Identification

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Name
Testosterone undecanoate
Accession Number
DB13946  (DBSALT001033)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Testosterone undecanoate is the ester prodrug of testosterone and has a midchain fatty acid at the 17Beta position. 6 It is available as an intramuscular injection and as an oral capsule, and is indicated for treatment of testosterone deficiency. 14Label It should be noted that testosterone undecanoate is only indicated for treatment of hypogonadal conditions with structural or genetic etiologies and should not be used to manage "age-related hypogonadism". Label

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Testosterone undecanoate
  • Testosterone undeconate
  • Testosterone undecylate
External IDs
BAY 86-5037 / BRN 3176734 / CLR-610 / ORG 538 / ORG-538
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Testosteroneprodrug3XMK78S47O58-22-0MUMGGOZAMZWBJJ-DYKIIFRCSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AndriolCapsule40 mgOralMerck Ltd.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
AveedInjection250 mg/1mLIntramuscularEndo Pharmaceuticals Solutions Inc.2014-03-05Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PMS-testosteroneCapsule40 mgOralPharmascience Inc2009-10-08Not applicableCanada
Taro-testosteroneCapsule40 mgOralTaro Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-09-02Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories
UNII
H16A5VCT9C
CAS number
5949-44-0
Weight
Average: 456.711
Monoisotopic: 456.360345406
Chemical Formula
C30H48O3
InChI Key
UDSFVOAUHKGBEK-CNQKSJKFSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C30H48O3/c1-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-28(32)33-27-16-15-25-24-14-13-22-21-23(31)17-19-29(22,2)26(24)18-20-30(25,27)3/h21,24-27H,4-20H2,1-3H3/t24-,25-,26-,27-,29-,30-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3aS,3bR,9aR,9bS,11aS)-9a,11a-dimethyl-7-oxo-1H,2H,3H,3aH,3bH,4H,5H,7H,8H,9H,9aH,9bH,10H,11H,11aH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-1-yl undecanoate
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H]1CC[C@H]2[C@@H]3CCC4=CC(=O)CC[C@]4(C)[C@H]3CC[C@]12C

Pharmacology

Indication

Testosterone undecanoate is indicated for replacement therapy in adult males with conditions that are linked with an absence or deficiency in endogenous testosterone production. 14Label

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Testosterone plays a key role in male sexual differentiation and is involved in regulation of hematopoiesis, body composition, and bone metabolism. As a result, testosterone replacement therapy in males with hypogonadism can result in improved sexual function, increased lean body mass, bone density, erythropoiesis, prostate size, and changes in lipid profiles. 6

Mechanism of action

Testosterone is produced by Leydig cells and exerts it's effects by binding to androgen receptors throughout the body. 5 Testosterone affects the voice, genitalia, mood, and influences muscle growth and protein expression. 5 Accordingly, males with low levels of testosterone often experience decreased libido, fatigue, mood changes and dysphoria. 5 Exogenous sources of testosterone are designed to mimic the effects of endogenous testosterone.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAndrogen receptor
agonist
Humans
UEstrogen receptor alphaNot AvailableHumans
UMineralocorticoid receptorNot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

The absorption of testosterone undecanoate varies based on the formulation. The intramuscular formulation of testosterone esters is suspended in oil and is absorbed from the lipid phase. Testosterone is released when tissue esterases cleave the undecanoic acid side chain. 14
The oral formulation of testosterone undecanoate is also formulated as a prodrug, is best absorbed with food and ideal absorption occurs when taken with a meal containing at least 30 g of fat. Label

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Circulating testosterone is highly protein bound with about 40% bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a large percentage of the remaining hormone loosely bound to albumin and other plasma proteins. Only about 2% of testosterone is unbound. Label

Metabolism

The side chain of testosterone undecanoate is cleaved by non specific esterases when it enters circulation and the undecanoic acid side chain is metabolized by the beta-oxidation pathway. 9Label The resulting Testosterone molecule is then metabolized to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. 15 DHT is reduced by 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (major) and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase prior to being glucuronidated and cleared by the kidneys. 15 It should be noted that testosterone is metabolized to several other 17-keto steroids in the body. Label

Route of elimination

The majority (~90%) of an intramuscularly administered dose of testosterone is conjugated and eliminated in the urine. Approximately 6% of the dose is eliminated primarily unconjugated in the feces. Label

Half life

Based on one source, Testosterone undecanoate in castor oil (for intramuscular injection) has a half life of 33.9 days, allowing it to maintain serum levels in the normal range for over 6 weeks. 7 It should be noted that the half life of testosterone reported in the literature is inconsistent. 14

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

There is evidence that in adolescent users, testosterone at supra-therapeutic levels may contribute to aggressive behaviour and increased rates of suicide. 8 However, testosterone does not appear to negatively affect cognition in adult men receiving testosterone replacement therapy and may in fact benefit cognitive function.8 Administration of exogenous testosterone affects normal physiological hormonal regulation, and ultimately depresses the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone resulting in reduced sperm production.8 This should be considered before initiating testosterone in males who wish to start or grow a family.8 Increased levels of testosterone can also cause increased sebum production, therefore acne may be observed in patients taking exogenous testosterone.8 Since testosterone is converted to estrogen in the body by aromatization, males taking testosterone replacement may experience gynecomastia and/or breast pain. 8

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Testosterone undecanoate is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Testosterone undecanoate is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidTestosterone undecanoate may increase the hypertensive activities of 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleTestosterone undecanoate may increase the hypertensive activities of 1-benzylimidazole.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneTestosterone undecanoate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineTestosterone undecanoate may increase the hypertensive activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineTestosterone undecanoate may increase the hypertensive activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Testosterone undecanoate.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineTestosterone undecanoate may increase the hypertensive activities of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Testosterone undecanoate is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action
    Evidence Level

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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Freeman ER, Bloom DA, McGuire EJ: A brief history of testosterone. J Urol. 2001 Feb;165(2):371-3. [PubMed:11176375]
  2. Saad F, Kamischke A, Yassin A, Zitzmann M, Schubert M, Jockenhel F, Behre HM, Gooren L, Nieschlag E: More than eight years' hands-on experience with the novel long-acting parenteral testosterone undecanoate. Asian J Androl. 2007 May;9(3):291-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7262.2007.00275.x. [PubMed:17486268]
  3. Zhang GY, Gu YQ, Wang XH, Cui YG, Bremner WJ: A pharmacokinetic study of injectable testosterone undecanoate in hypogonadal men. J Androl. 1998 Nov-Dec;19(6):761-8. [PubMed:9876028]
  4. Tauber U, Schroder K, Dusterberg B, Matthes H: Absolute bioavailability of testosterone after oral administration of testosterone-undecanoate and testosterone. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1986 Apr-Jun;11(2):145-9. [PubMed:3770015]
  5. Schlich C, Romanelli F: Issues Surrounding Testosterone Replacement Therapy. Hosp Pharm. 2016 Oct;51(9):712-720. doi: 10.1310/hpj5109-712. [PubMed:27803500]
  6. Schubert M, Minnemann T, Hubler D, Rouskova D, Christoph A, Oettel M, Ernst M, Mellinger U, Krone W, Jockenhovel F: Intramuscular testosterone undecanoate: pharmacokinetic aspects of a novel testosterone formulation during long-term treatment of men with hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5429-34. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-0897. [PubMed:15531493]
  7. Behre HM, Abshagen K, Oettel M, Hubler D, Nieschlag E: Intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate for the treatment of male hypogonadism: phase I studies. Eur J Endocrinol. 1999 May;140(5):414-9. [PubMed:10229906]
  8. Osterberg EC, Bernie AM, Ramasamy R: Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in men. Indian J Urol. 2014 Jan;30(1):2-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-1591.124197. [PubMed:24497673]
  9. Lachance S, Dhingra O, Bernstein J, Gagnon S, Savard C, Pelletier N, Boudreau N, Levesque A: Importance of measuring testosterone in enzyme-inhibited plasma for oral testosterone undecanoate androgen replacement therapy clinical trials. Future Sci OA. 2015 Nov 1;1(4):FSO55. doi: 10.4155/fso.15.55. eCollection 2015 Nov. [PubMed:28031910]
  10. Steroidal [Link]
  11. Steroidal [Link]
  12. FDA pharmacology reviews [Link]
  13. Pfizer monograph [Link]
  14. Aveed FDA Label [File]
  15. Metabolism of Dihydrotestosterone in Human Liver [File]
External Links
ChemSpider
58664
ChEBI
135741
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2107067
Wikipedia
Testosterone_undecanoate
AHFS Codes
  • 68:08.00 — Androgens
FDA label
Download (549 KB)
MSDS
Download (45.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism2
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Testicular Hypogonadism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherBariatric Surgery Candidate / Muscle Loss / Testicular Hypogonadism1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Fatty Liver / Testicular Hypogonadism / Type2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentPeyronie's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBone Density / Hypogonadism / Osteoporosis / Paraplegia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHypogonadism1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntramuscular250 mg/1mL
CapsuleOral40 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8338395No2012-12-252026-02-27Us
US7718640No2010-05-182027-03-14Us
US8241664No2009-03-292029-03-29Us
US8492369No2010-12-202030-12-20Us
US8778916No2010-04-122030-04-12Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)64-64ºC'MSDS'
water solubilityInsoluble'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.4e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.74ALOGPS
logP8.06ChemAxon
logS-6.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.52ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area43.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity135.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability57.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as steroid esters. These are compounds containing a steroid moiety which bears a carboxylic acid ester group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Steroid esters
Direct Parent
Steroid esters
Alternative Parents
Androgens and derivatives / 3-oxo delta-4-steroids / Delta-4-steroids / Cyclohexenones / Carboxylic acid esters / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Steroid ester / Androgen-skeleton / Androstane-skeleton / 3-oxosteroid / 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid / Oxosteroid / Delta-4-steroid / Cyclohexenone / Ketone / Carboxylic acid ester
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription ...
Gene Name
AR
Uniprot ID
P10275
Uniprot Name
Androgen receptor
Molecular Weight
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Omwancha J, Brown TR: Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Oct;7(10):873-81. [PubMed:17086931]
  2. Petraki CD, Sfikas CP: Histopathological changes induced by therapies in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol. 2007 Jan;22(1):107-18. [PubMed:17128417]
  3. Lapauw B, Goemaere S, Crabbe P, Kaufman JM, Ruige JB: Is the effect of testosterone on body composition modulated by the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in elderly men? Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Mar;156(3):395-401. [PubMed:17322500]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Kojima H, Iida M, Katsura E, Kanetoshi A, Hori Y, Kobayashi K: Effects of a diphenyl ether-type herbicide, chlornitrofen, and its amino derivative on androgen and estrogen receptor activities. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):497-502. [PubMed:12676605]
  2. Gao W, Bohl CE, Dalton JT: Chemistry and structural biology of androgen receptor. Chem Rev. 2005 Sep;105(9):3352-70. doi: 10.1021/cr020456u. [PubMed:16159155]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates targ...
Gene Name
NR3C2
Uniprot ID
P08235
Uniprot Name
Mineralocorticoid receptor
Molecular Weight
107066.575 Da
References
  1. Takeda AN, Pinon GM, Bens M, Fagart J, Rafestin-Oblin ME, Vandewalle A: The synthetic androgen methyltrienolone (r1881) acts as a potent antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;71(2):473-82. Epub 2006 Nov 14. [PubMed:17105867]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Zhang T, Zhu Y, Gunaratna C: Rapid and quantitative determination of metabolites from multiple cytochrome P450 probe substrates by gradient liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Nov 25;780(2):371-9. [PubMed:12401364]
  3. Maenpaa J, Hall SD, Ring BJ, Strom SC, Wrighton SA: Human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated midazolam metabolism: the effect of assay conditions and regioselective stimulation by alpha-naphthoflavone, terfenadine and testosterone. Pharmacogenetics. 1998 Apr;8(2):137-55. [PubMed:10022752]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  5. Source [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID
P11511
Uniprot Name
Aromatase
Molecular Weight
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Sjoberg RL, Ducci F, Barr CS, Newman TK, Dell'osso L, Virkkunen M, Goldman D: A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Jan;33(2):425-30. Epub 2007 Apr 11. [PubMed:17429405]
  2. Hoff KM: Interaction of testosterone with monoamineoxidase in mouse brain maturation. Gen Pharmacol. 1977;8(1):55-7. [PubMed:590724]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID
P05108
Uniprot Name
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
60101.87 Da
References
  1. Kostic TS, Stojkov NJ, Bjelic MM, Mihajlovic AI, Janjic MM, Andric SA: Pharmacological doses of testosterone upregulated androgen receptor and 3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase and impaired leydig cells steroidogenesis in adult rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jun;121(2):397-407. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr063. Epub 2011 Apr 6. [PubMed:21427060]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-s...
Gene Name
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID
Q16696
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A13
Molecular Weight
56687.095 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  3. Hedrich WD, Hassan HE, Wang H: Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug-drug interactions. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2016 Sep;6(5):413-425. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Aug 9. [PubMed:27709010]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  3. Backman JT, Filppula AM, Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ: Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 Jan;68(1):168-241. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.011411. [PubMed:26721703]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. He N, Edeki T: The inhibitory effects of herbal components on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 catalytic activities in human liver microsomes. Am J Ther. 2004 May-Jun;11(3):206-12. [PubMed:15133536]
  3. Yamazaki H, Shimada T: Progesterone and testosterone hydroxylation by cytochromes P450 2C19, 2C9, and 3A4 in human liver microsomes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Oct 1;346(1):161-9. doi: 10.1006/abbi.1997.0302. [PubMed:9328296]
  4. Zhang JG, Dehal SS, Ho T, Johnson J, Chandler C, Blanchard AP, Clark RJ Jr, Crespi CL, Stresser DM, Wong J: Human cytochrome p450 induction and inhibition potential of clevidipine and its primary metabolite h152/81. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 May;34(5):734-7. Epub 2006 Feb 24. [PubMed:16501008]
  5. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID
Q9HB55
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A43
Molecular Weight
57669.21 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Not Available
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Electron carrier activity
Specific Function
Converts testosterone into 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone and progesterone or corticosterone into their corresponding 5-alpha-3-oxosteroids. It plays a central role in sexual differentiation and andro...

Components:
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID
P13584
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4B1
Molecular Weight
58990.64 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Regulation of renal oatp mRNA expression by testosterone. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F332-7. [PubMed:8779895]
  2. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. [PubMed:11779196]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulf...
Gene Name
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID
Q9Y694
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 7
Molecular Weight
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. [PubMed:11779196]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibitory effects of CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2001 Feb;12(4):505-13. [PubMed:11231118]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674]
  3. Wessler JD, Grip LT, Mendell J, Giugliano RP: The P-glycoprotein transport system and cardiovascular drugs. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jun 25;61(25):2495-502. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.02.058. Epub 2013 Apr 3. [PubMed:23563132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presenc...
Gene Name
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID
Q14973
Uniprot Name
Sodium/bile acid cotransporter
Molecular Weight
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb;274(2 Pt 1):G370-5. [PubMed:9486191]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without...
Gene Name
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID
Q9H015
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 4
Molecular Weight
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068]
  2. Meetam P, Srimaroeng C, Soodvilai S, Chatsudthipong V: Regulatory role of testosterone in organic cation transport: in vivo and in vitro studies. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Jun;32(6):982-7. [PubMed:19483302]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Janvilisri T, Venter H, Shahi S, Reuter G, Balakrishnan L, van Veen HW: Sterol transport by the human breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) expressed in Lactococcus lactis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):20645-51. Epub 2003 Mar 28. [PubMed:12668685]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. He R, Ai L, Zhang D, Wan L, Zheng T, Yin J, Lu H, Lu J, Lu F, Liu F, Jia W: Different effect of testosterone and oestrogen on urinary excretion of metformin via regulating OCTs and MATEs expression in the kidney of mice. J Cell Mol Med. 2016 Dec;20(12):2309-2317. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12922. Epub 2016 Jul 29. [PubMed:27469532]
  2. Asaka J, Terada T, Okuda M, Katsura T, Inui K: Androgen receptor is responsible for rat organic cation transporter 2 gene regulation but not for rOCT1 and rOCT3. Pharm Res. 2006 Apr;23(4):697-704. doi: 10.1007/s11095-006-9665-2. Epub 2006 Mar 25. [PubMed:16550473]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfat...
Gene Name
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID
Q96FL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1
Molecular Weight
61921.585 Da
References
  1. He R, Ai L, Zhang D, Wan L, Zheng T, Yin J, Lu H, Lu J, Lu F, Liu F, Jia W: Different effect of testosterone and oestrogen on urinary excretion of metformin via regulating OCTs and MATEs expression in the kidney of mice. J Cell Mol Med. 2016 Dec;20(12):2309-2317. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12922. Epub 2016 Jul 29. [PubMed:27469532]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Sharifi N, Hamada A, Sissung T, Danesi R, Venzon D, Baum C, Gulley JL, Price DK, Dahut WL, Figg WD: A polymorphism in a transporter of testosterone is a determinant of androgen independence in prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2008 Aug 5;102(5):617-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.07629.x. Epub 2008 Jun 4. [PubMed:18537956]

Drug created on January 11, 2018 16:11 / Updated on May 21, 2019 10:32