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Identification
NameL-Lysine
Accession NumberDB00123  (NUTR00037, DB11101)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

L-Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(CH2)4NH2. This amino acid is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it. Its codons are AAA and AAG. L-Lysine is a base, as are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis. Common posttranslational modifications include methylation of the ε-amino group, giving methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyllysine. The latter occurs in calmodulin. Other posttranslational modifications include acetylation. Collagen contains hydroxylysine which is derived from lysine by lysyl hydroxylase. O-Glycosylation of lysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus is used to mark certain proteins for secretion from the cell.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
(S)-lysine
(S)-α,ε-diaminocaproic acid
6-ammonio-L-norleucine
L-2,6-Diaminocaproic acid
L-lys
L-Lysin
LYS
Lysina
Lysine
Lysine acid
Lysinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexClintec Nutrition Company
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexClintec Nutrition Company
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.Clintec Nutrition Company
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrlytes In 10% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Without Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25%trav. Amino Acid InJ.W.O.elect.5%dext.Clintec Nutrition Company
4.25%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.5%dex.Clintec Nutrition Company
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
AminosynHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 10% W ElectrolytesAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn 3.5% MAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn 5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 8.5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 8.5% Injection With ElectrolytesHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn IIHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 15%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 5% InjAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% M In 10% Dextrose(dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 10% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% M In 20% Dextrose (dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II In Dextrose InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn RFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn RF InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
ClinimixBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Clinimix 2.5% Travasol Aa Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose InjecBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
Clinimix EBaxter Healthcare Corporation
ClinisolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Effervescent Potassium ChlorideQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Freamine HbcB. Braun Medical Inc.
Freamine IIIB. Braun Medical Inc.
HepatamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
NephramineB. Braun Medical Inc.
NovamineHospira, Inc.
Olimel 3.3% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7% EBaxter Corporation
Periolimel 2.5% EBaxter Corporation
PlenamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Primene 10%Baxter Corporation
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
ProsolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Quick Mix 2.5% Travasol Aa With Electrolytes With 25% Dextrose InjecBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
Renamin (amino Acids) InjectionBaxter Corporation
TravasolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 5.5%Baxter Corporation
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 8.5%Baxter Corporation
Travasol EBaxter Corporation
Travasol Inj Without Electrolytes 5.5%Baxter Corporation
TrophamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
L-Lysine acetate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001763
L-Lysine hydrochloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001756
Categories
UNIIK3Z4F929H6
CAS number56-87-1
WeightAverage: 146.1876
Monoisotopic: 146.105527702
Chemical FormulaC6H14N2O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=KDXKERNSBIXSRK-MLHKIVSYNA-N
InChI
InChI=1/C6H14N2O2/c7-4-2-1-3-5(8)6(9)10/h5H,1-4,7-8H2,(H,9,10)/t5-/s2
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
SMILES
NCCCC[[email protected]](N)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationSupplemental L-lysine has putative anti-herpes simplex virus activity. There is preliminary research suggesting that it may have some anti-osteoporotic activity.
PharmacodynamicsInsures the adequate absorption of calcium; helps form collagen ( which makes up bone cartilage & connective tissues); aids in the production of antibodies, hormones & enzymes. Recent studies have shown that Lysine may be effective against herpes by improving the balance of nutrients that reduce viral growth. A deficiency may result in tiredness, inability to concentrate, irritability, bloodshot eyes, retarded growth, hair loss, anemia & reproductive problems.
Mechanism of actionProteins of the herpes simplex virus are rich in L-arginine, and tissue culture studies indicate an enhancing effect on viral replication when the amino acid ratio of L-arginine to L-lysine is high in the tissue culture media. When the ratio of L-lysine to L-arginine is high, viral replication and the cytopathogenicity of herpes simplex virus have been found to be inhibited. L-lysine may facilitate the absorption of calcium from the small intestine.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes by an active transport process
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Hyperlysinemia I, FamilialDiseaseSMP00527
Lysine DegradationMetabolicSMP00037
2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduriaDiseaseSMP00719
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IIDiseaseSMP00239
Multiple carboxylase deficiency, neonatal or early onset formDiseaseSMP00564
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
Hyperlysinemia II or SaccharopinuriaDiseaseSMP00528
Pyridoxine dependency with seizuresDiseaseSMP00571
Biotin MetabolismMetabolicSMP00066
Biotinidase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00174
Glutaric Aciduria Type IDiseaseSMP00186
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal AbsorptionNot AvailableNot Available
Blood Brain BarrierNot AvailableNot Available
Caco-2 permeableNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein substrateNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINot AvailableNot Available
Renal organic cation transporterNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 1A2 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityNot AvailableNot Available
Ames testNot AvailableNot Available
CarcinogenicityNot AvailableNot Available
BiodegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Rat acute toxicityNot AvailableNot applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Not AvailableNot Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Not AvailableNot Available
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionintravenous
Liquidintravenous
Tablet, effervescentoral
Injection, solutionintravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous
Emulsionintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Neoprofen 20 mg/2 ml vial304.5USD ml
Cayston 75 mg inhal solution63.24USD ml
L-lysine ointment0.16USD g
Lysine hcl powder0.16USD g
Ra l-lysine 1000 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
L-lysine hcl 500 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
L-lysine 1000 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
L-lysine 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy l-lysine 500 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Lysine 500 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point224.5 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.05HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa3.12 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.8ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.81 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.84 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.31 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-3910000000-98c565675de67aa87900View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0ab9-1910000000-87ef8534f592041f50f2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1921000000-84f7815b0f650fa17444View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-001i-9600000000-823408dba509cb204acfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00di-3910000000-4f5578af5e7d8b6c49f7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0adi-1921000000-4e56d95e623e792f9e6bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-8900000000-470a0beb4f338ed89bcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-74e9193d9d33c2509bfaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-822c4e78250fffa56e39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-04f9a62a77fb5a37ca22View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-035035ecfa084671479bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-5bb15839f86f4fca0d0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-6c8ef03aa83eb1cab35bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-01ot-0910000000-c182a7dcdbc260666978View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4j-0900000000-6c5f378cef2f14204e15View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-41e1a6499097748934b0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0390000000-7270a0b85b9e3f9f6373View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-a997e809874357908880View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-2900000000-f64110414f82c93e1fe8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-014m-9200000000-33a38e6370811c5ddc82View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-3a8b0b6e62f5c66d3720View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-d5167570d11d77fd541eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-a46231bd529176101129View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-f8b9f01b2a9886c51df9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-ace0361476d939043e98View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-5b06b6e9dcf9faf8e89cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-053r-9000000000-2894ef6d7f72ea71688eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-290902f43cf851e8ef5eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-9300000000-f81193f6b50235ec8147View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-9300000000-8931d2193adab166d5e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b4825cc64fcb830c6967View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Joseph Michael Stevens, Thomas P. Binder, “Process for making granular L-lysine.” U.S. Patent US5990350, issued 0000.

US5990350
General References
  1. Griffith RS, Norins AL, Kagan C: A multicentered study of lysine therapy in Herpes simplex infection. Dermatologica. 1978;156(5):257-67. [PubMed:640102 ]
External Links
ATC CodesB05XB03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic tissues. May also function as an ecotropic retroviral leukemia receptor.
Gene Name:
SLC7A1
Uniprot ID:
P30825
Molecular Weight:
67637.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Fernandez J, Lopez AB, Wang C, Mishra R, Zhou L, Yaman I, Snider MD, Hatzoglou M: Transcriptional control of the arginine/lysine transporter, cat-1, by physiological stress. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 12;278(50):50000-9. Epub 2003 Sep 30. [PubMed:14523001 ]
  4. Lopez AB, Wang C, Huang CC, Yaman I, Li Y, Chakravarty K, Johnson PF, Chiang CM, Snider MD, Wek RC, Hatzoglou M: A feedback transcriptional mechanism controls the level of the arginine/lysine transporter cat-1 during amino acid starvation. Biochem J. 2007 Feb 15;402(1):163-73. [PubMed:17042743 ]
  5. Nicholson B, Sawamura T, Masaki T, MacLeod CL: Increased Cat3-mediated cationic amino acid transport functionally compensates in Cat1 knockout cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 12;273(24):14663-6. [PubMed:9614060 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine).
Gene Name:
SLC7A4
Uniprot ID:
O43246
Molecular Weight:
68267.17 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Rotoli BM, Bussolati O, Sala R, Gazzola GC, Dall'Asta V: The transport of cationic amino acids in human airway cells: expression of system y+L activity and transepithelial delivery of NOS inhibitors. FASEB J. 2005 May;19(7):810-2. Epub 2005 Mar 3. [PubMed:15746185 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the uptake of the cationic amino acids arginine, lysine and ornithine in a sodium-independent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC7A3
Uniprot ID:
Q8WY07
Molecular Weight:
67168.31 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, Kobayashi S, Ninomiya H, Miwa S, Masaki T: Cloning and characterization of a brain-specific cationic amino acid transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 28;272(13):8717-22. [PubMed:9079705 ]
  4. Humphrey BD, Stephensen CB, Calvert CC, Klasing KC: Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Feb;143(2):218-27. Epub 2006 Jan 10. [PubMed:16406639 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Low-affinity l-arginine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Functions as permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine); the affinity for its substrates differs between isoforms created by alternative splicing. Isoform 1 functions as permease that mediates the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine), and it has much higher affinity for arginine than isoform 2. Isoform 2 func...
Gene Name:
SLC7A2
Uniprot ID:
P52569
Molecular Weight:
71672.175 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Low BC, Grigor MR: Angiotensin II stimulates system y+ and cationic amino acid transporter gene expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 17;270(46):27577-83. [PubMed:7499219 ]
  4. Rotoli BM, Bussolati O, Sala R, Gazzola GC, Dall'Asta V: The transport of cationic amino acids in human airway cells: expression of system y+L activity and transepithelial delivery of NOS inhibitors. FASEB J. 2005 May;19(7):810-2. Epub 2005 Mar 3. [PubMed:15746185 ]
  5. Schwartz D, Schwartz IF, Gnessin E, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, Blum M, Iaina A: Differential regulation of glomerular arginine transporters (CAT-1 and CAT-2) in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Apr;284(4):F788-95. Epub 2002 Dec 10. [PubMed:12475743 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. When secreted, acts as a signaling molecule that induces immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. Catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine oligophosphate (Ap4A), a sign...
Gene Name:
KARS
Uniprot ID:
Q15046
Molecular Weight:
68047.54 Da
References
  1. Wu XR, Kenzior A, Willmot D, Scanlon S, Chen Z, Topin A, He SH, Acevedo A, Folk WR: Altered expression of plant lysyl tRNA synthetase promotes tRNA misacylation and translational recoding of lysine. Plant J. 2007 May;50(4):627-36. Epub 2007 Apr 8. [PubMed:17425721 ]
  2. Chou TF, Wagner CR: Lysyl-tRNA synthetase-generated lysyl-adenylate is a substrate for histidine triad nucleotide binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 16;282(7):4719-27. Epub 2006 Dec 8. [PubMed:17158446 ]
  3. Kamenski P, Kolesnikova O, Jubenot V, Entelis N, Krasheninnikov IA, Martin RP, Tarassov I: Evidence for an adaptation mechanism of mitochondrial translation via tRNA import from the cytosol. Mol Cell. 2007 Jun 8;26(5):625-37. [PubMed:17560369 ]
  4. Kwon I, Wang P, Tirrell DA: Design of a bacterial host for site-specific incorporation of p-bromophenylalanine into recombinant proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Sep 13;128(36):11778-83. [PubMed:16953616 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23