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Identification
NameGlycine
Accession NumberDB00145  (NUTR00028)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Aminoacetic acidNot AvailableNot Available
AminoessigsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
Aminoethanoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
GNot AvailableNot Available
GlyNot AvailableNot Available
GlycinNot AvailableNot Available
GlycineNot AvailableNot Available
GlycocollNot AvailableNot Available
GlykokollNot AvailableNot Available
GlyzinNot AvailableNot Available
H2N-CH2-COOHNot AvailableNot Available
HglyNot AvailableNot Available
LeimzuckerNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Glycineirrigant1.5 g/100mLirrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.1978-02-06Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Glycineirrigant1.5 g/100mLirrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.2013-12-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Glycinesolution1.5 g/100mLirrigationBaxter Healthcare Corporation1980-05-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Glycineirrigant1.5 g/100mLirrigationHospira, Inc.1980-02-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Gyn-HydralinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number56-40-6
WeightAverage: 75.0666
Monoisotopic: 75.032028409
Chemical FormulaC2H5NO2
InChI KeyDHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5)
IUPAC Name
2-aminoacetic acid
SMILES
NCC(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationSupplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
PharmacodynamicsHelps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.
Mechanism of actionIn the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.
AbsorptionAbsorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityORL-RAT LD50 7930 mg/kg, SCU-RAT LD50 5200 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD50 2600 mg/kg, ORL-MUS LD50 4920 mg/kg; Doses of 1 gram daily are very well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequently noted. In one study doses of 90 grams daily were also well tole.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5728
Caco-2 permeable-0.7533
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7821
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9841
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9794
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9436
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8833
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8526
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8432
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9628
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9738
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.975
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.973
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9405
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9871
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6261
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9289
Rat acute toxicity1.0076 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9611
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9556
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • B braun medical inc
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Irrigantirrigation1.5 g/100mL
Solutionirrigation1.5 g/100mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Diluent for flolan vial0.31USD ml
Amino acetic acid powder0.03USD g
Glycine powder0.03USD g
Glycine 1.5% irrigation0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point262 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility2.49E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.21HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.37 (at 20 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility552.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS0.87ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.31ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity16 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability6.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (6.91 KB)
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Koichi Niimura, Takako Kawabe, Takao Ando, Kenichi Saito, “Phenylalanine-glycine compounds having anti-tumor activity, process for preparation thereof, and pharmaceutical composition containing said compounds.” U.S. Patent US5411964, issued August, 1908.

US5411964
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesB05CX03
AHFS Codes
  • 40:36.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Glutathione synthetase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione synthetase P48637 Details

References:

  1. Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J: Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 8;282(23):17157-65. Epub 2007 Apr 22. Pubmed
  2. Ducruix C, Junot C, Fievet JB, Villiers F, Ezan E, Bourguignon J: New insights into the regulation of phytochelatin biosynthesis in A. thaliana cells from metabolite profiling analyses. Biochimie. 2006 Nov;88(11):1733-42. Epub 2006 Sep 7. Pubmed
  3. Ristoff E, Larsson A: Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathione. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Mar 30;2:16. Pubmed
  4. Pai CH, Chiang BY, Ko TP, Chou CC, Chong CM, Yen FJ, Chen S, Coward JK, Wang AH, Lin CH: Dual binding sites for translocation catalysis by Escherichia coli glutathionylspermidine synthetase. EMBO J. 2006 Dec 13;25(24):5970-82. Epub 2006 Nov 23. Pubmed
  5. Janaky R, Dohovics R, Saransaari P, Oja SS: Modulation of [3H]dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug;32(8):1357-64. Epub 2007 Mar 31. Pubmed

2. Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1 P23415 Details

References:

  1. Heinze L, Harvey RJ, Haverkamp S, Wassle H: Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: localization of the alpha4 subunit. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Feb 1;500(4):693-707. Pubmed
  2. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. Pubmed

3. Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase P21549 Details

References:

  1. Ricoult C, Echeverria LO, Cliquet JB, Limami AM: Characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) multigene family and hypoxic response in young seedlings of the model legume Medicago truncatula. J Exp Bot. 2006;57(12):3079-89. Epub 2006 Aug 9. Pubmed
  2. Han Q, Robinson H, Gao YG, Vogelaar N, Wilson SR, Rizzi M, Li J: Crystal structures of Aedes aegypti alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 1;281(48):37175-82. Epub 2006 Sep 21. Pubmed
  3. Lu TC, Ko YZ, Huang HW, Hung YC, Lin YC, Peng WH: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract from Glycine tomentella root in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Aug 15;113(1):142-8. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed

4. Glycine receptor subunit beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine receptor subunit beta P48167 Details

References:

  1. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. Pubmed

5. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic P34896 Details

References:

  1. Vatsyayan R, Roy U: Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Leishmania donovani serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Apr;52(2):433-40. Epub 2006 Oct 26. Pubmed
  2. Rajinikanth M, Harding SA, Tsai CJ: The glycine decarboxylase complex multienzyme family in Populus. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(7):1761-70. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed
  3. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin-Characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul 30;. Pubmed
  4. Nijhout HF, Reed MC, Lam SL, Shane B, Gregory JF 3rd, Ulrich CM: In silico experimentation with a model of hepatic mitochondrial folate metabolism. Theor Biol Med Model. 2006 Dec 6;3:40. Pubmed
  5. Gagnon D, Foucher A, Girard I, Ouellette M: Stage specific gene expression and cellular localization of two isoforms of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov;150(1):63-71. Epub 2006 Jul 13. Pubmed

6. Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3 O75311 Details

References:

  1. Heinze L, Harvey RJ, Haverkamp S, Wassle H: Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: localization of the alpha4 subunit. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Feb 1;500(4):693-707. Pubmed
  2. Majumdar S, Heinze L, Haverkamp S, Ivanova E, Wassle H: Glycine receptors of A-type ganglion cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):471-87. Epub 2007 May 29. Pubmed

7. Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2 P23416 Details

References:

  1. Young-Pearse TL, Ivic L, Kriegstein AR, Cepko CL: Characterization of mice with targeted deletion of glycine receptor alpha 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Aug;26(15):5728-34. Pubmed
  2. Qi Z, Stephens NR, Spalding EP: Calcium entry mediated by GLR3.3, an Arabidopsis glutamate receptor with a broad agonist profile. Plant Physiol. 2006 Nov;142(3):963-71. Epub 2006 Sep 29. Pubmed
  3. Majumdar S, Heinze L, Haverkamp S, Ivanova E, Wassle H: Glycine receptors of A-type ganglion cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):471-87. Epub 2007 May 29. Pubmed

8. Glycine N-methyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine N-methyltransferase Q14749 Details

References:

  1. Soriano A, Castillo R, Christov C, Andres J, Moliner V, Tunon I: Catalysis in glycine N-methyltransferase: testing the electrostatic stabilization and compression hypothesis. Biochemistry. 2006 Dec 19;45(50):14917-25. Pubmed
  2. Luka Z, Pakhomova S, Loukachevitch LV, Egli M, Newcomer ME, Wagner C: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is bound in intersubunit areas of rat liver folate-binding protein glycine N-methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9;282(6):4069-75. Epub 2006 Dec 7. Pubmed
  3. Velichkova P, Himo F: Methyl transfer in glycine N-methyltransferase. A theoretical study. J Phys Chem B. 2005 Apr 28;109(16):8216-9. Pubmed

9. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial P34897 Details

References:

  1. Gagnon D, Foucher A, Girard I, Ouellette M: Stage specific gene expression and cellular localization of two isoforms of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov;150(1):63-71. Epub 2006 Jul 13. Pubmed
  2. Vatsyayan R, Roy U: Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Leishmania donovani serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Apr;52(2):433-40. Epub 2006 Oct 26. Pubmed
  3. Rajinikanth M, Harding SA, Tsai CJ: The glycine decarboxylase complex multienzyme family in Populus. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(7):1761-70. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed

10. Glycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrial P50440 Details

References:

  1. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. Pubmed
  2. Dutta U, Cohenford MA, Guha M, Dain JA: Non-enzymatic interactions of glyoxylate with lysine, arginine, and glucosamine: a study of advanced non-enzymatic glycation like compounds. Bioorg Chem. 2007 Feb;35(1):11-24. Epub 2006 Sep 12. Pubmed

11. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B O60391 Details

References:

  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. Pubmed

12. Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrial P23378 Details

References:

  1. Mukherjee M, Brown MT, McArthur AG, Johnson PJ: Proteins of the glycine decarboxylase complex in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Dec;5(12):2062-71. Pubmed
  2. Kanno J, Hutchin T, Kamada F, Narisawa A, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Kure S: Genomic deletion within GLDC is a major cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia. J Med Genet. 2007 Mar;44(3):e69. Pubmed
  3. Engel N, van den Daele K, Kolukisaoglu U, Morgenthal K, Weckwerth W, Parnik T, Keerberg O, Bauwe H: Deletion of glycine decarboxylase in Arabidopsis is lethal under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Plant Physiol. 2007 Jul;144(3):1328-35. Epub 2007 May 11. Pubmed

13. Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1 P48067 Details

References:

  1. Wiles AL, Pearlman RJ, Rosvall M, Aubrey KR, Vandenberg RJ: N-Arachidonyl-glycine inhibits the glycine transporter, GLYT2a. J Neurochem. 2006 Nov;99(3):781-6. Epub 2006 Aug 8. Pubmed
  2. Lindsley CW, Wolkenberg SE, Kinney GG: Progress in the preparation and testing of glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT1) inhibitors. Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(17):1883-96. Pubmed
  3. Igartua I, Solis JM, Bustamante J: Glycine-induced long-term synaptic potentiation is mediated by the glycine transporter GLYT1. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1586-95. Epub 2007 Mar 14. Pubmed
  4. Sur C, Kinney GG: Glycine transporter 1 inhibitors and modulation of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory neurotransmission. Curr Drug Targets. 2007 May;8(5):643-9. Pubmed
  5. Raiteri L, Stigliani S, Usai C, Diaspro A, Paluzzi S, Milanese M, Raiteri M, Bonanno G: Functional expression of release-regulating glycine transporters GLYT1 on GABAergic neurons and GLYT2 on astrocytes in mouse spinal cord. Neurochem Int. 2007 May 16;. Pubmed

14. 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial O75600 Details

References:

  1. Bashir Q, Rashid N, Akhtar M: Mechanism and substrate stereochemistry of 2-amino-3-oxobutyrate CoA ligase: implications for 5-aminolevulinate synthase and related enzymes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2006 Dec 28;(48):5065-7. Epub 2006 Oct 13. Pubmed

15. 5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrial P13196 Details

References:

  1. Turbeville TD, Zhang J, Hunter GA, Ferreira GC: Histidine 282 in 5-aminolevulinate synthase affects substrate binding and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):5972-81. Epub 2007 May 1. Pubmed
  2. He XM, Zhou J, Cheng Y, Fan J: [Purification and production of the extracellular 5-aminolevulinate from recombiniant Escherichia coli expressing yeast ALAS] Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2007 May;23(3):520-4. Pubmed

16. 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial P22557 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Hungerer C, Troup B, Romling U, Jahn D: Regulation of the hemA gene during 5-aminolevulinic acid formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 1995 Mar;177(6):1435-43. Pubmed
  4. Shoolingin-Jordan PM, Al-Daihan S, Alexeev D, Baxter RL, Bottomley SS, Kahari ID, Roy I, Sarwar M, Sawyer L, Wang SF: 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):361-6. Pubmed
  5. Munakata H, Yamagami T, Nagai T, Yamamoto M, Hayashi N: Purification and structure of rat erythroid-specific delta-aminolevulinate synthase. J Biochem (Tokyo). 1993 Jul;114(1):103-11. Pubmed

17. Glycine cleavage system H protein, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine cleavage system H protein, mitochondrial P23434 Details

References:

  1. Kanno J, Hutchin T, Kamada F, Narisawa A, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Kure S: Genomic deletion within GLDC is a major cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia. J Med Genet. 2007 Mar;44(3):e69. Pubmed

18. Glycine--tRNA ligase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine--tRNA ligase P41250 Details

References:

  1. Okamoto K, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Recognition sites of glycine tRNA for glycyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2005;(49):299-300. Pubmed
  2. Tsang SW, Vinters HV, Cummings JL, Wong PT, Chen CP, Lai MK: Alterations in NMDA receptor subunit densities and ligand binding to glycine recognition sites are associated with chronic anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Apr 10;. Pubmed
  3. Scherer SS: Inherited neuropathies: new genes don’t fit old models. Neuron. 2006 Sep 21;51(6):672-4. Pubmed
  4. Cader MZ, Ren J, James PA, Bird LE, Talbot K, Stammers DK: Crystal structure of human wildtype and S581L-mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase, an enzyme underlying distal spinal muscular atrophy. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2959-64. Epub 2007 May 29. Pubmed
  5. Antonellis A, Lee-Lin SQ, Wasterlain A, Leo P, Quezado M, Goldfarb LG, Myung K, Burgess S, Fischbeck KH, Green ED: Functional analyses of glycyl-tRNA synthetase mutations suggest a key role for tRNA-charging enzymes in peripheral axons. J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 11;26(41):10397-406. Pubmed

19. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A Q12879 Details

References:

  1. Liu Y, Wong TP, Aarts M, Rooyakkers A, Liu L, Lai TW, Wu DC, Lu J, Tymianski M, Craig AM, Wang YT: NMDA receptor subunits have differential roles in mediating excitotoxic neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Mar 14;27(11):2846-57. Pubmed
  2. Domingues A, Almeida S, da Cruz e Silva EF, Oliveira CR, Rego AC: Toxicity of beta-amyloid in HEK293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A or NR1/NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits. Neurochem Int. 2007 May;50(6):872-80. Epub 2007 Mar 7. Pubmed
  3. Brosnan RJ, Yang L, Milutinovic PS, Zhao J, Laster MJ, Eger EI 2nd, Sonner JM: Ammonia has anesthetic properties. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun;104(6):1430-3, table of contents. Pubmed
  4. Milutinovic PS, Yang L, Cantor RS, Eger EI 2nd, Sonner JM: Anesthetic-like modulation of a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, strychnine-sensitive glycine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by coreleased neurotransmitters. Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug;105(2):386-92. Pubmed
  5. Gabra BH, Kessler FK, Ritter JK, Dewey WL, Smith FL: Decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor-NR2B subunit levels by intrathecal short-hairpin RNA blocks group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated hyperalgesia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jul;322(1):186-94. Epub 2007 Apr 3. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

20. Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase Q14032 Details

References:

  1. Styles NA, Falany JL, Barnes S, Falany CN: Quantification and regulation of the subcellular distribution of bile acid coenzyme A:amino acid N-acyltransferase activity in rat liver. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1305-15. Epub 2007 Mar 22. Pubmed
  2. Visser WF, van Roermund CW, Ijlst L, Waterham HR, Wanders RJ: Demonstration of bile acid transport across the mammalian peroxisomal membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jun 1;357(2):335-40. Epub 2007 Mar 26. Pubmed
  3. Pellicoro A, van den Heuvel FA, Geuken M, Moshage H, Jansen PL, Faber KN: Human and rat bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase are liver-specific peroxisomal enzymes: implications for intracellular bile salt transport. Hepatology. 2007 Feb;45(2):340-8. Pubmed
  4. Nakamura K, Morrison SF: Central efferent pathways mediating skin cooling-evoked sympathetic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jan;292(1):R127-36. Epub 2006 Aug 24. Pubmed

21. N-arachidonyl glycine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
N-arachidonyl glycine receptor Q14330 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

22. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C Q14957 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Widdowson PS, Gyte AJ, Upton R, Wyatt I: Failure of glycine site NMDA receptor antagonists to protect against L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity highlights the uniqueness of cerebellar NMDA receptors. Brain Res. 1996 Nov 4;738(2):236-42. Pubmed
  4. Al-Ghoul WM, Meeker RB, Greenwood RS: Differential expression of five N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit mRNAs in vasopressin and oxytocin neuroendocrine cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997 Mar;44(2):262-72. Pubmed
  5. Malayev A, Gibbs TT, Farb DH: Inhibition of the NMDA response by pregnenolone sulphate reveals subtype selective modulation of NMDA receptors by sulphated steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Feb;135(4):901-9. Pubmed

23. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase Q53ET4 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bouwman RA, Musters RJ, van Beek-Harmsen BJ, de Lange JJ, Lamberts RR, Loer SA, Boer C: Sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection depends on PKC-{alpha} activation via production of reactive oxygen species. Br J Anaesth. 2007 Sep 27;. Pubmed
  4. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin-Characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul 30;. Pubmed
  5. Kon K, Ikejima K, Okumura K, Aoyama T, Arai K, Takei Y, Lemasters JJ, Sato N: Role of apoptosis in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jun;22 Suppl 1:S49-52. Pubmed

24. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic P34896 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

25. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic P34896 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

26. Glycine N-acyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine N-acyltransferase Q6IB77 Details

References:

  1. Narasipura SD, Ren P, Dyavaiah M, Auger I, Chaturvedi V, Chaturvedi S: An efficient method for homologous gene reconstitution in Cryptococcus gattii using URA5 auxotrophic marker. Mycopathologia. 2006 Dec;162(6):401-9. Pubmed
  2. Zhou CX, Gao Y: Frequent genetic alterations and reduced expression of the Axin1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma: involvement in tumor progression and metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2007 Jan;17(1):73-9. Pubmed

27. Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 Q7Z2H8 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bermingham JR Jr, Pennington J: Organization and expression of the SLC36 cluster of amino acid transporter genes. Mamm Genome. 2004 Feb;15(2):114-25. Pubmed
  4. Broer A, Cavanaugh JA, Rasko JE, Broer S: The molecular basis of neutral aminoacidurias. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Jan;451(4):511-7. Epub 2005 Jul 29. Pubmed
  5. Metzner L, Kalbitz J, Brandsch M: Transport of pharmacologically active proline derivatives by the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter hPAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Apr;309(1):28-35. Epub 2004 Jan 12. Pubmed

28. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial P34897 Details

References:

  1. Vatsyayan R, Roy U: Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Leishmania donovani serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Apr;52(2):433-40. Epub 2006 Oct 26. Pubmed
  2. Rajinikanth M, Harding SA, Tsai CJ: The glycine decarboxylase complex multienzyme family in Populus. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(7):1761-70. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed
  3. Gagnon D, Foucher A, Girard I, Ouellette M: Stage specific gene expression and cellular localization of two isoforms of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov;150(1):63-71. Epub 2006 Jul 13. Pubmed
  4. Mukherjee M, Sievers SA, Brown MT, Johnson PJ: Identification and biochemical characterization of serine hydroxymethyl transferase in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Dec;5(12):2072-8. Epub 2006 Sep 15. Pubmed
  5. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin-Characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul 30;. Pubmed

29. Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 2 Q8WU03 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

30. Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1 Q969I3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

31. Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial Q9BYV1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Baker PR, Cramer SD, Kennedy M, Assimos DG, Holmes RP: Glycolate and glyoxylate metabolism in HepG2 cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Nov;287(5):C1359-65. Epub 2004 Jul 7. Pubmed
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. Pubmed

32. Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter Q9H598 Details

References:

  1. Fujii M, Arata A, Kanbara-Kume N, Saito K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K: Respiratory activity in brainstem of fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 and vesicular GABA transporter. Neuroscience. 2007 May 25;146(3):1044-52. Epub 2007 Apr 5. Pubmed
  2. Aubrey KR, Rossi FM, Ruivo R, Alboni S, Bellenchi GC, Le Goff A, Gasnier B, Supplisson S: The transporters GlyT2 and VIAAT cooperate to determine the vesicular glycinergic phenotype. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 6;27(23):6273-81. Pubmed
  3. Uchigashima M, Fukaya M, Watanabe M, Kamiya H: Evidence against GABA release from glutamatergic mossy fiber terminals in the developing hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 25;27(30):8088-100. Pubmed

33. Peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase Q9P0Z9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

34. Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2 Q9Y345 Details

References:

  1. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2013 12:01