Identification

Name
Thiosulfuric acid
Accession Number
DB09499
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Thiosulfuric acid (as sodium thiosulfate) has the chemical name thiosulfuric acid, disodium salt, pentahydrate. The chemical formula is Na2S2O3•5H2O and the molecular weight is 248.17. Sodium Thiosulfate Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 50 mL glass vial containing a 25% solution of Sodium Thiosulfate Injection.

It has been indicated as antidote for cyanide poisoning. It is also used as adjunct agent for patients taking cisplatin chemotherapy.

Beside the above indications, sodium thiosulfate could be used as ingredient in the following: agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal), fillers, intermediates, laboratory chemicals, oxidizing/reducing agents, process regulators, processing aids, and solids separation agents.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Monosulfanemonosulfonic acid
  • Sulfurothioic S-acid
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium thiosulfateL0IYT1O31N7772-98-7AKHNMLFCWUSKQB-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrateHX1032V43M10102-17-7PODWXQQNRWNDGD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SeacalphyxSolution250 mgIntravenousSeaford Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-01-08Not applicableCanada
Sodium ThiosulfateInjection, solution250 mg/1mLIntravenousHope Pharmaceuticals2012-02-14Not applicableUs
Sodium Thiosulfate Inj 25% USPLiquid250 mgIntravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1991-12-311998-08-13Canada
Sodium Thiosulfate Injection USPSolution25 %IntravenousPfizer1998-07-13Not applicableCanada
Sodium Thiosulfate Injection USPSolution250 mgIntravenousHope Pharmaceuticals2015-11-23Not applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Oligostim SoufreTablet0.015 mgOralDolisos Laboratoires S.A.1998-06-112007-08-01Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adasept Acne GelSodium thiosulfate (8 %) + Salicylic acid (2 %) + Triclosan (0.5 %)LotionTopicalOdan Laboratories Ltd1974-12-31Not applicableCanada
NithiodoteSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (250 mg/1mL) + Sodium nitrite (30 mg/1mL)KitHope Pharmaceuticals2011-01-14Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sodium polysulthionate and folic acidSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (1.8 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Octasulfur (388 mg/1) + Sodium sulfate decahydrate (8 mg/1)CapsuleOralSolubiomix2016-08-242017-10-16Us
Sodium polysulthionate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolateSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (.45 g/100g) + Levomefolic acid (.125 g/100g) + Octasulfur (97 g/100g) + Sodium sulfate decahydrate (2 g/100g)PowderOral; TopicalSolubiomix2015-07-212016-01-12Us
Sodium Polysulthionate, 5-mthfSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (1.8 mg/1) + 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (.5 mg/1) + Octasulfur (388 mg/1) + Sodium sulfate decahydrate (8 mg/1)CapsuleOralSolubiomix2016-01-092016-01-12Us
Sodum ThiosulfateSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (100 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-302012-11-28Us
Sodum ThiosulfateSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (250 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-302012-11-28Us
XizflusSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (.45 g/100g) + 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (.125 g/100g) + Octasulfur (97 g/100g) + Sodium sulfate decahydrate (2 g/100g)PowderOral; TopicalBasiem2015-07-142016-01-12Us
XizflusSodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (1.8 mg/1) + 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (.5 mg/1) + Octasulfur (388 mg/1) + Sodium sulfate decahydrate (8 mg/1)CapsuleOralBasiem2016-01-092016-01-12Us
Categories
UNII
7K79Y2EKKP
CAS number
13686-28-7
Weight
Average: 114.144
Monoisotopic: 113.94453531
Chemical Formula
H2O3S2
InChI Key
DHCDFWKWKRSZHF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/H2O3S2/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H2,1,2,3,4)
IUPAC Name
dihydroxy-1λ⁶-disulfen-1-one
SMILES
OS(O)(=O)=S

Pharmacology

Indication

Antidote: Sodium thiosulfate is indicated to counteract or neutralize actions of poisons, e.g. cyanide poisoning. Antineoplastic adjunct:

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

In dogs, pretreatment with sodium thiosulfate to achieve a steady state level of 2 µmol/mL increased the rate of conversion of cyanide to thiocyanate over 30-fold.

Mechanism of action

As antidote: Sodium thiosulfate acts as a sulfur donor for the endogenous sulfur transferase enzyme, rhodanese. It is used together with sodium nitrite for cyanide poisiong as antidote. Cyanide has a very high affinity for iron in the ferric state. It reacts with the trivalent (ferric) iron of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase, thereby inhibiting cellular respiration, resulting in lactic acidosis and cytotoxic hypoxia. Sodium nitrite reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, which competes with cytochrome oxidase for the cyanide ion. Cyanide binds to methemoglobin to form cyanmethemoglobin and restore the activity of cytochrome oxidase. When cyanide dissociates from methemoglobin, sodium thiosulfate facilitates its conversion by rhodanese to thiocyanate, a less toxic ion. As antineoplastic adjunct: The mechanism of action of sodium thiosulfate is still not clear, but it is thought that it forms a complex with cisplastin via covalent bond, which renders cisplastin more readily eliminated from the kidneys. It was believed also that sodium thiosulfate plays a role in the protection from nephrotoxicity caused by cisplastin, through reducing delivery of cisplatin to the kidneys and by neutralizing cisplatin in the kidneys where sodium thiosulfate is highly concentrated.

Absorption

Thiosulfate taken orally is not systemically absorbed. Most of the thiosulfate is oxidized to sulfate or is incorporated into endogenous sulphur compounds; a small proportion is excreted through the kidneys. After an intravenous injection of 1 g sodium thiosulfate in patients, the reported serum thiosulfate half-life was approximately 20 minutes. However, after an intravenous injection of a substantially higher dose of sodium thiosulfate (150 mg/kg, that is, 9 g for 60 kg body weight) in normal healthy men, the reported elimination half-life was 182 minutes.

Volume of distribution

150 mL/kg.

Protein binding

Data not found.

Metabolism

Data not found.

Route of elimination

Elimination is primarily renal, approximately 20-50% of exogenously administered thiosulfate is eliminated unchanged via the kidneys Antidote (to cyanide poisoning): Primarily as thiocyanate. Antineoplastic adjunct: As a nontoxic sodium thiosulfate/cisplatin complex.

Half life

Thiosulfate: 15 to 20 minutes.

Clearance

1.86 ± 0.45 ml/min per kg.

Toxicity

Oral, rat : LD50 = >5000mg/kg

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
Technetium Tc-99m oxidronateThiosulfuric acid may decrease effectiveness of Technetium Tc-99m oxidronate as a diagnostic agent.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. MSDS [Link]
  2. Monograph [Link]
  3. product info [Link]
  4. product info [Link]
  5. database [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0060293
KEGG Compound
C05529
PubChem Compound
24478
PubChem Substance
347827866
ChemSpider
22886
ChEBI
29279
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1208642
Wikipedia
Thiosulfuric_acid
AHFS Codes
  • 92:12.00 — Antidotes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM)1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) / Pleural Mesotheliomas1
1Not Yet RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedTreatmentBone Marrow Suppression / Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ / Long-Term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma / Adult Mixed Glioma / Adult Oligodendroglioma / Oligoastrocytoma / Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentCentral Nervous System Lymphoma1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentAdult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor / Adult Embryonal Tumor With Multilayered Rosettes, C19MC-Altered / Adult Ependymoblastoma / Adult Medulloblastoma / Adult Pineoblastoma / Adult Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified / Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor / Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor / Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor / Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor / Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor / Childhood Embryonal Tumor With Multilayered Rosettes, C19MC-Altered / Childhood Ependymoblastoma / Germ Cell Tumors / Medulloepithelioma / Ototoxicity / Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm / Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Neoplasm / Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma / Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma / Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified / Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Cancer, Breast / Cognitive/Functional Effects / Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ / Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGastrointestinal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentAdrenocortical Carcinoma / Peritoneal Carcinomatosis1
2CompletedTreatmentCalcific Tendinitis of the Rotator Cuff1
2CompletedTreatmentCalcinosis / Dermatomyositis Associated Superficial Calcinosis / Superficial Calcinosis1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) / Pleural Mesotheliomas1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHeart Failure, Unspecified / Myocardial Infarction1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdrenocortical Carcinoma / Peritoneal Carcinomatosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentDermatomyositis / Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies1
2RecruitingTreatmentEsophagogastric Junction / Gastric Adenocarcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
2RecruitingTreatmentGliomas1
2TerminatedDiagnosticMalignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) / Pleural Mesotheliomas1
2TerminatedSupportive CareAdverse Effects / DDP / Head and Neck Carcinoma1
2TerminatedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ / Malignant Lymphomas / Thrombocytopenias1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCutaneous calcification1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancer of the Ovary / Childhood Germ Cell Tumor / Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor / Liver Cancer / Neoplasms, Brain / Neuroblastomas / Ototoxicity / Sarcomas / Tumors, Central Nervous System1
3RecruitingTreatmentCalciphylaxis1
3TerminatedTreatmentCalcific Uremic Arteriolopathy (CUA) / Calciphylaxis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cancer / Ototoxicity1
4RecruitingTreatmentCutaneous calcification1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Complication of Hemodialysis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableCalciphylaxis / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionMalignancies1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical
Kit
TabletOral0.015 mg
LiquidIntravenous250 mg
SolutionIntravenous25 %
SolutionIntravenous250 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous250 mg/1mL
CapsuleOral
PowderOral; Topical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8496973No2013-07-302031-03-29Us
US8568793No2013-10-292031-12-24Us
US9585912No2017-03-072031-03-29Us
US9345724No2016-05-242031-03-29Us

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.048ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.35ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity21.76 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.51 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-cfd5e2fee5605aa6f365
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-14f35b6955762fa5ef9c
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-01pk-9300000000-6d71fc2acfdc5c953636
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-4fefeb50f8b5131bb095
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-25562aa85ac0e34c2f5b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-c55a98b5b4d32b24a3cd

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal thiosulfates. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a thiosulfate as its largest oxoanion.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Non-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Non-metal thiosulfates
Direct Parent
Non-metal thiosulfates
Alternative Parents
Inorganic sulfides / Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Non-metal thiosulfate / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic sulfide
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
thiosulfuric acid (CHEBI:29279)

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thiosulfate sulfurtransferase activity
Specific Function
Formation of iron-sulfur complexes, cyanide detoxification or modification of sulfur-containing enzymes. Other thiol compounds, besides cyanide, can act as sulfur ion acceptors. Also has weak merca...
Gene Name
TST
Uniprot ID
Q16762
Uniprot Name
Thiosulfate sulfurtransferase
Molecular Weight
33428.69 Da

Drug created on November 30, 2015 12:10 / Updated on December 12, 2018 07:25