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Identification
NameL-Proline
Accession NumberDB00172  (NUTR00047)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(−)-(S)-prolineNot AvailableNot Available
(−)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(−)-prolineNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-2-CarboxypyrrolidineNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-alpha-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-ProlinNot AvailableNot Available
L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-α-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number147-85-3
WeightAverage: 115.1305
Monoisotopic: 115.063328537
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO2
InChI KeyONIBWKKTOPOVIA-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO2/c7-5(8)4-2-1-3-6-4/h4,6H,1-3H2,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)[C@@H]1CCCN1
Mass Specshow(7.03 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsPyrrolidine Carboxylic Acids; Enolates; Polyamines; Dialkylamines; Carboxylic Acids
Substituentspyrrolidine carboxylic acid; pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivative; pyrrolidine; secondary amine; polyamine; secondary aliphatic amine; enolate; carboxylic acid; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
Pharmacology
IndicationL-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons and also helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.
PharmacodynamicsL-Proline is a major amino acid found in cartilage and is important for maintaining youthful skin as well as repair of muscle, connective tissue and skin damage. It is also essential for the immune system, and for necessary balance of this formula. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. L-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons. Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.
Mechanism of actionGlycogenic, by L-Proline oxidase in the kidney, it is ring-opened and is oxidized to form L-Glutamic acid. L-Ornithine and L-Glutamic acid are converted to L-Proline via L-Glutamic acid-gamma-semialdehyde. It is contained abundantly in collagen, and is intimately involved in the function of arthrosis and chordae.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00249
Oxytetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00293
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00248
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00262
Tigecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00712
Rolitetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00726
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00251
Tetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00294
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00259
Doxycycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00291
Amikacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00253
Paromomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00714
Spectinomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00258
Telithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00252
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00255
Chloramphenicol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00729
Minocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00292
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00256
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00257
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00254
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00711
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00713
Josamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00731
Demeclocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00290
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00250
Lymecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00295
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00247
Lincomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00728
Methacycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00727
Troleandomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00730
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00363
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)DiseaseSMP00207
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9755
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9245
Caco-2 permeable - 0.6216
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5641
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9938
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9819
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8047
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8458
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7439
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7563
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9045
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9627
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9595
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9656
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.992
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9918
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8927
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9574
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.9077
Rat acute toxicity 2.0201 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9555
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9506
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
  • Professional Co.
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-proline crystal3.6USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point221 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.62E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-2.54HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility3.65e+02 g/lALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.5ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)11.33ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count2ChemAxon
polar surface area49.33ChemAxon
rotatable bond count1ChemAxon
refractivity28.06ChemAxon
polarizability11.5ChemAxon
number of rings1ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Richard I. Leavitt, “L-Proline production from algae.” U.S. Patent US4383039, issued October, 1968.

US4383039
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00035
KEGG CompoundC00148
PubChem Compound145742
PubChem Substance46506858
ChemSpider128566
ChEBI17203
ChEMBLCHEMBL54922
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000198
PharmGKBPA451125
IUPHAR3314
Guide to Pharmacology3314
HETPRO
WikipediaL-Proline
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(72.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2 O15460 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

2. Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial O43272 Details

References:

  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed
  2. White TA, Krishnan N, Becker DF, Tanner JJ: Structure and kinetics of monofunctional proline dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 11;282(19):14316-27. Epub 2007 Mar 7. Pubmed
  3. White TA, Tanner JJ: Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005 Aug 1;61(Pt 8):737-9. Epub 2005 Jul 8. Pubmed

3. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase H

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase H O43447 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

4. Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein O94903 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

5. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 P13674 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

6. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B P23284 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

7. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrial P30405 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

8. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase C P45877 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

9. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A P62937 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

10. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase G

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase G Q13427 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

11. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 Q32P28 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

12. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase Q4W8W1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

13. Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial Q7L3T8 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

14. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 Q8IVL5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

15. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3 Q8IVL6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

16. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3 Q53H96 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

17. Trans-L-3-hydroxyproline dehydratase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Trans-L-3-hydroxyproline dehydratase Q96EM0 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

18. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial P32322 Details

References:

  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed
  2. Hu CA, Donald SP, Yu J, Lin WW, Liu Z, Steel G, Obie C, Valle D, Phang JM: Overexpression of proline oxidase induces proline-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jan;295(1-2):85-92. Epub 2006 Jul 28. Pubmed
  3. Meng Z, Lou Z, Liu Z, Hui D, Bartlam M, Rao Z: Purification, characterization, and crystallization of human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Sep;49(1):83-7. Epub 2006 Mar 20. Pubmed

19. Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase P07814 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

20. Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+)

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+) Q9UN76 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

21. Sodium-dependent proline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent proline transporter Q99884 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

22. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2 Q96C36 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Murahama M, Yoshida T, Hayashi F, Ichino T, Sanada Y, Wada K: Purification and characterization of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;42(7):742-50. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial O43272 Details

References:

  1. Phang JM, Donald SP, Pandhare J, Liu Y: The metabolism of proline, a stress substrate, modulates carcinogenic pathways. Amino Acids. 2008 Nov;35(4):681-90. Epub 2008 Apr 10. Pubmed
  2. Phang JM, Liu W, Zabirnyk O: Proline metabolism and microenvironmental stress. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010 Aug 21;30:441-63. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08