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Identification
NameL-Methionine
Accession NumberDB00134  (NUTR00038)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A sulfur containing essential amino acid that is important in many body functions. It is a chelating agent for heavy metals. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(2S)-2-amino-4-(Methylsulfanyl)butanoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-2-amino-4-(methylthio)butyric acidNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-methionineNot AvailableNot Available
L-(-)-MethionineNot AvailableNot Available
L-a-Amino-g-methylthiobutyric acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-alpha-amino-gamma-Methylmercaptobutyric acidNot AvailableNot Available
L-MethioninNot AvailableNot Available
L-MethionineNot AvailableNot Available
L-α-amino-γ-methylmercaptobutyric acidNot AvailableNot Available
MNot AvailableNot Available
MetNot AvailableNot Available
MethionineNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AcimethinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number63-68-3
WeightAverage: 149.211
Monoisotopic: 149.051049291
Chemical FormulaC5H11NO2S
InChI KeyFFEARJCKVFRZRR-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H11NO2S/c1-9-3-2-4(6)5(7)8/h4H,2-3,6H2,1H3,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-4-(methylsulfanyl)butanoic acid
SMILES
CSCC[C@H](N)C(O)=O
Mass Specshow(9.39 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsAmino Fatty Acids; Thioethers; Polyamines; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids; Monoalkylamines
Substituentscarboxylic acid; enolate; polyamine; thioether; primary amine; amine; primary aliphatic amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for protein synthesis including the formation of SAMe, L-homocysteine, L-cysteine, taurine, and sulfate.
PharmacodynamicsL-Methionine is a principle supplier of sulfur which prevents disorders of the hair, skin and nails; helps lower cholesterol levels by increasing the liver's production of lecithin; reduces liver fat and protects the kidneys; a natural chelating agent for heavy metals; regulates the formation of ammonia and creates ammonia-free urine which reduces bladder irritation; influences hair follicles and promotes hair growth. L-methionine may protect against the toxic effects of hepatotoxins, such as acetaminophen. Methionine may have antioxidant activity.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of the possible anti-hepatotoxic activity of L-methionine is not entirely clear. It is thought that metabolism of high doses of acetaminophen in the liver lead to decreased levels of hepatic glutathione and increased oxidative stress. L-methionine is a precursor to L-cysteine. L-cysteine itself may have antioxidant activity. L-cysteine is also a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione. Antioxidant activity of L-methionine and metabolites of L-methionine appear to account for its possible anti-hepatotoxic activity. Recent research suggests that methionine itself has free-radical scavenging activity by virtue of its sulfur, as well as its chelating ability.
AbsorptionAbsorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes by an active transport process.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityDoses of L-methionine of up to 250 mg daily are generally well tolerated. Higher doses may cause nausea, vomiting and headache. Healthy adults taking 8 grams of L-methionine daily for four days were found to have reduced serum folate levels and leucocytosis. Healthy adults taking 13.9 grams of L-methionine daily for five days were found to have changes in serum pH and potassium and increased urinary calcium excretion. Schizophrenic patients given 10 to 20 grams of L-methionine daily for two weeks developed functional psychoses. Single doses of 8 grams precipitated encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00721
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00249
Oxytetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00293
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00248
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00262
Tigecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00712
Rolitetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00726
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00251
Tetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00294
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00259
Doxycycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00291
Amikacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00253
Paromomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00714
Spectinomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00258
Telithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00252
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00255
Chloramphenicol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00729
Minocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00292
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00256
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00257
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00254
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00711
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00713
Josamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00731
Demeclocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00290
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00250
Lymecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00295
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00247
Lincomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00728
Methacycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00727
Troleandomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00730
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00214
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00221
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00004
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00445
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeDiseaseSMP00570
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00177
Betaine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00123
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)DiseaseSMP00179
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)DiseaseSMP00340
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00242
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00222
DimethylglycinuriaDiseaseSMP00484
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticDiseaseSMP00485
HypermethioninemiaDiseaseSMP00341
Methionine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00033
SarcosinemiaDiseaseSMP00244
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9797
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.8447
Caco-2 permeable - 0.6698
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5351
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9802
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9919
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8913
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7875
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7323
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7008
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8295
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9489
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9567
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.951
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9758
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9938
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9224
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.5613
Rat acute toxicity 0.6483 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9725
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9655
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral500 mg
PowderOral
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral500 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Dl-methionine powder0.26USDg
Methionine powder0.03USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point283 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility5.66E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-1.87HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-0.42ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.28 (at 25 °C)ULLMANN VA2:63 (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility2.39e+01 g/lALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-2.2ChemAxon
logS-0.8ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)2.53ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.5ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count2ChemAxon
polar surface area63.32ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity37.59ChemAxon
polarizability15.5ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Clyde Eugene Stauffer, “Process for producing N-acyl-L-methionine.” U.S. Patent US3963573, issued June, 1950.

US3963573
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD04983
KEGG CompoundC01733
PubChem Compound6137
PubChem Substance46505750
ChemSpider5907
ChEBI16643
ChEMBLCHEMBL42336
PharmGKBPA450423
HETMET
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/lme_0173.shtml
ATC CodesV03AB26
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(72.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Methionine synthase reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: product of

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine synthase reductase Q9UBK8 Details

References:

  1. Kim DJ, Park BL, Koh JM, Kim GS, Kim LH, Cheong HS, Shin HD, Hong JM, Kim TH, Shin HI, Park EK, Kim SY: Methionine synthase reductase polymorphisms are associated with serum osteocalcin levels in postmenopausal women. Exp Mol Med. 2006 Oct 31;38(5):519-24. Pubmed
  2. Tvedegaard KC, Rudiger NS, Pedersen BN, Moller J: Detection of MTRR 66A—>G polymorphism using the real-time polymerase chain reaction machine LightCycler for determination of composition of allele after restriction cleavage. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2006;66(8):685-93. Pubmed
  3. Elmore CL, Wu X, Leclerc D, Watson ED, Bottiglieri T, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA, Cross JC, Rozen R, Gravel RA, Matthews RG: Metabolic derangement of methionine and folate metabolism in mice deficient in methionine synthase reductase. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 May;91(1):85-97. Epub 2007 Mar 21. Pubmed

2. Methionine synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: product of

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine synthase Q99707 Details

References:

  1. Taurog RE, Matthews RG: Activation of methyltetrahydrofolate by cobalamin-independent methionine synthase. Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 25;45(16):5092-102. Pubmed
  2. Hughes JA: In vivo hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in Escherichia coli increases export of 5-methylthioribose. Can J Microbiol. 2006 Jun;52(6):599-602. Pubmed
  3. Reynolds E: Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Nov;5(11):949-60. Pubmed
  4. Banks EC, Doughty SW, Toms SM, Wheelhouse RT, Nicolaou A: Inhibition of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase by substituted benzo-fused heterocycles. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(1):287-99. Pubmed
  5. Yamada K, Kawata T, Wada M, Mori K, Tamai H, Tanaka N, Tadokoro T, Tobimatsu T, Toraya T, Maekawa A: Testicular injury to rats fed on soybean protein-based vitamin B12-deficient diet can be reduced by methionine supplementation. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007 Apr;53(2):95-101. Pubmed

3. Methionine aminopeptidase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: product of

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine aminopeptidase 2 P50579 Details

References:

  1. Upadhya R, Zhang HS, Weiss LM: System for expression of microsporidian methionine amino peptidase type 2 (MetAP2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Oct;50(10):3389-95. Epub 2006 Aug 17. Pubmed
  2. Sheppard GS, Wang J, Kawai M, Fidanze SD, BaMaung NY, Erickson SA, Barnes DM, Tedrow JS, Kolaczkowski L, Vasudevan A, Park DC, Wang GT, Sanders WJ, Mantei RA, Palazzo F, Tucker-Garcia L, Lou P, Zhang Q, Park CH, Kim KH, Petros A, Olejniczak E, Nettesheim D, Hajduk P, Henkin J, Lesniewski R, Davidsen SK, Bell RL: Discovery and optimization of anthranilic acid sulfonamides as inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase-2: a structural basis for the reduction of albumin binding. J Med Chem. 2006 Jun 29;49(13):3832-49. Pubmed
  3. Addlagatta A, Matthews BW: Structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor ovalicin bound to its noncognate target, human Type 1 methionine aminopeptidase. Protein Sci. 2006 Aug;15(8):1842-8. Epub 2006 Jul 5. Pubmed
  4. Hu X, Addlagatta A, Lu J, Matthews BW, Liu JO: Elucidation of the function of type 1 human methionine aminopeptidase during cell cycle progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 28;103(48):18148-53. Epub 2006 Nov 17. Pubmed
  5. Nonato MC, Widom J, Clardy J: Human methionine aminopeptidase type 2 in complex with L- and D-methionine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 May 15;16(10):2580-3. Epub 2006 Mar 15. Pubmed

4. Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: product of

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 Q93088 Details

References:

  1. Slow S, Garrow TA: Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats. J Nutr. 2006 Sep;136(9):2279-83. Pubmed
  2. Sparks JD, Collins HL, Chirieac DV, Cianci J, Jokinen J, Sowden MP, Galloway CA, Sparks CE: Hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. Biochem J. 2006 Apr 15;395(2):363-71. Pubmed
  3. Uthus EO, Reeves PG, Saari JT: Copper deficiency decreases plasma homocysteine in rats. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1370-4. Pubmed
  4. Liu J, Xie Y, Cooper R, Ducharme DM, Tennant R, Diwan BA, Waalkes MP: Transplacental exposure to inorganic arsenic at a hepatocarcinogenic dose induces fetal gene expression changes in mice indicative of aberrant estrogen signaling and disrupted steroid metabolism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 May 1;220(3):284-91. Epub 2007 Feb 6. Pubmed
  5. Hazra A, Wu K, Kraft P, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Hunter DJ: Twenty-four non-synonymous polymorphisms in the one-carbon metabolic pathway and risk of colorectal adenoma in the Nurses’ Health Study. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jul;28(7):1510-9. Epub 2007 Mar 26. Pubmed

5. S-methylmethionine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase BHMT2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: product of

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
S-methylmethionine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase BHMT2 Q9H2M3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Glutamine synthetase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamine synthetase P15104 Details

References:

  1. Rowe WB, Meister A: Studies on the inhibition of glutamine synthetase by methionine sulfone. Biochemistry. 1973 Apr 10;12(8):1578-82. Pubmed
  2. Rowe WB, Ronzio RA, Meister A: Inhibition of glutamine synthetase by methionine sulfoximine. Studies on methionine sulfoximine phosphate. Biochemistry. 1969 Jun;8(6):2674-80. Pubmed
  3. Orr J, Haselkorn R: Regulation of glutamine synthetase activity and synthesis in free-living and symbiotic Anabaena spp. J Bacteriol. 1982 Nov;152(2):626-35. Pubmed

2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase P42898 Details

References:

  1. Lor KL, Cossins EA: Regulation of C metabolism by L-methionine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 1972 Dec;130(3):773-83. Pubmed

3. S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2 P31153 Details

References:

  1. Rodriguez JL, Boukaba A, Sandoval J, Georgieva EI, Latasa MU, Garcia-Trevijano ER, Serviddio G, Nakamura T, Avila MA, Sastre J, Torres L, Mato JM, Lopez-Rodas G: Transcription of the MAT2A gene, coding for methionine adenosyltransferase, is up-regulated by E2F and Sp1 at a chromatin level during proliferation of liver cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(4):842-50. Epub 2007 Jan 20. Pubmed
  2. Yang H, Magilnick N, Noureddin M, Mato JM, Lu SC: Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on methionine adenosyltransferase genes and growth is cell density-dependent in HepG2 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Mar;210(3):766-73. Pubmed
  3. Lin WC, Lin WL: Ameliorative effect of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jan 14;12(2):265-70. Pubmed
  4. Chen H, Xia M, Lin M, Yang H, Kuhlenkamp J, Li T, Sodir NM, Chen YH, Josef-Lenz H, Laird PW, Clarke S, Mato JM, Lu SC: Role of methionine adenosyltransferase 2A and S-adenosylmethionine in mitogen-induced growth of human colon cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jul;133(1):207-18. Epub 2007 Apr 11. Pubmed

4. Methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B2, mitochondrial Q9Y3D2 Details

References:

  1. Schallreuter KU, Rubsam K, Chavan B, Zothner C, Gillbro JM, Spencer JD, Wood JM: Functioning methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B are present in human epidermal melanocytes in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Mar 31;342(1):145-52. Epub 2006 Feb 3. Pubmed
  2. Ranaivoson FM, Kauffmann B, Neiers F, Wu J, Boschi-Muller S, Panjikar S, Aubry A, Branlant G, Favier F: The X-ray structure of the N-terminal domain of PILB from Neisseria meningitidis reveals a thioredoxin-fold. J Mol Biol. 2006 Apr 28;358(2):443-54. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Pubmed

5. S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-1 Q00266 Details

References:

  1. Linnebank M, Lagler F, Muntau AC, Roschinger W, Olgemoller B, Fowler B, Koch HG: Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) I/III deficiency with concurrent hyperhomocysteinaemia: two novel cases. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):1167-8. Pubmed
  2. Yang H, Magilnick N, Noureddin M, Mato JM, Lu SC: Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on methionine adenosyltransferase genes and growth is cell density-dependent in HepG2 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Mar;210(3):766-73. Pubmed
  3. Chen H, Xia M, Lin M, Yang H, Kuhlenkamp J, Li T, Sodir NM, Chen YH, Josef-Lenz H, Laird PW, Clarke S, Mato JM, Lu SC: Role of methionine adenosyltransferase 2A and S-adenosylmethionine in mitogen-induced growth of human colon cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jul;133(1):207-18. Epub 2007 Apr 11. Pubmed
  4. Rodriguez JL, Boukaba A, Sandoval J, Georgieva EI, Latasa MU, Garcia-Trevijano ER, Serviddio G, Nakamura T, Avila MA, Sastre J, Torres L, Mato JM, Lopez-Rodas G: Transcription of the MAT2A gene, coding for methionine adenosyltransferase, is up-regulated by E2F and Sp1 at a chromatin level during proliferation of liver cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(4):842-50. Epub 2007 Jan 20. Pubmed
  5. Prudova A, Bauman Z, Braun A, Vitvitsky V, Lu SC, Banerjee R: S-adenosylmethionine stabilizes cystathionine beta-synthase and modulates redox capacity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 25;103(17):6489-94. Epub 2006 Apr 13. Pubmed

6. Methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B1 Q9NZV6 Details

References:

  1. Kim HY, Gladyshev VN: Alternative first exon splicing regulates subcellular distribution of methionine sulfoxide reductases. BMC Mol Biol. 2006 Mar 16;7:11. Pubmed
  2. Kim HY, Fomenko DE, Yoon YE, Gladyshev VN: Catalytic advantages provided by selenocysteine in methionine-S-sulfoxide reductases. Biochemistry. 2006 Nov 21;45(46):13697-704. Pubmed

7. Mitochondrial peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mitochondrial peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase Q9UJ68 Details

References:

  1. Schallreuter KU, Rubsam K, Chavan B, Zothner C, Gillbro JM, Spencer JD, Wood JM: Functioning methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B are present in human epidermal melanocytes in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Mar 31;342(1):145-52. Epub 2006 Feb 3. Pubmed
  2. Su Z, Limberis J, Martin RL, Xu R, Kolbe K, Heinemann SH, Hoshi T, Cox BF, Gintant GA: Functional consequences of methionine oxidation of hERG potassium channels. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Sep 1;74(5):702-11. Epub 2007 Jun 7. Pubmed
  3. Oien DB, Moskovitz J: Ablation of the mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductase A affects the expression level of cysteine deoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jan 12;352(2):556-9. Epub 2006 Nov 20. Pubmed
  4. Rouhier N, Vieira Dos Santos C, Tarrago L, Rey P: Plant methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B multigenic families. Photosynth Res. 2006 Sep;89(2-3):247-62. Epub 2006 Sep 22. Pubmed
  5. Gand A, Antoine M, Boschi-Muller S, Branlant G: Characterization of the amino acids involved in substrate specificity of methionine sulfoxide reductase A. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jul 13;282(28):20484-91. Epub 2007 May 11. Pubmed

8. Methionine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic P56192 Details

References:

  1. Chwatko G, Boers GH, Strauss KA, Shih DM, Jakubowski H: Mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase or cystathionine beta-synthase gene, or a high-methionine diet, increase homocysteine thiolactone levels in humans and mice. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1707-13. Epub 2007 Feb 27. Pubmed
  2. Jakubowski H: Pathophysiological consequences of homocysteine excess. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1741S-1749S. Pubmed
  3. Vaughan MD, Sampson PB, Daub E, Honek JF: Investigation of bioisosteric effects on the interaction of substrates/ inhibitors with the methionyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli. Med Chem. 2005 May;1(3):227-37. Pubmed

9. Methionine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial Q96GW9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Spencer AC, Heck A, Takeuchi N, Watanabe K, Spremulli LL: Characterization of the human mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 2004 Aug 3;43(30):9743-54. Pubmed

10. Methionine adenosyltransferase 2 subunit beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methionine adenosyltransferase 2 subunit beta Q9NZL9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. LeGros L, Halim AB, Chamberlin ME, Geller A, Kotb M: Regulation of the human MAT2B gene encoding the regulatory beta subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase, MAT II. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 6;276(27):24918-24. Epub 2001 May 3. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08