Identification

Name
Methyltestosterone
Accession Number
DB06710
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A synthetic anabolic steroid used for treating men with testosterone deficiency or similar androgen replacement therapies. Also, has antineoplastic properties and so has been used secondarily in women with advanced breast cancer. Methyltestosterone is a schedule III drug in the US.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 17-beta-Hydroxy-17-methylandrost-4-en-3-one
  • 17-methyltestosterone
  • 17alpha-Methyl-3-oxo-4-androsten-17beta-ol
  • 17alpha-Methyltestosterone
  • 17beta-Hydroxy-17-methylandrost-4-en-3-one
  • 17α-methyl-Δ4-androsten-17β-ol-3-one
  • 17α-methyltestosterone
  • 4-Androstene-17alpha-methyl-17beta-ol-3-one
  • Methyltestosteronum
  • Metiltestosterona
External IDs
L 589.372 / NSC-139965 / RU 24400
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Metandren 10mgTablet10 mgOralNovartis1993-12-312001-04-05Canada
Metandren 25mgTablet25 mgOralNovartis1992-12-312001-04-05Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AndroidCapsule10 mg/1OralValeant Pharmaceuticals North America1973-12-032018-04-30Us
MethitestTablet10 mg/1OralImpax Generics1974-10-17Not applicableUs
MethylTESTOSTERoneCapsule10 mg/1OralImpax Generics2015-09-21Not applicableUs
Testred C-IIICapsule10 mg/1OralValeant Pharmaceuticals North America1973-12-032018-04-30Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CovaryxMethyltestosterone (2.5 mg/1) + Estrogens, esterified (1.25 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralCentrix Pharmaceutical2007-04-01Not applicableUs11528 0010 01 nlmimage10 5905aced
Covaryx HsMethyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1) + Estrogens, esterified (0.625 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralCentrix Pharmaceutical2007-04-01Not applicableUs
EemtMethyltestosterone (2.5 mg/1) + Estrogens, esterified (1.25 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralCreekwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-01Not applicableUs
Eemt D.S.Methyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1) + Estrone sodium sulfate (0.625 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2003-11-012012-01-31Us
Eemt H.S.Methyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1) + Estrone sodium sulfate (0.625 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2003-11-012012-01-31Us
Eemt H.S.Methyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1) + Estrogens, esterified (0.625 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-06-272013-01-15Us
Eemt HsMethyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1) + Estrogens, esterified (0.625 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralCreekwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-01Not applicableUs
EssianMethyltestosterone (2.5 mg/1) + Estrogens, esterified (1.25 mg/1)TabletOralPrasco, Laboratories2005-09-012010-01-31Us
Essian H.S.Methyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1) + Estrogens, esterified (0.625 mg/1)TabletOralPrasco, Laboratories2005-09-012010-01-31Us
Esterified Estrogens and MethyltestosteroneMethyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1) + Estrone sodium sulfate (0.625 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralTal Pharma Llc2010-09-17Not applicableUs50220 0001 01 nlmimage10 6005b07d
International/Other Brands
Android / Testred / Virilon
Categories
UNII
V9EFU16ZIF
CAS number
58-18-4
Weight
Average: 302.451
Monoisotopic: 302.224580204
Chemical Formula
C20H30O2
InChI Key
GCKMFJBGXUYNAG-HLXURNFRSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H30O2/c1-18-9-6-14(21)12-13(18)4-5-15-16(18)7-10-19(2)17(15)8-11-20(19,3)22/h12,15-17,22H,4-11H2,1-3H3/t15-,16+,17+,18+,19+,20+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2R,10R,11S,14S,15S)-14-hydroxy-2,14,15-trimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-en-5-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@](C)(O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C

Pharmacology

Indication

Methyltestosterone is an anabolic steroid hormone used to treat men with a testosterone deficiency. It is also used in women to treat breast cancer, breast pain, swelling due to pregnancy, and with the addition of estrogen it can treat symptoms of menopause.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is primarily secreted from the testes of males. In females, it is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands and by conversion of adrostenedione in the periphery. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. Examples include enhanced libido, energy, immune function, and protection against osteoporosis. On average, the adult male body produces about twenty times the amount of testosterone than an adult female's body does.

Mechanism of action

The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5α-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 2.5 times that of T. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAndrogen receptor
agonist
Human
UEstrogen receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

The methyl group aids to increase oral bioavailability.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

40% of testosterone in plasma is bound to sex hormone-binding globulin and 2% remains unbound and the rest is bound to albumin and other proteins.

Metabolism

Hepatic. Testosterone is metabolized to 17-keto steroids through two different pathways. The major active metabolites are estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Route of elimination

90% urine / 10% feces

Half life

6-8 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Side effects include amnesia, anxiety, discolored hair, dizziness, dry skin, hirsutism, hostility, impaired urination, paresthesia, penis disorder, peripheral edema, sweating, and vasodilation.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
16-Bromoepiandrosterone16-Bromoepiandrosterone may increase the fluid retaining activities of Methyltestosterone.
19-norandrostenedione19-norandrostenedione may increase the fluid retaining activities of Methyltestosterone.
5-androstenedione5-androstenedione may increase the fluid retaining activities of Methyltestosterone.
AcarboseMethyltestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.
AcenocoumarolMethyltestosterone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Methyltestosterone which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideThe metabolism of Methyltestosterone can be decreased when combined with Acetazolamide.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Methyltestosterone can be decreased when combined with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Methyltestosterone.
AcetyldigoxinAcetyldigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Methyltestosterone.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015655
KEGG Drug
D00408
KEGG Compound
C07198
PubChem Compound
6010
PubChem Substance
99443262
ChemSpider
5788
BindingDB
50410531
ChEBI
27436
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1395
PharmGKB
PA165958383
Wikipedia
Methyltestosterone
ATC Codes
G03EA01 — Methyltestosterone and estrogenG03BA02 — MethyltestosteroneG03EK01 — Methyltestosterone

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentHot Flushes, Menopause, Postmenopause1
2CompletedTreatmentMenopause1
2TerminatedTreatmentMenopause2

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)163 °CPhysProp
water solubility33.9 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP3.36HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0139 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.61ALOGPS
logP3.65ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.53ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity89.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9774
Caco-2 permeable+0.8737
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6431
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5981
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.732
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.757
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8075
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8604
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7916
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8619
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8844
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.951
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6629
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8713
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8711
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9429
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9361
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9494
Rat acute toxicity2.0516 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.886
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7219
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-006x-7921000000-0e8f2747a2f3c8166048
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1329000000-c8db8c2a5d8403c476e1
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Androstane steroids
Direct Parent
Androgens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
3-oxo delta-4-steroids / 17-hydroxysteroids / Delta-4-steroids / Cyclohexenones / Tertiary alcohols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Androgen-skeleton / 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid / 3-oxosteroid / Hydroxysteroid / Oxosteroid / 17-hydroxysteroid / Delta-4-steroid / Cyclohexenone / Tertiary alcohol / Cyclic alcohol
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
enone, 3-oxo Delta(4)-steroid, 17beta-hydroxy steroid (CHEBI:27436) / C19 steroids (androgens) and derivatives (C07198) / C19 steroids (androgens) and derivatives (LMST02020029)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription ...
Gene Name
AR
Uniprot ID
P10275
Uniprot Name
Androgen receptor
Molecular Weight
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Small EJ, Ryan CJ: The case for secondary hormonal therapies in the chemotherapy age. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 2):S66-71. [PubMed:17084172]
  2. Omwancha J, Brown TR: Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Oct;7(10):873-81. [PubMed:17086931]
  3. Petraki CD, Sfikas CP: Histopathological changes induced by therapies in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol. 2007 Jan;22(1):107-18. [PubMed:17128417]
  4. Maudsley S, Davidson L, Pawson AJ, Freestone SH, Lopez de Maturana R, Thomson AA, Millar RP: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone functionally antagonizes testosterone activation of the human androgen receptor in prostate cells through focal adhesion complexes involving Hic-5. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(5):285-300. Epub 2007 Jan 4. [PubMed:17202804]
  5. Lapauw B, Goemaere S, Crabbe P, Kaufman JM, Ruige JB: Is the effect of testosterone on body composition modulated by the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in elderly men? Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Mar;156(3):395-401. [PubMed:17322500]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
Interacting drug is a metabolite: Methyltestosterone is aromatized to methylestradiol which binds to estrogen receptors
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Huang R, Sakamuru S, Martin MT, Reif DM, Judson RS, Houck KA, Casey W, Hsieh JH, Shockley KR, Ceger P, Fostel J, Witt KL, Tong W, Rotroff DM, Zhao T, Shinn P, Simeonov A, Dix DJ, Austin CP, Kavlock RJ, Tice RR, Xia M: Profiling of the Tox21 10K compound library for agonists and antagonists of the estrogen receptor alpha signaling pathway. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 11;4:5664. doi: 10.1038/srep05664. [PubMed:25012808]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID
P11511
Uniprot Name
Aromatase
Molecular Weight
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  3. Hedrich WD, Hassan HE, Wang H: Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug-drug interactions. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2016 Sep;6(5):413-425. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Aug 9. [PubMed:27709010]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Regulation of renal oatp mRNA expression by testosterone. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F332-7. [PubMed:8779895]
  2. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894]
  3. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. [PubMed:11779196]

Drug created on May 16, 2010 09:41 / Updated on October 01, 2018 14:10