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Identification
NameGlycine
Accession NumberDB00145  (NUTR00028)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
Description

A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Aminoacetic acid
Aminoessigsaeure
Aminoethanoic acid
G
Gly
Glycin
Glycine
Glycocoll
Glykokoll
Glyzin
H2N-CH2-COOH
Hgly
Leimzucker
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Glycineirrigant1.5 g/100mLirrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.1978-02-06Not applicableUs
Glycineirrigant1.5 g/100mLirrigationHospira, Inc.1980-02-22Not applicableUs
Glycinesolution1.5 g/100mLirrigationBaxter Healthcare Corporation1980-05-30Not applicableUs
Glycineirrigant1.5 g/100mLirrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.2013-12-04Not applicableUs
Glycine 1.5% Irrigationsolution15 mgirrigationHospira Healthcare Corporation1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Glycine 1.5% Irrigation USP Solliquid1.5 girrigationBaxter Corporation1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Glycine Irrigation 1.5% USPliquid1.5 %irrigationB. Braun Medical Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Gyn-HydralinNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexClintec Nutrition Company
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexClintec Nutrition Company
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.Clintec Nutrition Company
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrlytes In 10% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Without Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25%trav. Amino Acid InJ.W.O.elect.5%dext.Clintec Nutrition Company
4.25%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.5%dex.Clintec Nutrition Company
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
Aminoderm PoudreDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
AminosynHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 10% W ElectrolytesAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn 3.5% MAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn 5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 8.5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 8.5% Injection With ElectrolytesHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn IIHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 15%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 5% InjAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% M In 10% Dextrose(dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 10% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% M In 20% Dextrose (dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II In Dextrose InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Antacid 2 TabletsAdvertising Unlimited Inc. (A.U.I.)
Cicatrin PowderGlaxosmithkline Inc
ClinimixBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Clinimix 2.5% Travasol Aa Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose InjecBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
Clinimix EBaxter Healthcare Corporation
ClinisolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Freamine HbcB. Braun Medical Inc.
Freamine IIIB. Braun Medical Inc.
HepatamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
NovamineHospira, Inc.
Olimel 3.3% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7% EBaxter Corporation
Periolimel 2.5% EBaxter Corporation
PlenamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
ProsolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Quick Mix 2.5% Travasol Aa With Electrolytes With 25% Dextrose InjecBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
Renamin (amino Acids) InjectionBaxter Corporation
Sterile Diluent for Flolan InjectionGlaxosmithkline Inc
TravasolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 5.5%Baxter Corporation
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 8.5%Baxter Corporation
Travasol EBaxter Corporation
Travasol Inj Without Electrolytes 5.5%Baxter Corporation
TrophamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIITE7660XO1C
CAS number56-40-6
WeightAverage: 75.0666
Monoisotopic: 75.032028409
Chemical FormulaC2H5NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=DHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5)
IUPAC Name
2-aminoacetic acid
SMILES
NCC(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationSupplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
PharmacodynamicsHelps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.
Mechanism of actionIn the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityORL-RAT LD50 7930 mg/kg, SCU-RAT LD50 5200 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD50 2600 mg/kg, ORL-MUS LD50 4920 mg/kg; Doses of 1 gram daily are very well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequently noted. In one study doses of 90 grams daily were also well tole.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00214
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00222
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)DiseaseSMP00315
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)DiseaseSMP00342
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type IDiseaseSMP00352
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00484
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
sarcosine oncometabolite pathway DiseaseSMP02313
Methionine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00033
Purine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00050
Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00055
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00072
5-OxoprolinuriaDiseaseSMP00143
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00144
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)DiseaseSMP00220
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00221
Lactic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00313
HypermethioninemiaDiseaseSMP00341
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00363
HomocarnosinosisDiseaseSMP00385
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00004
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolicSMP00009
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Porphyrin MetabolismMetabolicSMP00024
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5728
Caco-2 permeable-0.7533
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7821
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9841
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9794
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9436
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8833
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8526
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8432
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9628
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9738
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.975
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.973
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9405
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9871
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6261
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9289
Rat acute toxicity1.0076 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9611
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9556
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • B braun medical inc
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powdertopical
Tabletoral
Injectionintravenous
Injection, solutionintravenous
Irrigantirrigation1.5 g/100mL
Solutionirrigation1.5 g/100mL
Solutionirrigation15 mg
Liquidirrigation1.5 g
Liquidirrigation1.5 %
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous
Emulsionintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Liquidintravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Diluent for flolan vial0.31USD ml
Amino acetic acid powder0.03USD g
Glycine powder0.03USD g
Glycine 1.5% irrigation0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point262 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility2.49E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.21HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.37 (at 20 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility552.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS0.87ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.31ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity16 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability6.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (6.91 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-2900000000-0ef96bcf06ce475afcddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00dj-1900000000-1d289099ac79cfb8bb19View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-7910000000-6c972a683dfb75b69331View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0900000000-ef69e38ee6cebc2ece00View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00di-2910000000-3215b9e40f20c7b306cdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-9000000000-725357e461c898a7451eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-9f3930e66b117ad91dcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-b3336097dddbb5e22871View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-719b7f248956f13a312dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6001578fc511ba3fefefView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-79b2a0a9d93de6a62358View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9290dbe208c4744f4431View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-342ab462db0835abb3d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0ar1-9010000000-9daadc1d169a8530926dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-07y0-9220000000-8c7785f1f3aa8052679fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0ula-9110000000-43ada06fe1b56b4e9fccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-017i-9000000000-fbd78fbb48f082235f42View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-c38d0fb28793438083a9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0059-9000000000-c6b1ebc1dba89b6a6184View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-851aa6a0263541a8b249View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-053r-9000000000-d3b5624412082bb2cf60View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-89b2c043a5afe3ebc6f6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-b4046e208ee8adb87021View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-36521e440c602bd2ca5aView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-222d6c3a1ba6afcd7ea9View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Koichi Niimura, Takako Kawabe, Takao Ando, Kenichi Saito, “Phenylalanine-glycine compounds having anti-tumor activity, process for preparation thereof, and pharmaceutical composition containing said compounds.” U.S. Patent US5411964, issued August, 1908.

US5411964
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesB05CX03
AHFS Codes
  • 40:36.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
P48637
Molecular Weight:
52384.325 Da
References
  1. Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J: Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 8;282(23):17157-65. Epub 2007 Apr 22. [PubMed:17452339 ]
  2. Ducruix C, Junot C, Fievet JB, Villiers F, Ezan E, Bourguignon J: New insights into the regulation of phytochelatin biosynthesis in A. thaliana cells from metabolite profiling analyses. Biochimie. 2006 Nov;88(11):1733-42. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16996193 ]
  3. Ristoff E, Larsson A: Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathione. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Mar 30;2:16. [PubMed:17397529 ]
  4. Pai CH, Chiang BY, Ko TP, Chou CC, Chong CM, Yen FJ, Chen S, Coward JK, Wang AH, Lin CH: Dual binding sites for translocation catalysis by Escherichia coli glutathionylspermidine synthetase. EMBO J. 2006 Dec 13;25(24):5970-82. Epub 2006 Nov 23. [PubMed:17124497 ]
  5. Janaky R, Dohovics R, Saransaari P, Oja SS: Modulation of [3H]dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug;32(8):1357-64. Epub 2007 Mar 31. [PubMed:17401648 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Heinze L, Harvey RJ, Haverkamp S, Wassle H: Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: localization of the alpha4 subunit. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Feb 1;500(4):693-707. [PubMed:17154252 ]
  2. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. [PubMed:16884688 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGXT
Uniprot ID:
P21549
Molecular Weight:
43009.535 Da
References
  1. Ricoult C, Echeverria LO, Cliquet JB, Limami AM: Characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) multigene family and hypoxic response in young seedlings of the model legume Medicago truncatula. J Exp Bot. 2006;57(12):3079-89. Epub 2006 Aug 9. [PubMed:16899523 ]
  2. Han Q, Robinson H, Gao YG, Vogelaar N, Wilson SR, Rizzi M, Li J: Crystal structures of Aedes aegypti alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 1;281(48):37175-82. Epub 2006 Sep 21. [PubMed:16990263 ]
  3. Lu TC, Ko YZ, Huang HW, Hung YC, Lin YC, Peng WH: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract from Glycine tomentella root in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Aug 15;113(1):142-8. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17616291 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine binding
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRB
Uniprot ID:
P48167
Molecular Weight:
56121.62 Da
References
  1. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. [PubMed:16884688 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine binding
Specific Function:
Interconversion of serine and glycine.
Gene Name:
SHMT1
Uniprot ID:
P34896
Molecular Weight:
53082.18 Da
References
  1. Vatsyayan R, Roy U: Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Leishmania donovani serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Apr;52(2):433-40. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17142057 ]
  2. Rajinikanth M, Harding SA, Tsai CJ: The glycine decarboxylase complex multienzyme family in Populus. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(7):1761-70. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17355947 ]
  3. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin: characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Nov;35(11):2127-37. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664250 ]
  4. Nijhout HF, Reed MC, Lam SL, Shane B, Gregory JF 3rd, Ulrich CM: In silico experimentation with a model of hepatic mitochondrial folate metabolism. Theor Biol Med Model. 2006 Dec 6;3:40. [PubMed:17150100 ]
  5. Gagnon D, Foucher A, Girard I, Ouellette M: Stage specific gene expression and cellular localization of two isoforms of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov;150(1):63-71. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16876889 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA3
Uniprot ID:
O75311
Molecular Weight:
53799.775 Da
References
  1. Heinze L, Harvey RJ, Haverkamp S, Wassle H: Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: localization of the alpha4 subunit. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Feb 1;500(4):693-707. [PubMed:17154252 ]
  2. Majumdar S, Heinze L, Haverkamp S, Ivanova E, Wassle H: Glycine receptors of A-type ganglion cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):471-87. Epub 2007 May 29. [PubMed:17550639 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA2
Uniprot ID:
P23416
Molecular Weight:
52001.585 Da
References
  1. Young-Pearse TL, Ivic L, Kriegstein AR, Cepko CL: Characterization of mice with targeted deletion of glycine receptor alpha 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Aug;26(15):5728-34. [PubMed:16847326 ]
  2. Qi Z, Stephens NR, Spalding EP: Calcium entry mediated by GLR3.3, an Arabidopsis glutamate receptor with a broad agonist profile. Plant Physiol. 2006 Nov;142(3):963-71. Epub 2006 Sep 29. [PubMed:17012403 ]
  3. Majumdar S, Heinze L, Haverkamp S, Ivanova E, Wassle H: Glycine receptors of A-type ganglion cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):471-87. Epub 2007 May 29. [PubMed:17550639 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial role in the regulation of tissue concentration of AdoMet and of metabolism of methionine.
Gene Name:
GNMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14749
Molecular Weight:
32742.0 Da
References
  1. Soriano A, Castillo R, Christov C, Andres J, Moliner V, Tunon I: Catalysis in glycine N-methyltransferase: testing the electrostatic stabilization and compression hypothesis. Biochemistry. 2006 Dec 19;45(50):14917-25. [PubMed:17154529 ]
  2. Luka Z, Pakhomova S, Loukachevitch LV, Egli M, Newcomer ME, Wagner C: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is bound in intersubunit areas of rat liver folate-binding protein glycine N-methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9;282(6):4069-75. Epub 2006 Dec 7. [PubMed:17158459 ]
  3. Velichkova P, Himo F: Methyl transfer in glycine N-methyltransferase. A theoretical study. J Phys Chem B. 2005 Apr 28;109(16):8216-9. [PubMed:16851960 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine amidinotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central nervous system development. May be involved in the response to heart failure by elevating local creatine synthesis.
Gene Name:
GATM
Uniprot ID:
P50440
Molecular Weight:
48455.01 Da
References
  1. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546 ]
  2. Dutta U, Cohenford MA, Guha M, Dain JA: Non-enzymatic interactions of glyoxylate with lysine, arginine, and glucosamine: a study of advanced non-enzymatic glycation like compounds. Bioorg Chem. 2007 Feb;35(1):11-24. Epub 2006 Sep 12. [PubMed:16970975 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID:
O60391
Molecular Weight:
112990.98 Da
References
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17502428 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Lyase activity
Specific Function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein (GLDC) binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the remaining methylamine moiety is then transferred to the lipoamide cofactor of the H protein (GCSH).
Gene Name:
GLDC
Uniprot ID:
P23378
Molecular Weight:
112728.805 Da
References
  1. Mukherjee M, Brown MT, McArthur AG, Johnson PJ: Proteins of the glycine decarboxylase complex in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Dec;5(12):2062-71. [PubMed:17158739 ]
  2. Kanno J, Hutchin T, Kamada F, Narisawa A, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Kure S: Genomic deletion within GLDC is a major cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia. J Med Genet. 2007 Mar;44(3):e69. [PubMed:17361008 ]
  3. Engel N, van den Daele K, Kolukisaoglu U, Morgenthal K, Weckwerth W, Parnik T, Keerberg O, Bauwe H: Deletion of glycine decarboxylase in Arabidopsis is lethal under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Plant Physiol. 2007 Jul;144(3):1328-35. Epub 2007 May 11. [PubMed:17496108 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of glycine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals. May play a role in regulation of glycine levels in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
SLC6A9
Uniprot ID:
P48067
Molecular Weight:
78259.625 Da
References
  1. Wiles AL, Pearlman RJ, Rosvall M, Aubrey KR, Vandenberg RJ: N-Arachidonyl-glycine inhibits the glycine transporter, GLYT2a. J Neurochem. 2006 Nov;99(3):781-6. Epub 2006 Aug 8. [PubMed:16899062 ]
  2. Lindsley CW, Wolkenberg SE, Kinney GG: Progress in the preparation and testing of glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT1) inhibitors. Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(17):1883-96. [PubMed:17017963 ]
  3. Igartua I, Solis JM, Bustamante J: Glycine-induced long-term synaptic potentiation is mediated by the glycine transporter GLYT1. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1586-95. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17462677 ]
  4. Sur C, Kinney GG: Glycine transporter 1 inhibitors and modulation of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory neurotransmission. Curr Drug Targets. 2007 May;8(5):643-9. [PubMed:17504107 ]
  5. Raiteri L, Stigliani S, Usai C, Diaspro A, Paluzzi S, Milanese M, Raiteri M, Bonanno G: Functional expression of release-regulating glycine transporters GLYT1 on GABAergic neurons and GLYT2 on astrocytes in mouse spinal cord. Neurochem Int. 2008 Jan;52(1-2):103-12. Epub 2007 May 16. [PubMed:17597258 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCAT
Uniprot ID:
O75600
Molecular Weight:
45284.6 Da
References
  1. Bashir Q, Rashid N, Akhtar M: Mechanism and substrate stereochemistry of 2-amino-3-oxobutyrate CoA ligase: implications for 5-aminolevulinate synthase and related enzymes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2006 Dec 28;(48):5065-7. Epub 2006 Oct 13. [PubMed:17146529 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular Weight:
70580.325 Da
References
  1. Turbeville TD, Zhang J, Hunter GA, Ferreira GC: Histidine 282 in 5-aminolevulinate synthase affects substrate binding and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):5972-81. Epub 2007 May 1. [PubMed:17469798 ]
  2. He XM, Zhou J, Cheng Y, Fan J: [Purification and production of the extracellular 5-aminolevulinate from recombiniant Escherichia coli expressing yeast ALAS]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2007 May;23(3):520-4. [PubMed:17578005 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Molecular Weight:
64632.86 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hungerer C, Troup B, Romling U, Jahn D: Regulation of the hemA gene during 5-aminolevulinic acid formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 1995 Mar;177(6):1435-43. [PubMed:7883699 ]
  4. Shoolingin-Jordan PM, Al-Daihan S, Alexeev D, Baxter RL, Bottomley SS, Kahari ID, Roy I, Sarwar M, Sawyer L, Wang SF: 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):361-6. [PubMed:12686158 ]
  5. Munakata H, Yamagami T, Nagai T, Yamamoto M, Hayashi N: Purification and structure of rat erythroid-specific delta-aminolevulinate synthase. J Biochem. 1993 Jul;114(1):103-11. [PubMed:8407861 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Aminomethyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The H protein (GCSH) shuttles the methylamine group of glycine from the P protein (GLDC) to the T protein (GCST).
Gene Name:
GCSH
Uniprot ID:
P23434
Molecular Weight:
18884.37 Da
References
  1. Kanno J, Hutchin T, Kamada F, Narisawa A, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Kure S: Genomic deletion within GLDC is a major cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia. J Med Genet. 2007 Mar;44(3):e69. [PubMed:17361008 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein dimerization activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glycine to tRNA(Gly). Is also able produce diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a universal pleiotropic signaling molecule needed for cell regulation pathways, by direct condensation of 2 ATPs.
Gene Name:
GARS
Uniprot ID:
P41250
Molecular Weight:
83164.83 Da
References
  1. Okamoto K, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Recognition sites of glycine tRNA for glycyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2005;(49):299-300. [PubMed:17150752 ]
  2. Tsang SW, Vinters HV, Cummings JL, Wong PT, Chen CP, Lai MK: Alterations in NMDA receptor subunit densities and ligand binding to glycine recognition sites are associated with chronic anxiety in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2008 Oct;29(10):1524-32. Epub 2007 Apr 11. [PubMed:17433503 ]
  3. Scherer SS: Inherited neuropathies: new genes don't fit old models. Neuron. 2006 Sep 21;51(6):672-4. [PubMed:16982409 ]
  4. Cader MZ, Ren J, James PA, Bird LE, Talbot K, Stammers DK: Crystal structure of human wildtype and S581L-mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase, an enzyme underlying distal spinal muscular atrophy. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2959-64. Epub 2007 May 29. [PubMed:17544401 ]
  5. Antonellis A, Lee-Lin SQ, Wasterlain A, Leo P, Quezado M, Goldfarb LG, Myung K, Burgess S, Fischbeck KH, Green ED: Functional analyses of glycyl-tRNA synthetase mutations suggest a key role for tRNA-charging enzymes in peripheral axons. J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 11;26(41):10397-406. [PubMed:17035524 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits.
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular Weight:
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Liu Y, Wong TP, Aarts M, Rooyakkers A, Liu L, Lai TW, Wu DC, Lu J, Tymianski M, Craig AM, Wang YT: NMDA receptor subunits have differential roles in mediating excitotoxic neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Mar 14;27(11):2846-57. [PubMed:17360906 ]
  2. Domingues A, Almeida S, da Cruz e Silva EF, Oliveira CR, Rego AC: Toxicity of beta-amyloid in HEK293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A or NR1/NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits. Neurochem Int. 2007 May;50(6):872-80. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17403555 ]
  3. Brosnan RJ, Yang L, Milutinovic PS, Zhao J, Laster MJ, Eger EI 2nd, Sonner JM: Ammonia has anesthetic properties. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun;104(6):1430-3, table of contents. [PubMed:17513636 ]
  4. Milutinovic PS, Yang L, Cantor RS, Eger EI 2nd, Sonner JM: Anesthetic-like modulation of a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, strychnine-sensitive glycine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by coreleased neurotransmitters. Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug;105(2):386-92. [PubMed:17646495 ]
  5. Gabra BH, Kessler FK, Ritter JK, Dewey WL, Smith FL: Decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor-NR2B subunit levels by intrathecal short-hairpin RNA blocks group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated hyperalgesia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jul;322(1):186-94. Epub 2007 Apr 3. [PubMed:17405869 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Very long chain acyl-coa hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the ...
Gene Name:
BAAT
Uniprot ID:
Q14032
Molecular Weight:
46298.865 Da
References
  1. Styles NA, Falany JL, Barnes S, Falany CN: Quantification and regulation of the subcellular distribution of bile acid coenzyme A:amino acid N-acyltransferase activity in rat liver. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1305-15. Epub 2007 Mar 22. [PubMed:17379925 ]
  2. Visser WF, van Roermund CW, Ijlst L, Waterham HR, Wanders RJ: Demonstration of bile acid transport across the mammalian peroxisomal membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jun 1;357(2):335-40. Epub 2007 Mar 26. [PubMed:17416343 ]
  3. Pellicoro A, van den Heuvel FA, Geuken M, Moshage H, Jansen PL, Faber KN: Human and rat bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase are liver-specific peroxisomal enzymes: implications for intracellular bile salt transport. Hepatology. 2007 Feb;45(2):340-8. [PubMed:17256745 ]
  4. Nakamura K, Morrison SF: Central efferent pathways mediating skin cooling-evoked sympathetic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jan;292(1):R127-36. Epub 2006 Aug 24. [PubMed:16931649 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for N-arachidonyl glycine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. May contribute to regulation of the immune system.
Gene Name:
GPR18
Uniprot ID:
Q14330
Molecular Weight:
38133.27 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN2C
Uniprot ID:
Q14957
Molecular Weight:
134207.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Widdowson PS, Gyte AJ, Upton R, Wyatt I: Failure of glycine site NMDA receptor antagonists to protect against L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity highlights the uniqueness of cerebellar NMDA receptors. Brain Res. 1996 Nov 4;738(2):236-42. [PubMed:8955518 ]
  4. Al-Ghoul WM, Meeker RB, Greenwood RS: Differential expression of five N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit mRNAs in vasopressin and oxytocin neuroendocrine cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997 Mar;44(2):262-72. [PubMed:9073168 ]
  5. Malayev A, Gibbs TT, Farb DH: Inhibition of the NMDA response by pregnenolone sulphate reveals subtype selective modulation of NMDA receptors by sulphated steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Feb;135(4):901-9. [PubMed:11861317 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Interconversion of serine and glycine.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q53ET4
Molecular Weight:
55973.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bouwman RA, Musters RJ, van Beek-Harmsen BJ, de Lange JJ, Lamberts RR, Loer SA, Boer C: Sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection depends on PKC-alpha activation via production of reactive oxygen species. Br J Anaesth. 2007 Nov;99(5):639-45. Epub 2007 Sep 27. [PubMed:17905752 ]
  4. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin: characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Nov;35(11):2127-37. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664250 ]
  5. Kon K, Ikejima K, Okumura K, Aoyama T, Arai K, Takei Y, Lemasters JJ, Sato N: Role of apoptosis in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jun;22 Suppl 1:S49-52. [PubMed:17567465 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric...
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular Weight:
33923.995 Da
References
  1. Narasipura SD, Ren P, Dyavaiah M, Auger I, Chaturvedi V, Chaturvedi S: An efficient method for homologous gene reconstitution in Cryptococcus gattii using URA5 auxotrophic marker. Mycopathologia. 2006 Dec;162(6):401-9. [PubMed:17146584 ]
  2. Zhou CX, Gao Y: Frequent genetic alterations and reduced expression of the Axin1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma: involvement in tumor progression and metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2007 Jan;17(1):73-9. [PubMed:17143481 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular Weight:
53075.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bermingham JR Jr, Pennington J: Organization and expression of the SLC36 cluster of amino acid transporter genes. Mamm Genome. 2004 Feb;15(2):114-25. [PubMed:15058382 ]
  4. Broer A, Cavanaugh JA, Rasko JE, Broer S: The molecular basis of neutral aminoacidurias. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Jan;451(4):511-7. Epub 2005 Jul 29. [PubMed:16052352 ]
  5. Metzner L, Kalbitz J, Brandsch M: Transport of pharmacologically active proline derivatives by the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter hPAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Apr;309(1):28-35. Epub 2004 Jan 12. [PubMed:14718599 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Interconversion of serine and glycine. Associates with mitochondrial DNA.
Gene Name:
SHMT2
Uniprot ID:
P34897
Molecular Weight:
55992.385 Da
References
  1. Vatsyayan R, Roy U: Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Leishmania donovani serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Apr;52(2):433-40. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17142057 ]
  2. Rajinikanth M, Harding SA, Tsai CJ: The glycine decarboxylase complex multienzyme family in Populus. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(7):1761-70. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17355947 ]
  3. Gagnon D, Foucher A, Girard I, Ouellette M: Stage specific gene expression and cellular localization of two isoforms of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov;150(1):63-71. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16876889 ]
  4. Mukherjee M, Sievers SA, Brown MT, Johnson PJ: Identification and biochemical characterization of serine hydroxymethyl transferase in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Dec;5(12):2072-8. Epub 2006 Sep 15. [PubMed:16980404 ]
  5. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin: characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Nov;35(11):2127-37. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664250 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine n-acyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activ...
Gene Name:
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WU03
Molecular Weight:
34277.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine n-acyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name:
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID:
Q969I3
Molecular Weight:
35100.895 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and this activity provides mechanism through which the kidney regulates blood pressure.
Gene Name:
AGXT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYV1
Molecular Weight:
57155.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Baker PR, Cramer SD, Kennedy M, Assimos DG, Holmes RP: Glycolate and glyoxylate metabolism in HepG2 cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Nov;287(5):C1359-65. Epub 2004 Jul 7. [PubMed:15240345 ]
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. [PubMed:6703688 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the uptake of GABA and glycine into the synaptic vesicles.
Gene Name:
SLC32A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H598
Molecular Weight:
57414.58 Da
References
  1. Fujii M, Arata A, Kanbara-Kume N, Saito K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K: Respiratory activity in brainstem of fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 and vesicular GABA transporter. Neuroscience. 2007 May 25;146(3):1044-52. Epub 2007 Apr 5. [PubMed:17418495 ]
  2. Aubrey KR, Rossi FM, Ruivo R, Alboni S, Bellenchi GC, Le Goff A, Gasnier B, Supplisson S: The transporters GlyT2 and VIAAT cooperate to determine the vesicular glycinergic phenotype. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 6;27(23):6273-81. [PubMed:17554001 ]
  3. Uchigashima M, Fukaya M, Watanabe M, Kamiya H: Evidence against GABA release from glutamatergic mossy fiber terminals in the developing hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 25;27(30):8088-100. [PubMed:17652600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sarcosine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes sarcosine, L-pipecolic acid and L-proline.
Gene Name:
PIPOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0Z9
Molecular Weight:
44065.515 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Terminates the action of glycine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals. May be responsible for the termination of neurotransmission at strychnine-sensitive glycinergic synapses.
Gene Name:
SLC6A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y345
Molecular Weight:
87433.13 Da
References
  1. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. [PubMed:16884688 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2013 12:01