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Identification
NameL-Tryptophan
Accession NumberDB00150  (EXPT02064, NUTR00058)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for nitrogen balance in adults. It is a precursor of indole alkaloids in plants. It is a precursor of serotonin (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to niacin, albeit inefficiently, in mammals. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(-)-TryptophanNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-alpha-amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-(3-indolyl)-propionic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-TryptophanNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-α-amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-(-)-TryptophanNot AvailableNot Available
L-(−)-tryptophanNot AvailableNot Available
L-β-3-indolylalanineNot AvailableNot Available
TrpNot AvailableNot Available
TryptophanNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
Alti-TryptophanNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number73-22-3
WeightAverage: 204.2252
Monoisotopic: 204.089877638
Chemical FormulaC11H12N2O2
InChI KeyQIVBCDIJIAJPQS-VIFPVBQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H12N2O2/c12-9(11(14)15)5-7-6-13-10-4-2-1-3-8(7)10/h1-4,6,9,13H,5,12H2,(H,14,15)/t9-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C12)C(O)=O
Mass Specshow(7.51 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassIndoles and Derivatives
SubclassIndolyl Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Direct parentIndolyl Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsTryptamines and Derivatives; Alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives; Indoles; Amino Fatty Acids; Substituted Pyrroles; Benzene and Substituted Derivatives; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids; Polyamines; Monoalkylamines
Substituentsalpha-amino acid or derivative; indole; substituted pyrrole; benzene; pyrrole; carboxylic acid derivative; carboxylic acid; enolate; polyamine; primary amine; primary aliphatic amine; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an indole ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationTryptophan may be useful in increasing serotonin production, promoting healthy sleep, managing depression by enhancing mental and emotional well-being, managing pain tolerance, and managing weight.
PharmacodynamicsTryptophan is critical for the production of the body's proteins, enzymes and muscle tissue. It is also essential for the production of niacin, the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin and melatonin. Tryptophan supplements can be used as natural relaxants to help relieve insomnia. Tryptophan can also reduce anxiety and depression and has been shown to reduce the intensity of migraine headaches. Other promising indications include the relief of chronic pain, reduction of impulsivity or mania and the treatment of obsessive or compulsive disorders. Tryptophan also appears to help the immune system and can reduce the risk of cardiac spasms. Tryptophan deficiencies may lead to coronary artery spasms. Tryptophan is used as an essential nutrient in infant formulas and intravenous feeding. Tryptophan is marketed as a prescription drug (Tryptan) for those who do not seem to respond well to conventional antidepressants. It may also be used to treat those afflicted with seasonal affective disorder (a winter-onset depression). Tryptopan serves as the precursor for the synthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine).
Mechanism of actionA number of important side reactions occur during the catabolism of tryptophan on the pathway to acetoacetate. The first enzyme of the catabolic pathway is an iron porphyrin oxygenase that opens the indole ring. The latter enzyme is highly inducible, its concentration rising almost 10-fold on a diet high in tryptophan. Kynurenine is the first key branch point intermediate in the pathway. Kynurenine undergoes deamniation in a standard transamination reaction yielding kynurenic acid. Kynurenic acid and metabolites have been shown to act as antiexcitotoxics and anticonvulsives. A second side branch reaction produces anthranilic acid plus alanine. Another equivalent of alanine is produced further along the main catabolic pathway, and it is the production of these alanine residues that allows tryptophan to be classified among the glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. The second important branch point converts kynurenine into 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic semialdehyde, which has two fates. The main flow of carbon elements from this intermediate is to glutarate. An important side reaction in liver is a transamination and several rearrangements to produce limited amounts of nicotinic acid, which leads to production of a small amount of NAD+ and NADP+.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral rat LD50: > 16 gm/kg. Investigated as a tumorigen, mutagen, reproductive effector. Symptoms of overdose include agitation, confusion, diarrhea, fever, overactive reflexes, poor coordination, restlessness, shivering, sweating, talking or acting with excitement you cannot control, trembling or shaking, twitching, and vomiting.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Tryptophan MetabolismMetabolicSMP00063
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.984
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.951
Caco-2 permeable - 0.5943
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5988
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9951
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9779
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8805
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8463
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7897
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7841
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9531
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9481
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9307
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9644
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9432
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9542
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9284
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.931
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.8348
Rat acute toxicity 1.1785 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9864
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9402
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tryptan 1 g Tablet1.6USDtablet
Tryptan 750 mg Tablet1.2USDtablet
Apo-Tryptophan 1 g Tablet0.9USDtablet
Ratio-Tryptophan 1 g Tablet0.9USDtablet
Tryptan 500 mg Capsule0.8USDcapsule
Tryptan 500 mg Tablet0.8USDtablet
L-tryptophan crystals0.72USDg
Apo-Tryptophan 500 mg Capsule0.45USDcapsule
Apo-Tryptophan 500 mg Tablet0.45USDtablet
Pms-Tryptophan 500 mg Capsule0.45USDcapsule
Pms-Tryptophan 500 mg Tablet0.45USDtablet
Ratio-Tryptophan 500 mg Capsule0.45USDcapsule
Ratio-Tryptophan 500 mg Tablet0.45USDtablet
Tryptan 250 mg Tablet0.4USDtablet
L-tryptophan 500 mg capsule0.33USDcapsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point290.5 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.34E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-1.06HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-1.23ADME Research, USCD
pKa7.38 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.36e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP-1.1ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)2.54ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.4ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area79.11ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity56.2ChemAxon
polarizability21.05ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Sten Vilhelm Gatenbeck, Per Olof Hedman, “Fermentative process for the production of L-tryptophan and its derivatives.” U.S. Patent US3963572, issued April, 1974.

US3963572
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00020
KEGG CompoundC00078
PubChem Compound6305
PubChem Substance46508329
ChemSpider6066
BindingDB21974
ChEBI16828
ChEMBLCHEMBL54976
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001316
PharmGKBPA10323
IUPHAR717
Guide to Pharmacology717
HETTRP
ATC CodesN06AX02
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.92
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(71.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
DesvenlafaxineIncreased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
IsocarboxazidPossible severe adverse reaction with this combination
VilazodoneDue to risks of enhanced serotonin activity and/or adverse reactions (e.g., serotonin syndrome), concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tryptophan is not recommended. Avoid combination.
ZolmitriptanUse of two serotonin modulators, such as zolmitriptan and L-tryptophan, increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial Q9UGM6 Details

References:

  1. Paley EL, Denisova G, Sokolova O, Posternak N, Wang X, Brownell AL: Tryptamine Induces Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase-Mediated Neurodegeneration With Neurofibrillary Tangles in Human Cell and Mouse Models. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9(1):55-82. Pubmed
  2. Retailleau P, Weinreb V, Hu M, Carter CW Jr: Crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with adenosine-5’ tetraphosphate: evidence for distributed use of catalytic binding energy in amino acid activation by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. J Mol Biol. 2007 May 25;369(1):108-28. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed
  3. Banin E, Dorrell MI, Aguilar E, Ritter MR, Aderman CM, Smith AC, Friedlander J, Friedlander M: T2-TrpRS inhibits preretinal neovascularization and enhances physiological vascular regrowth in OIR as assessed by a new method of quantification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 May;47(5):2125-34. Pubmed
  4. Yang XL, Otero FJ, Ewalt KL, Liu J, Swairjo MA, Kohrer C, RajBhandary UL, Skene RJ, McRee DE, Schimmel P: Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. EMBO J. 2006 Jun 21;25(12):2919-29. Epub 2006 May 25. Pubmed
  5. Charriere F, Helgadottir S, Horn EK, Soll D, Schneider A: Dual targeting of a single tRNA(Trp) requires two different tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases in Trypanosoma brucei. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 2;103(18):6847-52. Epub 2006 Apr 24. Pubmed

2. Tryptophan--tRNA ligase

Kind: protein

Organism: Geobacillus stearothermophilus

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan--tRNA ligase P00953 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Tsuchiya W, Umehara T, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Determination of tryptophan tRNA recognition sites for tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2004;(48):185-6. Pubmed
  4. Kovaleva GK, Favorova OO, Moroz SG, Krauspe R, Kiselev LL: [Active intermediate compound of tryptophanyl-tRNA-synthetase with tryptophan] Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 1976;229(2):492-5. Pubmed
  5. Kovaleva GK, Degtiarev SKh, Favorova OO: [Affinity modification of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by an alkylating L-tryptophan analog] Mol Biol (Mosk). 1979 Nov-Dec;13(6):1237-46. Pubmed

3. Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic P23381 Details

References:

  1. Tsuchiya W, Umehara T, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Determination of tryptophan tRNA recognition sites for tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2004;(48):185-6. Pubmed
  2. Retailleau P, Weinreb V, Hu M, Carter CW Jr: Crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with adenosine-5’ tetraphosphate: evidence for distributed use of catalytic binding energy in amino acid activation by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. J Mol Biol. 2007 May 25;369(1):108-28. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed
  3. Zhu L, Ji F, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Liu Q, Zhang JZ, Matsushima K, Cao Q, Zhang Y: Synovial autoreactive T cells in rheumatoid arthritis resist IDO-mediated inhibition. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 1;177(11):8226-33. Pubmed
  4. Yadav MC, Burudi EM, Alirezaei M, Flynn CC, Watry DD, Lanigan CM, Fox HS: IFN-gamma-induced IDO and WRS expression in microglia is differentially regulated by IL-4. Glia. 2007 Oct;55(13):1385-96. Pubmed
  5. Yang XL, Otero FJ, Ewalt KL, Liu J, Swairjo MA, Kohrer C, RajBhandary UL, Skene RJ, McRee DE, Schimmel P: Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. EMBO J. 2006 Jun 21;25(12):2919-29. Epub 2006 May 25. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase P48775 Details

References:

  1. Rafice SA, Chauhan N, Efimov I, Basran J, Raven EL: Oxidation of L-tryptophan in biology: a comparison between tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Apr;37(Pt 2):408-12. Pubmed

2. Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase P20711 Details

References:

  1. Tyce GM: Origin and metabolism of serotonin. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1990;16 Suppl 3:S1-7. Pubmed

3. Tryptophan--tRNA ligase

Kind: protein

Organism: Geobacillus stearothermophilus

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan--tRNA ligase P00953 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Tsuchiya W, Umehara T, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Determination of tryptophan tRNA recognition sites for tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2004;(48):185-6. Pubmed
  4. Kovaleva GK, Favorova OO, Moroz SG, Krauspe R, Kiselev LL: [Active intermediate compound of tryptophanyl-tRNA-synthetase with tryptophan] Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 1976;229(2):492-5. Pubmed
  5. Kovaleva GK, Degtiarev SKh, Favorova OO: [Affinity modification of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by an alkylating L-tryptophan analog] Mol Biol (Mosk). 1979 Nov-Dec;13(6):1237-46. Pubmed

4. Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial Q9UGM6 Details

References:

  1. Paley EL, Denisova G, Sokolova O, Posternak N, Wang X, Brownell AL: Tryptamine Induces Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase-Mediated Neurodegeneration With Neurofibrillary Tangles in Human Cell and Mouse Models. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9(1):55-82. Pubmed
  2. Retailleau P, Weinreb V, Hu M, Carter CW Jr: Crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with adenosine-5’ tetraphosphate: evidence for distributed use of catalytic binding energy in amino acid activation by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. J Mol Biol. 2007 May 25;369(1):108-28. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed
  3. Banin E, Dorrell MI, Aguilar E, Ritter MR, Aderman CM, Smith AC, Friedlander J, Friedlander M: T2-TrpRS inhibits preretinal neovascularization and enhances physiological vascular regrowth in OIR as assessed by a new method of quantification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 May;47(5):2125-34. Pubmed
  4. Yang XL, Otero FJ, Ewalt KL, Liu J, Swairjo MA, Kohrer C, RajBhandary UL, Skene RJ, McRee DE, Schimmel P: Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. EMBO J. 2006 Jun 21;25(12):2919-29. Epub 2006 May 25. Pubmed
  5. Charriere F, Helgadottir S, Horn EK, Soll D, Schneider A: Dual targeting of a single tRNA(Trp) requires two different tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases in Trypanosoma brucei. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 2;103(18):6847-52. Epub 2006 Apr 24. Pubmed

5. Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1 P17752 Details

References:

  1. Pavon JA, Fitzpatrick PF: Insights into the catalytic mechanisms of phenylalanine and tryptophan hydroxylase from kinetic isotope effects on aromatic hydroxylation. Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 12;45(36):11030-7. Pubmed
  2. Langfort J, Baranczuk E, Pawlak D, Chalimoniuk M, Lukacova N, Marsala J, Gorski J: The effect of endurance training on regional serotonin metabolism in the brain during early stage of detraining period in the female rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2006 Oct-Nov;26(7-8):1327-42. Epub 2006 Aug 1. Pubmed
  3. Nakamura K, Hasegawa H: Developmental role of tryptophan hydroxylase in the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 2007 Feb;35(1):45-54. Pubmed
  4. Invernizzi RW: Role of TPH-2 in brain function: News from behavioral and pharmacologic studies. J Neurosci Res. 2007 May 10;. Pubmed
  5. Neckameyer WS, Coleman CM, Eadie S, Goodwin SF: Compartmentalization of neuronal and peripheral serotonin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Mar 21;. Pubmed

6. Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 2 Q8IWU9 Details

References:

  1. Lopez VA, Detera-Wadleigh S, Cardona I, Kassem L, McMahon FJ: Nested association between genetic variation in tryptophan hydroxylase II, bipolar affective disorder, and suicide attempts. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 15;61(2):181-6. Epub 2006 Jun 27. Pubmed
  2. Kraus MR, Al-Taie O, Schafer A, Pfersdorff M, Lesch KP, Scheurlen M: Serotonin-1A receptor gene HTR1A variation predicts interferon-induced depression in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2007 Apr;132(4):1279-86. Epub 2007 Feb 25. Pubmed
  3. Nakamura K, Hasegawa H: Developmental role of tryptophan hydroxylase in the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 2007 Feb;35(1):45-54. Pubmed
  4. Invernizzi RW: Role of TPH-2 in brain function: News from behavioral and pharmacologic studies. J Neurosci Res. 2007 May 10;. Pubmed
  5. Calcagno E, Canetta A, Guzzetti S, Cervo L, Invernizzi RW: Strain differences in basal and post-citalopram extracellular 5-HT in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus: relation with tryptophan hydroxylase-2 activity. J Neurochem. 2007 Jul 31;. Pubmed

7. Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic P23381 Details

References:

  1. Tsuchiya W, Umehara T, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Determination of tryptophan tRNA recognition sites for tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2004;(48):185-6. Pubmed
  2. Retailleau P, Weinreb V, Hu M, Carter CW Jr: Crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with adenosine-5’ tetraphosphate: evidence for distributed use of catalytic binding energy in amino acid activation by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. J Mol Biol. 2007 May 25;369(1):108-28. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed
  3. Zhu L, Ji F, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Liu Q, Zhang JZ, Matsushima K, Cao Q, Zhang Y: Synovial autoreactive T cells in rheumatoid arthritis resist IDO-mediated inhibition. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 1;177(11):8226-33. Pubmed
  4. Yadav MC, Burudi EM, Alirezaei M, Flynn CC, Watry DD, Lanigan CM, Fox HS: IFN-gamma-induced IDO and WRS expression in microglia is differentially regulated by IL-4. Glia. 2007 Oct;55(13):1385-96. Pubmed
  5. Yang XL, Otero FJ, Ewalt KL, Liu J, Swairjo MA, Kohrer C, RajBhandary UL, Skene RJ, McRee DE, Schimmel P: Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. EMBO J. 2006 Jun 21;25(12):2919-29. Epub 2006 May 25. Pubmed

8. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 P14902 Details

References:

  1. Agaugue S, Perrin-Cocon L, Coutant F, Andre P, Lotteau V: 1-Methyl-tryptophan can interfere with TLR signaling in dendritic cells independently of IDO activity. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 15;177(4):2061-71. Pubmed
  2. Fallarino F, Gizzi S, Mosci P, Grohmann U, Puccetti P: Tryptophan catabolism in IDO+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Curr Drug Metab. 2007 Apr;8(3):209-16. Pubmed
  3. Cozzi A, Zignego AL, Carpendo R, Biagiotti T, Aldinucci A, Monti M, Giannini C, Rosselli M, Laffi G, Moroni F: Low serum tryptophan levels, reduced macrophage IDO activity and high frequency of psychopathology in HCV patients. J Viral Hepat. 2006 Jun;13(6):402-8. Pubmed
  4. Grohmann U, Volpi C, Fallarino F, Bozza S, Bianchi R, Vacca C, Orabona C, Belladonna ML, Ayroldi E, Nocentini G, Boon L, Bistoni F, Fioretti MC, Romani L, Riccardi C, Puccetti P: Reverse signaling through GITR ligand enables dexamethasone to activate IDO in allergy. Nat Med. 2007 May;13(5):579-86. Epub 2007 Apr 8. Pubmed
  5. Zheng X, Koropatnick J, Li M, Zhang X, Ling F, Ren X, Hao X, Sun H, Vladau C, Franek JA, Feng B, Urquhart BL, Zhong R, Freeman DJ, Garcia B, Min WP: Reinstalling antitumor immunity by inhibiting tumor-derived immunosuppressive molecule IDO through RNA interference. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15;177(8):5639-46. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Rafice SA, Chauhan N, Efimov I, Basran J, Raven EL: Oxidation of L-tryptophan in biology: a comparison between tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Apr;37(Pt 2):408-12. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 P36021 Details

References:

  1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. Pubmed

2. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. Pubmed
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08