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Identification
NameL-Proline
Accession NumberDB00172  (NUTR00047)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-(S)-Proline
(-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
(-)-Proline
(−)-(S)-proline
(−)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
(−)-proline
(2S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
(S)-2-Carboxypyrrolidine
(S)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
(S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
L-(-)-Proline
L-alpha-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
L-Prolin
L-Proline
L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
L-α-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
P
Prolina
PROLINE
Prolinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
AminosynHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 8.5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeHospira, Inc.
Freamine HbcB. Braun Medical Inc.
Freamine IIIB. Braun Medical Inc.
NovamineHospira, Inc.
TravasolBaxter Corporation
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Proline, dl-
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001511
Categories
CAS number147-85-3
WeightAverage: 115.1305
Monoisotopic: 115.063328537
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=ONIBWKKTOPOVIA-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO2/c7-5(8)4-2-1-3-6-4/h4,6H,1-3H2,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)[C@@H]1CCCN1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationL-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons and also helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.
PharmacodynamicsL-Proline is a major amino acid found in cartilage and is important for maintaining youthful skin as well as repair of muscle, connective tissue and skin damage. It is also essential for the immune system, and for necessary balance of this formula. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. L-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons. Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.
Mechanism of actionGlycogenic, by L-Proline oxidase in the kidney, it is ring-opened and is oxidized to form L-Glutamic acid. L-Ornithine and L-Glutamic acid are converted to L-Proline via L-Glutamic acid-gamma-semialdehyde. It is contained abundantly in collagen, and is intimately involved in the function of arthrosis and chordae.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9755
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9245
Caco-2 permeable-0.6216
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5641
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9938
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9819
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8047
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8458
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7439
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7563
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9627
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9595
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9656
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.992
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9918
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8927
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9574
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9077
Rat acute toxicity2.0201 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9555
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9506
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
  • Professional Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionintravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-proline crystal3.6USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point221 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.62E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-2.54HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility365.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity28.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.5 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.03 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-2z40000000-a9127c0e370afb80259bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-2z40000000-3195f21e625520d51316View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-1z10000000-119af746c347969e8ae7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-yz10000000-b31beabb1ed6235e7145View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-z700000000-c1c67bc521741ee891cbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-4z10000000-84e6fb318323fd0261b1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-wz73330000-74b0c34ca5fd7c85f1d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-zp00000000-ba51a901e786b1a4663eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z100000000-f72e2f3812225708fc56View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z300000000-59887da6580f63bcc1c5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-c69dcaf7cb2d1e9d285eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0ze0000000-984f9a23ebfe28f95017View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-f75575cac28a54aa923dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-221cfb8c82f3df76eb51View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-e5741fd9870218d57cafView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z30000000-6bc9b4e775be37fa18d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-a8eb419b26655a6a1dabView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-873ee03b61d1ffcae70fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-61d583960651669fb9e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0z00000000-2c23774af5f6a0c217d5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-1z00000000-d89c1e626ef24a79c89fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-5z00000000-fc27094f2eb75e65b438View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-5z00000000-3221c23504b8847abf8dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-z500000000-8169367f5127c57fae12View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-f704eb8402fcacfccd18View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-ccd74eea36efab2cbab8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-9f214692cd39a6581813View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-ef038c77922e4c89eeb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-zf00000000-4073ea1df57a60b36d69View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-495fdbd2f565bd794632View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0z00000000-e1d0a4b20419dc7bae92View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Richard I. Leavitt, “L-Proline production from algae.” U.S. Patent US4383039, issued October, 1968.

US4383039
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial P32322 Details

References:

  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed
  2. Hu CA, Donald SP, Yu J, Lin WW, Liu Z, Steel G, Obie C, Valle D, Phang JM: Overexpression of proline oxidase induces proline-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jan;295(1-2):85-92. Epub 2006 Jul 28. Pubmed
  3. Meng Z, Lou Z, Liu Z, Hui D, Bartlam M, Rao Z: Purification, characterization, and crystallization of human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Sep;49(1):83-7. Epub 2006 Mar 20. Pubmed

2. Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase P07814 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

3. Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+)

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+) Q9UN76 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

4. Sodium-dependent proline transporter

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent proline transporter Q99884 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

5. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2 Q96C36 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Murahama M, Yoshida T, Hayashi F, Ichino T, Sanada Y, Wada K: Purification and characterization of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;42(7):742-50. Pubmed

6. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2 O15460 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial O43272 Details

References:

  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed
  2. White TA, Krishnan N, Becker DF, Tanner JJ: Structure and kinetics of monofunctional proline dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 11;282(19):14316-27. Epub 2007 Mar 7. Pubmed
  3. White TA, Tanner JJ: Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005 Aug 1;61(Pt 8):737-9. Epub 2005 Jul 8. Pubmed

8. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase H

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase H O43447 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

9. Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein O94903 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

10. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 P13674 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

11. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B P23284 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

12. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrial P30405 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

13. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase C

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase C P45877 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

14. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A P62937 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

15. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase G

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase G Q13427 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

16. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 Q32P28 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

17. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase Q4W8W1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

18. Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial Q7L3T8 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

19. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 Q8IVL5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

20. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3 Q8IVL6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

21. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3 Q53H96 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

22. Trans-L-3-hydroxyproline dehydratase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline dehydratase Q96EM0 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial O43272 Details

References:

  1. Phang JM, Donald SP, Pandhare J, Liu Y: The metabolism of proline, a stress substrate, modulates carcinogenic pathways. Amino Acids. 2008 Nov;35(4):681-90. Epub 2008 Apr 10. Pubmed
  2. Phang JM, Liu W, Zabirnyk O: Proline metabolism and microenvironmental stress. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010 Aug 21;30:441-63. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 03, 2015 09:51