|DB00966||Telmisartan||Used alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensives for the treatment of hypertension. Also used in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the treatment of congestive heart failure (only in patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors).|
|DB00796||Candesartan cilexetil||May be used as a first line agent to treat uncomplicated hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. May be used as a first line agent to delay progression of diabetic nephropathy. Candesartan may be also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease in those intolerant of ACE inhibitors.|
|DB01029||Irbesartan||For the treatment of hypertension, as well as diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria (>300 mg/day) in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Irbesartan is also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure.|
|DB00678||Losartan||May be used as a first line agent to treat uncomplicated hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. May be used as a first line agent to delay progression of diabetic nephropathy. Losartan may be also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease in those intolerant of ACE inhibitors.|
|DB00749||Etodolac||For acute and long-term management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain.|
|DB00712||Flurbiprofen||Flurbiprofen tablets are indicated for the acute or long-term symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteorarthritis and anklosing spondylitis. It may also be used to treat pain associated with dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. bursitis, tendonitis, soft tissue trauma). Topical ophthalmic formulations may be used pre-operatively to prevent intraoperative miosis. |
|DB01050||Ibuprofen||Ibuprofen is the most commonly used and prescribed NSAID. It is very common over the counter medication widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.[A39096]
The use of ibuprofen and its enantiomer [DB09213] in a racemic mix is common for the management of mild to moderate pain related to dysmenorrhea, headache, migraine, postoperative dental pain, spondylitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue disorder.[A39097]
Due to its activity against prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, ibuprofen has been attributed to alteration of platelet function and prolongation of gestation and labor.[A39092]
As ibuprofen is a widely used medication, the main therapeutic indications are:
* Patent Ductus Arteriosus - it is a neonatal condition wherein the ductus arteriosus (blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta) fails to close after birth causing severe risk of heart failure. The prostaglandin inhibition of ibuprofen has been studied for the treatment of this condition as it is known that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for keeping the ductus arteriosus open.[A39100]
* Rheumatoid- and osteo-arthritis - ibuprofen is very commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of inflammatory, musculoskeletal and rheumatic disorders.[A39176]
* Cystic fibrosis - the use of high dosages of ibuprofen has been proven to decrease inflammation and decreasing polymorphonuclear cell influx in the lungs.[A39177]
* Orthostatic hypotension - ibuprofen can induce sodium retention and antagonize the effect of diuretics which has been reported to be beneficial for patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.[A1651]
* Dental pain - ibuprofen is used to manage acute and chronic orofacial pain.[A10901]
* Minor pain - ibuprofen is widely used to reduce minor aches and pains as well as to reduce fever and manage dysmenorrhea. It is very commonly used for the relief of acute indications such as fever and tension headaches.[A39092]
* Investigational uses - efforts have been put into developing ibuprofen for the prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and breast cancer.[A39092]|
|DB01252||Mitiglinide||For the treatment of type 2 diabetes.|
|DB04725||Licofelone||For the management of osteoarthritis.|
|DB06210||Eltrombopag||Thrombopoietin receptor agonists are pharmaceutical agents that stimulate platelet production in the bone marrow. In this, they differ from the previously discussed agents that act by attempting to curtail platelet destruction. |
|DB06403||Ambrisentan||Ambrisentan is indicated for treatment of idiopathic (‘primary’) pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with connective tissue disease in patients with WHO functional class II or III symptoms. In the United States of America, ambrisentan is also indicated in combination with tadalafil to reduce the risks of disease progression and hospitalization for worsening PAH, and to improve exercise ability.|
|DB00197||Troglitazone||For the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is used alone or in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin as an adjunct to diet and exercise.|
|DB00295||Morphine||Morphine is used for the management of chronic moderate-to-severe pain.[A176050]
Opioids, including morphine, can manage pain effectively when used for a short amount of time. The use of opioids for longer periods needs to be monitored as they can develop a physical dependence, addiction disorder and drug abuse.[L5728]|
|DB00555||Lamotrigine||Indicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients ≥2 years of age: partial seizures/primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures/generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [FDA Label].
Indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (≥16 years of age) with partial seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED)[FDA Label].
Indicated for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in adults (≥18 years of age) treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [FDA Label].|
|DB00973||Ezetimibe||Ezetimibe is indicated to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, and non-HDL-C in patients with primary hyperlipidemia, alone or in combination with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, and non-HDL-C in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia in combination with fenofibrate, reduce elevated total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), in combination with atorvastatin or simvastatin, and to reduce elevated sitosterol and campesterol in patients with homozygous sitosterolemia (phytosterolemia) [FDA Label].|
|DB06510||Muraglitazar||Investigated for use/treatment in diabetes mellitus type 2.|
|DB00434||Cyproheptadine||For treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis due to inhalant allergens and foods, mild uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema, amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma, cold urticaria, dermatographism, and as therapy for anaphylactic reactions adjunctive to epinephrine.|
|DB04953||Ezogabine||Adjuvant treatment of partial-onset seizures. |
|DB08860||Pitavastatin||Pitavastatin is used to lower serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and raise levels of HDL-C for the treatment of dyslipidemia. |
|DB01076||Atorvastatin||Atorvastatin is approved for the treatment of several types of dyslipidemias including:
- Primary hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia in adults.
- Primary dysbetalipoproteinemia.
- Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
- Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in adolescent patients with failed dietary modifications.[A177397]
Dyslipidemia is defined as an elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides or both as well as to the presence of low levels of high-density lipoprotein. This condition represents an increased risk for the development of atherosclerosis.[L6025]
Atorvastatin is indicated, in combination with dietary modifications, to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with cardiac risk factors and/or abnormal lipid profiles.[A177397]
Atorvastatin can be used as a preventive agent for myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and angina, in patients without coronary heart disease but with multiple risk factors, and in patients with type 2 diabetes without coronary heart disease but multiple risk factors.[A177397]
Atorvastatin can also be used as a preventive agent for non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal stroke, revascularization procedures, hospitalization for congestive heart failure and angina in patients with coronary heart disease.[A177397]
The term cardiovascular events correspond to all the incidents that can produce damage to the heart muscle including the interruption of blood flow.[L6028]|
|DB00227||Lovastatin||Lovastatin is indicated as an intervention alternative in individuals presenting dyslipidemia at risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. The administration of this agent should be accompanied by the implementation of a fat and cholesterol-restricted diet.[FDA label]
In individuals with risk factors related to elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol and below average HDL cholesterol, lovastatin can be used to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, unstable angina and coronary revascularization procedures.[FDA label]
As well, lovastatin is indicated to slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary heart disease.[FDA label]
Lovastatin is used as part of the multiple risk factor intervention with a saturated fat-restricted diet in patients with significantly increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. The administration of lovastatin is restricted to patients to whom the administration of a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol or the application of nonpharmaceutical measures are inadequate or irresponsive.[FDA label]
Lovastatin is indicated as an adjunct therapy to diet to reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B level in adolescents between 10-17 years. The administration of lovastatin is restricted to patients in which adequate diet has been unresponsive as seen by LDL cholesterol higher than 189 mg/dL or LDL cholesterol higher than 160 mg/dL and history of family cardiovascular disease or with two or more cardiovascular disease risk factors.[FDA label]
Before administering lovastatin, it is important to rule out the presence of secondary causes of hypercholesterolemia and a lipid profile should be performed.[FDA label]
Lovastatin is used off-label for the treatment and management of peripheral artery disease.[T415]|
|DB00641||Simvastatin||For the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the reduction in the risk of cardiac heart disease mortality and cardiovascular events. It can also be used in adolescent patients for the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. |
|DB01095||Fluvastatin||To be used as an adjunct to dietary therapy to prevent cardiovascular events. May be used as secondary prevention in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) to reduce the risk of requiring coronary revascularization procedures, for reducing progression of coronary atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients with CHD, and for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslidipidemia. |
|DB00313||Valproic Acid||**Indicated** for:[Label]
1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures.
2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches.
4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder.
**Off-label** uses include:
1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919]
2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934]
3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]|
|DB11943||Delafloxacin||Delafloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by the Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible isolates), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus Group (including Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus constellatus), Streptococcus pyogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as the Gram-negative organisms Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [FDA Label].|
|DB11691||Naldemedine||For the treatment of opioid-induced constipation [FDA Label].|
|DB13874||Enasidenib||Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) mutation.|
|DB12070||Letermovir||For use in prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV-seropositive recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) [FDA Label].|
|DB06230||Nalmefene||Indicated for the reduction of alcohol consumption in adult patients with alcohol dependence who have a high drinking risk level (DRL), without physical withdrawal symptoms and who do not require immediate detoxification [L1024].
Indicated for the complete or partial reversal of opioid drug effects, including respiratory depression - induced by either natural or synthetic opioids - or in the management of known or suspected opioid overdose [FDA Label].|
|DB08930||Dolutegravir||Dolutegravir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection that comply with the characteristics of being adults or children aged 12 years and older and present at least a weight of 40 kg.[A7520] The FDA combination therapy approval of dolutegravir and rilpivirine is indicated for adults with HIV-1 infections whose virus is currently suppressed (< 50 copies/ml) on a stable regimen for at least six months, without history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated to resistance to any of the two components of the therapy.[L1031]|
|DB13997||Baloxavir marboxil||For the treatment of influenza A and B virus infection [L1473, L1475], [FDA label] in patients 12 and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours.
Clinical trials of this drug did not include subjects 65 years of age and older to determine whether they respond in a different way than younger subjects [FDA label].|
|DB12130||Lorlatinib||Lorlatinib is a third-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) [L4848] indicated for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has progressed on a) the prior use of crizotinib and at least one other ALK inhibitor for metastatic disease, or b) the prior use of alectinib as the first ALK inhibitor therapy for metastatic disease, or c) the prior use of certinib as the first ALK inhibitor therapy for metastatic disease [L848, FDA Label]. |
|DB00327||Hydromorphone||Hydromorphone is indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute pain and severe chronic pain. Due to its addictive potential and overdose risk, hydromorphone is only prescribed when other first-line treatments have failed.[A176468]
The WHO has proposed a three-step ladder for the management of pain in which it is suggested to start with a non-opioid medication followed by addition of weak opioids to the non-opioid treatment for moderate pain and finishing in the use of strong opioids such as hydromorphone along with the existing regimen for cases of severe pain.[A176471]
Off-label, hydromorphone can be administered for the suppression of refractory cough.[A176468]|