Identification

Name
Apomorphine
Accession Number
DB00714  (APRD00531, DB05816)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (-)-10,11-Dihydroxyaporphine
  • (−)-10,11-dihydroxyaporphine
  • (6AR)-6-methyl-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-4H-dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol
  • (R)-5,6,6a,7-Tetrahydro-6-methyl-4H-dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol
  • Apomorphin
  • R-(-)-Apomorphine
  • R-(−)-apomorphine
External IDs
APL-130277 / VR-040 / VR-400 / VR040
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Apomorphine hydrochlorideF39049Y06841372-20-7CXWQXGNFZLHLHQ-DPFCLETOSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ApokynInjection30 mg/3mLSubcutaneousTercica2004-07-02Not applicableUs
ApokynInjection30 mg/3mLSubcutaneousUs World Meds, Llc2004-07-02Not applicableUs
MovapoSolution10 mgSubcutaneousPaladin Labs Inc2017-09-07Not applicableCanada
MovapoSolution10 mgSubcutaneousPaladin Labs IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Ixense (Takeda (discontinued)) / Spontane / Uprima (Abbott (discontinued))
Categories
UNII
N21FAR7B4S
CAS number
58-00-4
Weight
Average: 267.3224
Monoisotopic: 267.125928793
Chemical Formula
C17H17NO2
InChI Key
VMWNQDUVQKEIOC-CYBMUJFWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H17NO2/c1-18-8-7-10-3-2-4-12-15(10)13(18)9-11-5-6-14(19)17(20)16(11)12/h2-6,13,19-20H,7-9H2,1H3/t13-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(9R)-10-methyl-10-azatetracyclo[7.7.1.0²,⁷.0¹³,¹⁷]heptadeca-1(16),2(7),3,5,13(17),14-hexaene-3,4-diol
SMILES
[H][C@]12CC3=C(C(O)=C(O)C=C3)C3=CC=CC(CCN1C)=C23

Pharmacology

Indication

For the acute, intermittent treatment of hypomobility, off episodes (end-of-dose wearing off and unpredictable on/off episodes) associated with advanced Parkinson's disease.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Apomorphine is a type of dopaminergic agonist, a morphine derivative which primarily affects the hypothalamic region of the brain. Drugs containing this substance are sometimes used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease or erectile dysfunction. In higher doses it is a highly effective emetic.

Mechanism of action

The precise mechanism of action of apomorphine as a treatment for Parkinson's disease is unknown, although it is believed to be due to stimulation of post-synaptic dopamine D2-type receptors within the brain. Apomorphine has been shown to improve motor function in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. In particular, apomorphine attenuates the motor deficits induced by lesions in the ascending nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in primates.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(3) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(4) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(2) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
UAlpha-2C adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
UAlpha-2B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
agonist
Human
UD(1B) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
agonist
Human
UAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
UD(1A) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1D
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B
agonist
Human
UNeuron-specific vesicular protein calcyon
agonist
Human
Absorption

100% following subcutaneous administration

Volume of distribution
  • 123 to 404 L
Protein binding

~50%-albumin

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

40 minutes (range 30 - 60 minutes)

Clearance
  • 223 L/hr
Toxicity

LD50=0.6 mmoles/kg (mice, intraperitoneal)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.Experimental
AcebutololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Acebutolol.Approved
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Aldesleukin.Approved
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Amiloride.Approved
AmineptineAmineptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmiodaroneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Amisulpride can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AnagrelideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.Approved
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Arotinolol.Approved
Arsenic trioxideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.Approved
AsenapineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.Approved
AtenololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Atenolol.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
AzithromycinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Azithromycin.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Barnidipine.Approved
BedaquilineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.Approved
BefunololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Benmoxin.Withdrawn
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Betaxolol.Approved
BevantololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BisoprololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BlonanserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Blonanserin.Approved
BopindololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bretylium.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Brimonidine.Approved
BrofaromineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Brofaromine.Experimental
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bromocriptine.Approved, Investigational
BucindololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BufuralolApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bumetanide.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BupranololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bupranolol.Approved
BupropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Bupropion.Approved
CabergolineCabergoline may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Apomorphine.Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Carbetocin.Approved
CariprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Cariprazine.Approved
CaroxazoneThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Caroxazone.Withdrawn
CarteololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ceritinib.Approved
ChloroquineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorprothixene can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Chlorthalidone.Approved
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
CiprofloxacinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Cisapride.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clarithromycin.Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Clevidipine.Approved
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Clofarabine.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineClomipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Clonidine.Approved
CloranololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Crizotinib.Approved
CyclobenzaprineCyclobenzaprine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DesipramineDesipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DibenzepinDibenzepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Experimental
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Apomorphine.Approved
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DisopyramideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DofetilideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.Approved
DolasetronDolasetron may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
DomperidoneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Domperidone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DosulepinDosulepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinDoxepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
DronedaroneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Droperidol can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
DroxidopaApomorphine may increase the hypertensive activities of Droxidopa.Approved, Investigational
DuloxetineApomorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Efonidipine.Approved
EliglustatApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Eliglustat.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EpanololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Eprosartan.Approved
Ergoloid mesylateErgoloid mesylate may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Apomorphine.Approved
ErgonovineErgonovine may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Apomorphine.Approved
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Apomorphine.Approved
ErythromycinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EsmirtazapineEsmirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Investigational
EsmololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Etacrynic acid.Approved
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Fenoldopam.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Fimasartan.Approved
FlecainideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flecainide.Approved, Withdrawn
FluoxetineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FurazolidoneThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Furazolidone.Approved, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
Gadobenic acidApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.Approved
GemifloxacinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GoserelinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.Approved
GranisetronGranisetron may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Haloperidol can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Harmaline.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
HydracarbazineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Hydracarbazine.Experimental
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.Approved
IbutilideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.Approved
IloperidoneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Iloperidone.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineImipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Indapamide.Approved
IndenololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndoraminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Indoramin.Withdrawn
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
IprindoleIprindole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Experimental
IproclozideThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Iproclozide.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Iproniazid.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isocarboxazid.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isradipine.Approved
LabetalolApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Lacidipine.Approved
LandiololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LenvatinibApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.Approved
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LeuprolideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LevodopaApomorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevofloxacinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Levosimendan.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LofepramineLofepramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Experimental
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.Approved
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Losartan.Approved
LoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Loxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
LumateperoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Lumateperone.Investigational
LumefantrineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Mannitol.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Mebanazine.Withdrawn
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Mecamylamine.Approved
MelperoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Melperone.Approved
MepindololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MesoridazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Mesoridazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
MethadoneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Methadone.Approved
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Methazolamide.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methotrimeprazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Methyldopa.Approved
Methylene blueThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Methylene blue.Investigational
MethylergometrineMethylergometrine may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Apomorphine.Approved
MethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Metipranolol.Approved
MetoclopramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Metoclopramide.Approved, Investigational
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
MinaprineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Minaprine.Approved
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
MirtazapineMirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MolindoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Molindone can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
MoxifloxacinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Moxonidine.Approved
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NadololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Nadolol.Approved
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NialamideThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Nialamide.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nilvadipine.Approved
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nimodipine.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Nitroprusside.Approved
NortriptylineNortriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OctamoxinThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Octamoxin.Withdrawn
OfloxacinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OndansetronOndansetron may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
OpipramolOpipramol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Investigational
OxprenololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.Approved
PalonosetronPalonosetron may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
PanobinostatApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Papaverine.Approved
PargylineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Pargyline.Approved
PazopanibApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pazopanib.Approved
PenbutololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentamidineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pentamidine.Approved
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
PerflutrenApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PerospironeThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Perphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PheniprazineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Pheniprazine.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenoxypropazineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Phenoxypropazine.Withdrawn
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Phentolamine.Approved
PimavanserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Pimavanserin.Investigational
PimozideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pimozide.Approved
PindololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Pindolol.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PirlindoleThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Pirlindole.Approved
PivhydrazineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Pivhydrazine.Withdrawn
PractololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Practolol.Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Prazosin.Approved
PrimaquineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcainamideApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.Approved
ProchlorperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Prochlorperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Promazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropafenoneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.Approved
PropericiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propericiazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
QuetiapineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.Approved
QuinineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Reserpine.Approved
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneApomorphine may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Rotigotine.Approved
RP5063The therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with RP5063.Investigational
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
SafrazineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Safrazine.Withdrawn
SaquinavirApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Sodium Nitrite.Approved
SotalolApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Sotalol.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Streptokinase.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulfisoxazoleApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
TalinololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
TelavancinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.Approved
TelithromycinApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TertatololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
TetrabenazineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Tetrabenazine.Approved
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioproperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thioproperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
ThioridazineApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Thioridazine.Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Thiothixene can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
TianeptineTianeptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
TimololApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Timolol.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Apomorphine.Approved
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
ToloxatoneThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Toloxatone.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Torasemide.Approved
ToremifeneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Toremifene.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe metabolism of Apomorphine can be decreased when combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Triamterene.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Trifluoperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Apomorphine.Approved
TrimipramineTrimipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
TropisetronTropisetron may increase the hypotensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.Approved
VemurafenibApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apomorphine.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
ZiprasidoneApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ziprasidone.Approved
ZotepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Apomorphine can be decreased when used in combination with Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolApomorphine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Narayanasamy Gurusamy, "Process for Making Apomorphine and Apocodeine." U.S. Patent US20100228032, issued September 09, 2010.

US20100228032
General References
  1. Matsumoto K, Yoshida M, Andersson KE, Hedlund P: Effects in vitro and in vivo by apomorphine in the rat corpus cavernosum. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Sep;146(2):259-67. [PubMed:16025145]
  2. SCHWAB RS, AMADOR LV, LETTVIN JY: Apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1951;56:251-3. [PubMed:14913646]
  3. Cotzias GC, Papavasiliou PS, Fehling C, Kaufman B, Mena I: Similarities between neurologic effects of L-dipa and of apomorphine. N Engl J Med. 1970 Jan 1;282(1):31-3. [PubMed:4901383]
  4. Corsini GU, Del Zompo M, Gessa GL, Mangoni A: Therapeutic efficacy of apomorphine combined with an extracerebral inhibitor of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 1979 May 5;1(8123):954-6. [PubMed:87620]
  5. Chaudhuri KR, Clough C: Subcutaneous apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. BMJ. 1998 Feb 28;316(7132):641. [PubMed:9522772]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14852
KEGG Drug
D07460
PubChem Compound
6005
PubChem Substance
46508653
ChemSpider
5783
BindingDB
50001955
ChEBI
48538
ChEMBL
CHEMBL53
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000281
PharmGKB
PA164781163
IUPHAR
33
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Apomorphine
ATC Codes
G04BE07 — ApomorphineN04BC07 — Apomorphine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:36.20.08
PDB Entries
Not Available
FDA label
Download (513 KB)
MSDS
Download (25.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)5
2RecruitingTreatmentApomorphine-induced Skin Reactions / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentOff Episodes of Parkinson Disease / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD) / Visual Hallucinations1
2SuspendedTreatmentBrain Injury1
2Unknown StatusBasic ScienceAlcoholism1
2WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
3CompletedBasic ScienceParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)3
3RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4CompletedTreatmentAkinesia / Delayed Levadopa Onset / Mobility decreased / Motor Symptoms / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)1
4RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4TerminatedSupportive CareMotor Symptoms / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceParkinson's Disease (PD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Ipsen biopharm ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionSubcutaneous30 mg/3mL
SolutionSubcutaneous10 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.66E+004 mg/LNot Available
logP3.1Not Available
pKa8.92Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.51 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.51ALOGPS
logP2.87ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.58ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)13.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area43.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity79.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9816
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9401
Caco-2 permeable+0.777
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8501
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8781
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.964
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6477
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7577
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7039
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9146
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9084
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8718
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9156
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9262
Ames testAMES toxic0.6775
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9736
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8928
Rat acute toxicity2.6446 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6544
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014r-0090000000-29608efdadd8efd375a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-052772c02bbf103a3ef5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kr-0290000000-1e831a8078d43cfbdb51
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-49baaafc781fbd1a40ea
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-b2abd157ce4880c73d0b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-b747e9bb748f801c3f50
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-1a55345a571167f3fca6

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aporphines. These are quinoline alkaloids containing the dibenzo[de,g]quinoline ring system or a dehydrogenated derivative thereof.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Alkaloids and derivatives
Class
Aporphines
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Aporphines
Alternative Parents
Phenanthrenes and derivatives / Benzoquinolines / Naphthols and derivatives / Tetrahydroisoquinolines / Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 2 more
Substituents
Aporphine / Benzoquinoline / Phenanthrene / 2-naphthol / 1-naphthol / Naphthalene / Quinoline / Tetrahydroisoquinoline / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
isoquinoline alkaloid, isoquinolines (CHEBI:48538)

Targets

Details
1. D(3) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. D(4) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Boeckler F, Russig H, Zhang W, Lober S, Schetz J, Hubner H, Ferger B, Gmeiner P, Feldon J: FAUC 213, a highly selective dopamine D4 receptor full antagonist, exhibits atypical antipsychotic properties in behavioural and neurochemical models of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Aug;175(1):7-17. Epub 2004 Mar 6. [PubMed:15007532]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
  4. Mansbach RS, Brooks EW, Sanner MA, Zorn SH: Selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonists reverse apomorphine-induced blockade of prepulse inhibition. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Jan;135(2):194-200. [PubMed:9497025]
  5. Melis MR, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis T, Mascia MS, Enguehard-Gueiffier C, Hubner H, Gmeiner P, Gueiffier A, Argiolas A: PIP3EA and PD-168077, two selective dopamine D4 receptor agonists, induce penile erection in male rats: site and mechanism of action in the brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Oct;24(7):2021-30. [PubMed:17067298]
  6. Sanner MA, Chappie TA, Dunaiskis AR, Fliri AF, Desai KA, Zorn SH, Jackson ER, Johnson CG, Morrone JM, Seymour PA, Majchrzak MJ, Faraci WS, Collins JL, Duignan DB, Prete Di CC, Lee JS, Trozzi A: Synthesis, SAR and pharmacology of CP-293,019: a potent, selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonist. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1998 Apr 7;8(7):725-30. [PubMed:9871530]
  7. Succu S, Sanna F, Melis T, Boi A, Argiolas A, Melis MR: Stimulation of dopamine receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats induces penile erection and increases extra-cellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: Involvement of central oxytocin. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Mar;52(3):1034-43. Epub 2006 Dec 11. [PubMed:17164075]
Details
3. D(2) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Berlin I, de Brettes B, Aymard G, Diquet B, Arnulf I, Puech AJ: Dopaminergic drug response and the genotype (Taq IA polymorphism) of the dopamine D2 receptor. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000 Mar;3(1):35-43. [PubMed:11343576]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Kim HJ, Koh PO, Kang SS, Paik WY, Choi WS: The localization of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in the human placenta and the anti-angiogenic effect of apomorphine in the chorioallantoic membrane. Life Sci. 2001 Jan 19;68(9):1031-40. [PubMed:11212866]
  4. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
  5. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [PubMed:10641988]
  6. Lucht MJ, Kuehn KU, Schroeder W, Armbruster J, Abraham G, Schattenberg A, Gaensicke M, Barnow S, Tretzel H, Herrmann FH, Freyberger HJ: Influence of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) exon 8 genotype on efficacy of tiapride and clinical outcome of alcohol withdrawal. Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Nov;11(8):647-53. [PubMed:11692072]
  7. Yamada S: [Disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle as an animal model for schizophrenia]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2000 Oct;20(4):131-9. [PubMed:11215397]
  8. Yamada S, Harano M, Annoh N, Nakamura K, Tanaka M: Involvement of serotonin 2A receptors in phencyclidine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Sep 15;46(6):832-8. [PubMed:10494453]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID
P18825
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine...
Gene Name
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID
P18089
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-...
Gene Name
HTR2C
Uniprot ID
P28335
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
Molecular Weight
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Details
7. D(1B) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD5
Uniprot ID
P21918
Uniprot Name
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...
Gene Name
HTR1A
Uniprot ID
P08908
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Molecular Weight
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation...
Gene Name
HTR2B
Uniprot ID
P41595
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
Molecular Weight
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Details
12. D(1A) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Guo H, Tang Z, Yu Y, Xu L, Jin G, Zhou J: Apomorphine induces trophic factors that support fetal rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in cultures. Eur J Neurosci. 2002 Nov;16(10):1861-70. [PubMed:12453049]
  3. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
  4. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [PubMed:10641988]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive subst...
Gene Name
HTR1D
Uniprot ID
P28221
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1D
Molecular Weight
41906.38 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive subst...
Gene Name
HTR1B
Uniprot ID
P28222
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B
Molecular Weight
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [PubMed:18691132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Clathrin light chain binding
Specific Function
Interacts with clathrin light chain A and stimulates clathrin self-assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Gene Name
CALY
Uniprot ID
Q9NYX4
Uniprot Name
Neuron-specific vesicular protein calcyon
Molecular Weight
23433.49 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:43