprot Name
Synaptic vesicular amine transporter
Molecular Weight
55712.075 Da
References
  1. Biezonski DK, Meyer JS: Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on serotonin transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 protein and gene expression in rats: implications for MDMA neurotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2010 Feb;112(4):951-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06515.x. Epub 2009 Nov 30. [PubMed:20002520]
  2. Hansen JP, Riddle EL, Sandoval V, Brown JM, Gibb JW, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine decreases plasmalemmal and vesicular dopamine transport: mechanisms and implications for neurotoxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):1093-100. [PubMed:11861820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Hansen JP, Riddle EL, Sandoval V, Brown JM, Gibb JW, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine decreases plasmalemmal and vesicular dopamine transport: mechanisms and implications for neurotoxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):1093-100. [PubMed:11861820]
  2. Fitzgerald JL, Reid JJ: Effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the release of monoamines from rat brain slices. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990 Nov 27;191(2):217-20. [PubMed:1982265]
  3. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Lyon RA, Glennon RA, Titeler M: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): stereoselective interactions at brain 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1986;88(4):525-6. [PubMed:2871581]
  2. Nash JF, Roth BL, Brodkin JD, Nichols DE, Gudelsky GA: Effect of the R(-) and S(+) isomers of MDA and MDMA on phosphatidyl inositol turnover in cultured cells expressing 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors. Neurosci Lett. 1994 Aug 15;177(1-2):111-5. [PubMed:7824160]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation...
Gene Name
HTR2B
Uniprot ID
P41595
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
Molecular Weight
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Lyon RA, Glennon RA, Titeler M: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): stereoselective interactions at brain 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1986;88(4):525-6. [PubMed:2871581]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-...
Gene Name
HTR2C
Uniprot ID
P28335
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
Molecular Weight
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Nash JF, Roth BL, Brodkin JD, Nichols DE, Gudelsky GA: Effect of the R(-) and S(+) isomers of MDA and MDMA on phosphatidyl inositol turnover in cultured cells expressing 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors. Neurosci Lett. 1994 Aug 15;177(1-2):111-5. [PubMed:7824160]
  2. Lyon RA, Glennon RA, Titeler M: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): stereoselective interactions at brain 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1986;88(4):525-6. [PubMed:2871581]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [PubMed:15955613]
  2. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
  3. Haughey HM, Brown JM, Wilkins DG, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Differential effects of methamphetamine on Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters. Brain Res. 2000 Apr 28;863(1-2):59-65. [PubMed:10773193]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Verrico CD, Miller GM, Madras BK: MDMA (Ecstasy) and human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters: implications for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Jan;189(4):489-503. Epub 2005 Oct 12. [PubMed:16220332]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Verrico CD, Miller GM, Madras BK: MDMA (Ecstasy) and human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters: implications for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Jan;189(4):489-503. Epub 2005 Oct 12. [PubMed:16220332]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Verrico CD, Miller GM, Madras BK: MDMA (Ecstasy) and human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters: implications for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Jan;189(4):489-503. Epub 2005 Oct 12. [PubMed:16220332]

Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:09 / Updated on August 02, 2018 04:36