Identification

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Name
Losartan
Accession Number
DB00678  (APRD00052)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) used to treat hypertension.3 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used for a similar indication but are associated with a cough.3 When patients with ACE inhibitor associated coughs are switched to ARBs like losartan, they have an incidence of cough similar to placebo or hydrochlorothiazide.3 Losartan is available as losartan potassium oral tablets as well as a combination tablet of losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide.3,4 Patients taking losartan should have their renal function and potassium levels monitored.3 Losartan was granted FDA approval on 14 April 1995.3

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2-butyl-4-chloro-1-{[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methanol
  • 2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole
  • Losartan
External IDs
DUP 89 / HGP-1405 / HGP1405 / MK594
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Losartan potassium3ST302B24A124750-99-8OXCMYAYHXIHQOA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act LosartanTabletOralActavis Pharma Company2012-01-252019-08-07Canada
Act LosartanTabletOralActavis Pharma Company2012-01-252019-08-07Canada
Act LosartanTabletOralActavis Pharma Company2012-01-252019-08-07Canada
CozaarTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2009-10-142010-10-15Us
CozaarTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-08-06Not applicableUs54868 233520180907 15195 32v6cd
CozaarTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.1995-04-14Not applicableUs0006 096020180810 16125 18fhek0
CozaarTablet25 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-04-072011-04-08Us
CozaarTablet, film coated25 mg/1OralMed Pharma Co., Ltd.1995-04-142012-07-11Us
CozaarTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-04-01Not applicableUs00006 0952 54 nlmimage10 c51362fb
CozaarTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.1995-04-14Not applicableUs0006 095220180810 16125 ho34bp
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ag-losartanTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.2018-06-27Not applicableCanada
Ag-losartanTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.2018-06-27Not applicableCanada
Ag-losartanTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.2018-06-27Not applicableCanada
Apo-losartanTabletOralApotex Corporation2012-04-13Not applicableCanada
Apo-losartanTabletOralApotex Corporation2012-01-25Not applicableCanada
Apo-losartanTabletOralApotex Corporation2012-01-25Not applicableCanada
Auro-losartanTabletOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-03-26Not applicableCanada
Auro-losartanTabletOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-03-26Not applicableCanada
Auro-losartanTabletOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-03-26Not applicableCanada
Bio-losartanTabletOralBiomed Pharma2016-06-08Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Losartan/hctLosartan potassium (100 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg)TabletOralActavis Pharma Company2012-07-032018-06-25Canada
Act Losartan/hctLosartan potassium (100 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg)TabletOralActavis Pharma Company2012-07-032018-06-25Canada
Act Losartan/hctLosartan potassium (50 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg)TabletOralActavis Pharma Company2012-07-032018-06-25Canada
Ag-losartan HctzLosartan potassium (100 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg)TabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Ag-losartan HctzLosartan potassium (50 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg)TabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-losartan/hctzLosartan potassium (100 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2012-01-25Not applicableCanada
Apo-losartan/hctzLosartan potassium (50 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2012-01-25Not applicableCanada
Apo-losartan/hctzLosartan potassium (100 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2012-01-25Not applicableCanada
Auro-losartan HCTLosartan potassium (100 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg)TabletOralAuro Pharma Inc2014-04-29Not applicableCanada
Auro-losartan HCTLosartan potassium (100 mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg)TabletOralAuro Pharma Inc2014-04-29Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Lortaan
Categories
UNII
JMS50MPO89
CAS number
114798-26-4
Weight
Average: 422.911
Monoisotopic: 422.162187095
Chemical Formula
C22H23ClN6O
InChI Key
PSIFNNKUMBGKDQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H23ClN6O/c1-2-3-8-20-24-21(23)19(14-30)29(20)13-15-9-11-16(12-10-15)17-6-4-5-7-18(17)22-25-27-28-26-22/h4-7,9-12,30H,2-3,8,13-14H2,1H3,(H,25,26,27,28)
IUPAC Name
[2-butyl-4-chloro-1-({4-[2-(2H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]phenyl}methyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]methanol
SMILES
CCCCC1=NC(Cl)=C(CO)N1CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1C1=NNN=N1

Pharmacology

Indication

Losartan is indicated to treat hypertension in patients older than 6 years, reduce the risk of stroke in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (though this benefit may not extend to patients with African heritage), and to treat diabetic nephropathy with elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.3 Losartan with hydrochlorothiazide is indicated to treat hypertension and to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (though this benefit may not extend to patients with African heritage).4

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker used to treat hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and to reduce the risk of stroke.1,3,4 Losartan has a long duration of action as it is given once daily.3,4 Patients taking losartan should be regularly monitored for hypotension, renal function, and potassium levels.3,4

Mechanism of action

Losartan reversibly and competitively prevents angiotensin II binding to the AT1 receptor in tissues like vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland.3,4 Losartan and its active metabolite bind the AT1 receptor with 1000 times more affinity than they bind to the AT2 receptor.3,4 The active metabolite of losartan is 10-40 times more potent by weight than unmetabolized losartan as an inhibitor of AT1 and is a non-competitive inhibitor.3,4 Losartan's prevention of angiotensin II binding causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation, lowering blood pressure.3,4

Angiotensin II would otherwise bind to the AT1 receptor and induce vasoconstriction, raising blood pressure.3,4

TargetActionsOrganism
AType-1 angiotensin II receptor
antagonist
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Losartan is approximately 33% orally bioavailable.1,3,4 Losartan has a Tmax of 1 hour and the active metabolite has a Tmax of 3-4 hours.1,3,4 Taking losartan with food decreases the Cmax but does only results in a 10% decrease in the AUC of losartan and its active metabolite.1,3,4 A 50-80mg oral dose of losartan leads to a Cmax of 200-250ng/mL.1

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of losartan is 34.4±17.9L and 10.3±1.1L for the active metabolite (E-3174).1

Protein binding

Losartan is 98.6-98.8% protein bound and the active metabolite (E-3174) is 99.7% protein bound in serum.1

Metabolism

Losartan is metabolized to an aldehyde intermediate, E-3179, which is further metabolized to a carboxylic acid, E-3174, by cytochrome P450s like CYP2C9.1 Losartan can also be hydroxylated to an inactive metabolite, P1.1 Approximately 14% of losartan is metabolized to E-3174.1 Losartan can be metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C10.1 Losartan can also be glucuronidated by UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, and UGT 2B17.2

Route of elimination

A single oral dose of losartan leads to 4% recovery in the urine as unchanged losartan, 6% in the urine as the active metabolite.3,4 Oral radiolabelled losartan is 35% recovered in urine and 60% in feces.3,4 Intravenous radiolabelled losartan is 45% recovered in urine and 50% in feces.3,4

Half life

The terminal elimination half life of losartan is 1.5-2.5 hours while the active metabolite has a half life of 6-9 hours.1

Clearance

Losartan has a total plasma clearance of 600mL/min and a renal clearance of 75mL/min.1 E-3174, the active metabolite, has a total plasma clearance of 50mL/min and a renal clearance of 25mL/min.1

Toxicity

The oral TDLO in mice is 1000mg/kg and in rats is 2000mg/kg.3,4 In humans the TDLO for men is 10mg/kg/2W and for women is 1mg/kg/1D.5

Symptoms of overdose are likely to include hypotension, tachycardia, or bradycardia due to vagal stimulation.3,4 Supportive treatment should be instituted for symptomatic hypotension.3,4 Hemodialysis will not remove losartan or its active metabolite due to their high rates of protein binding.3,4

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Losartan Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe serum concentration of (R)-warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.
(S)-WarfarinThe serum concentration of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Losartan.
1-benzylimidazole1-benzylimidazole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Losartan.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Losartan.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Losartan.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Losartan.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Losartan.
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Losartan.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Losartan.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

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Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals. Take at same time each day. Food delays absorption, but does not affect the extent of absorption.

References

Synthesis Reference

Gordon C. Campbell, Jr., Anil M. Dwivedi, Dorothy A. Levorse, James A. McCauley, Krishnaswamy S. Raghavan, "Polymorphs of losartan and the process for the preparation of form II of losartan." U.S. Patent US5608075, issued May, 1994.

US5608075
General References
  1. Sica DA, Gehr TW, Ghosh S: Clinical pharmacokinetics of losartan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(8):797-814. [PubMed:16029066]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Losartan Oral Tablets [Link]
  4. FDA Approved Drug Products: Losartan and Hydrochlorothiazide Oral Tablets [Link]
  5. Cayman Chemicals: Losartan Potassium MSDS [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014816
KEGG Drug
D08146
KEGG Compound
C07072
PubChem Compound
3961
PubChem Substance
46506538
ChemSpider
3824
BindingDB
82258
ChEBI
6541
ChEMBL
CHEMBL191
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000523
PharmGKB
PA450268
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
LSN
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Losartan
ATC Codes
C09CA01 — LosartanC09DA01 — Losartan and diureticsC09DB06 — Losartan and amlodipine
AHFS Codes
  • 24:32.08 — Angiotensin Ii Receptor Antagonists
PDB Entries
5x23 / 5x24 / 5xxi
FDA label
Download (212 KB)
MSDS
Download (19 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic SciencePeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
0CompletedDiagnosticPostural Tachycardia Syndrome1
0CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
0CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
0CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
0Not Yet RecruitingOtherCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBlood Pressures / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
0TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers11
1CompletedNot AvailableHypertension,Essential1
1CompletedNot AvailableKidney Diseases1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Interaction Potentiation1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedDiagnosticCytochrome / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionPost-ERCP Acute Pancreatitis1
1CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Heart Disease1
1CompletedTreatmentFasting1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)6
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperlipidemias1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Solid Tumors / Metastatic Melanoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentBorderline Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Locally Advanced Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma / Locally Advanced Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage II Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v81
1RecruitingTreatmentSarcoma, Osteogenic1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) / Progressive autonomic failure1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAging1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHamstring Injury1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentChildren / Pulmonary vein stenosis1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentAlbinism, Oculocutaneous / Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) / Metabolic Diseases / Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency / Pulmonary Fibrosis1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentConnective Tissue Disorders / Oesophagitis, Eosinophilic1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOesophagitis, Eosinophilic1
2CompletedNot AvailableType 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperlipidemias1
2CompletedPreventionInflammatory Reaction1
2CompletedPreventionSarcopenia1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperkalemia1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Kidney Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / Hypertension,Essential / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentFibrosis / Inflammatory Reaction1
2CompletedTreatmentGlomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Apnea Hypopnea Index > 30 Events/Hour)1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)2
2CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentNAFLD1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Dysfunction / Sickle Cell Anemia1
2CompletedTreatmentTransplant, Kidney1
2RecruitingDiagnosticGlioblastomas / Metastatic Brain Tumors1
2RecruitingPreventionAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sedentary Lifestyle1
2RecruitingPreventionPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHeart Defects,Congenital / Tetralogy Of Fallot / Ventricular Dysfunction, Right1
2RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
2RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Kidney Diseases / Proteinuria / Sickle Cell Anemia / Sickle Cell Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentMorquio A Syndrome / Morquio Syndrome / Morquio Syndrome A / MPS - Mucopolysaccharidosis / MPS IV A / MPS VI / Mucopolysaccharidoses / Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A / Mucopolysaccharidosis VI1
2RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2RecruitingTreatmentNAFLD - Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
2TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2TerminatedTreatmentPre-Diabetic / Pre-Hypertension1
2Unknown StatusPreventionMarfan Syndrome1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Renal Injury1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionCognitively Normal Older Adults / Family History of Alzheimer's Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Subjective Cognitive Decline1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentIdiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) / Pulmonary Fibrosis1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNewly-diagnosed Glioblastoma1
3CompletedPreventionAtrial Fibrillation (AF) / Lung Cancers1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypertension1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Left Ventricular Hypertrophy1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Heart Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / Kidney Diseases / Proteinuria / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)23
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Metabolic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Stroke1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentHyperlipidemias / Hypertension,Essential1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential3
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential / Impaired kidney function1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular1
3CompletedTreatmentIgA Glomerulonephritis1
3CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome2
3CompletedTreatmentMild to Severe Hypertension1
3CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
3CompletedTreatmentProteinuria2
3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
3CompletedTreatmentRenal Dysfunction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlomerulonephritis, Immunoglobulin A (IgA)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
3RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Small Vessels Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentDyslipidemias / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3RecruitingTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
3TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
3TerminatedTreatmentKidney Diseases / Renal Dysfunction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
3Unknown StatusPreventionMarfan Syndrome1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypertension,Essential1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentSevere Sepsis1
3WithdrawnPreventionHyperoxaluria1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEssential Arterial Hypertension2
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceArterial hypoxia / Chemoreceptor Apnea / Respiration; Sleep Disorder / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Cardiovascular Heart Disease / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Serious Mental Illness1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceRejection, Transplant1
4CompletedDiagnosticHyperaldosteronism1
4CompletedOtherBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperglycemia1
4CompletedPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4CompletedPreventionKidney Diseases / Proteinuria1
4CompletedPreventionKidney Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Fibrosis, Liver1
4CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure / Low Cardiac Output1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)15
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypertension,Essential1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Left Ventricle Hypertrophy1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pharmacogenetics1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sleep Apnea1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Stroke1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
4CompletedTreatmentIgA Glomerulonephritis1
4CompletedTreatmentKidney Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentLiver Transplanted Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentMacroalbuminuric Diabetic Nephropathy1
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Dysfunction1
4CompletedTreatmentStage 2 Systolic Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Peritoneal dialysis therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHypertension;Nephropathy1
4RecruitingPreventionBlood Pressures / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Stroke1
4RecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Insufficiency / Aortic Valve Stenosis / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Left Ventricular Hypertrophy / LVM1
4RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypertension / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Ulcerative Colitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentEmphysema1
4RecruitingTreatmentGlomerulonephritis / Proteinuria1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Diseases / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4RecruitingTreatmentIgA Nephropathy1
4RecruitingTreatmentPediatric Hypertension1
4SuspendedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Proteinuria1
4TerminatedNot AvailableAtrial Fibrillation (AF)1
4TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Carotid Artery Stenosis / Stroke1
4TerminatedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAlcoholic Liver Cirrhosis / Ascites1
4Unknown StatusPreventionContinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBlood Pressures1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Bronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema / Smoking1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)4
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypertension, Resistant to Conventional Therapy / Hypertension,Essential1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPeritoneal Membrane Failure1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Membranous Nephropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFabry's Disease / Proteinuria1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Normotensive Participants1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) / Left Ventricular Hypertrophy / Myocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceLearning / Memory1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLeft Ventricular Hypertrophy / Renal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlbuminuria1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAngiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / Diabetic Nephropathies / Glucose Metabolism / Obese / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Impaired Glucose Tolerance / Insulin Resistance / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Heart Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / Proteinuria1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) / Prophylaxis of cardiomyopathy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)6
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMicroalbuminuria1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrecancerous Conditions1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease Patients1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceDiabetic Nephropathies1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAtherosclerosis / Nephritis, Lupus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIgA Nephropathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceChronic Bronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedScreeningCytochrome P450 Phenotype and Genotype Metrics1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentACE Inhibitor / Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / Dose-Response Relationship, Drug / Progression, Disease / Proteinuria / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentRenal Insufficiency,Chronic1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAngiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / Kidney Insufficiency, Chronic / Proteinuria1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAtrial Fibrillation (AF)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV) / Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Renal Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentIgA Glomerulonephritis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareDyspnea / Lung Cancers / Pulmonary Complications / Radiation Fibrosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Merck research laboratories div merck co inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Merck & Co., Inc.
Packagers
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Ipca Laboratories Ltd.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Merck & Co.
  • Mylan
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Roxane Labs
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Torrent Pharmaceuticals
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral50 mg
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg/1
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Losartan Potassium 90 50 mg tablet Bottle211.78USD bottle
Losartan Potassium-HCTZ 30 50-12.5 mg tablet Bottle78.05USD bottle
Hyzaar 100-25 mg tablet3.91USD tablet
Hyzaar 100-12.5 mg tablet3.87USD tablet
Hyzaar 100-12.5 tablet3.61USD tablet
Hyzaar 100-25 tablet3.61USD tablet
Losartan Potassium-HCTZ 100-12.5 mg tablet3.54USD tablet
Losartan Potassium-HCTZ 100-25 mg tablet3.54USD tablet
Cozaar 100 mg tablet3.41USD tablet
Losartan potassium 100 mg tablet3.14USD tablet
Hyzaar 50-12.5 mg tablet2.97USD tablet
Hyzaar 50-12.5 tablet2.65USD tablet
Cozaar 50 mg tablet2.5USD tablet
Losartan potassium 50 mg tablet2.26USD tablet
Cozaar 25 mg tablet1.92USD tablet
Losartan potassium 25 mg tablet1.72USD tablet
Cozaar 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Cozaar 25 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Cozaar 50 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5210079No1993-05-112010-11-11Us
US5608075No1997-03-042009-03-04Us
CA2085584No2003-02-112011-06-07Canada
CA1334092No1995-01-242012-01-24Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)178-184http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3824.html
boiling point (°C)682http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3824.html
water solubility<1mg/mLhttp://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3824.html
logP1.19https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2004/20-386S019_Cozaar_EAFONSI.pdf
pKa5.5MERCK INDEX (1996); approx.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0047 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.5ALOGPS
logP5.08ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.12ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity131.85 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability44.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7812
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6993
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5309
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5689
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6839
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6226
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5514
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5423
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8102
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.6288
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7049
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5382
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6595
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.6055 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5781
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8084
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0000900000-657db16bb4bfe9184114
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-0900000000-43bb8508cd1dbc71bcee
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-55368087829d113fdb7b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-af470646c547613f82a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-746dcf7a43a3f8839c1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-0bee80f7ccbc4b68eee0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-d845ae166a10faff242a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-2900000000-d39a309c02e1aaa956b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-7900000000-d27d10ab008deb157e7a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-0900700000-fef78a7f52d4aa515bb4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-0900600000-c62f0db44e17f79e0c70
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0034900000-22ba49ec64d374c8965e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0191000000-8ff1b5a21f6ef4a462cd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0590000000-9841ff7f881c3e9c11b9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-0960000000-a24e287a018dae01dd0d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a5c-0930000000-ff3e675bd445225bf04e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pxu-0920000000-9adf4aef59fc1545fea6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0v00-1900000000-3591888cf5831cbe3d11
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0wmi-2900000000-ab9304c8cebc201d0178
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0j70-5900000000-efa87b7770206ac0ff3e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0491300000-f4b08850a154cfc2117c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0591300000-32a922edf20b3eb76950

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biphenyls and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing to benzene rings linked together by a C-C bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Biphenyls and derivatives
Direct Parent
Biphenyls and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenyltetrazoles and derivatives / 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles / N-substituted imidazoles / Aryl chlorides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organochlorides
show 2 more
Substituents
Biphenyl / Phenyltetrazole / 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazole / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / N-substituted imidazole / Azole / Heteroaromatic compound / Imidazole / Tetrazole
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
imidazoles, biphenylyltetrazole (CHEBI:6541)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
Receptor for angiotensin II. Mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
Gene Name
AGTR1
Uniprot ID
P30556
Uniprot Name
Type-1 angiotensin II receptor
Molecular Weight
41060.53 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Sardo MA, Castaldo M, Cinquegrani M, Bonaiuto M, Fontana L, Campo S, Campo GM, Altavilla D, Saitta A: Effects of AT1 receptor antagonist losartan on sICAM-1 and TNF-alpha levels in uncomplicated hypertensive patients. Angiology. 2004 Mar-Apr;55(2):195-203. [PubMed:15026875]
  3. Dickstein K, Timmermans P, Segal R: Losartan: a selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist for the treatment of heart failure. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 1998 Nov;7(11):1897-914. [PubMed:15991937]
  4. Anand-Srivastava MB, Palaparti A: Angiotensin-II-induced enhanced expression of Gi proteins is attenuated by losartan in A10 vascular smooth muscle cells: role of AT1 receptors. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;81(2):150-8. [PubMed:12710529]
  5. Rocha I, Bras-Rosario L, Amparo-Barros M, Silva-Carvalho L: Angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and the defence reaction in the anaesthetised rat. Effect on the carotid chemoreflex. Exp Physiol. 2003 May;88(3):309-14. [PubMed:12719755]
  6. Guan J, Cheng DY, Chen XJ, Zhang Y, Wang H, Su QL: [The effects of losartan on pulmonary arterial collagen and AT1 in chronic hypoxic rats]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2004 Nov;35(6):774-7. [PubMed:15573751]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Song JC, White CM: Pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and therapeutic differences among angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Feb;20(2):130-9. [PubMed:10678291]
  2. Sica DA, Gehr TW, Ghosh S: Clinical pharmacokinetics of losartan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(8):797-814. [PubMed:16029066]
  3. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  4. Yasar U, Forslund-Bergengren C, Tybring G, Dorado P, Llerena A, Sjoqvist F, Eliasson E, Dahl ML: Pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite E-3174 in relation to the CYP2C9 genotype. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jan;71(1):89-98. [PubMed:11823761]
  5. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
  6. FDA label Losartan [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Song JC, White CM: Pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and therapeutic differences among angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Feb;20(2):130-9. [PubMed:10678291]
  2. Sica DA, Gehr TW, Ghosh S: Clinical pharmacokinetics of losartan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(8):797-814. [PubMed:16029066]
  3. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  4. Mukai Y, Senda A, Toda T, Hayakawa T, Eliasson E, Rane A, Inotsume N: Drug-drug Interaction between Losartan and Paclitaxel in Human Liver Microsomes with Different CYP2C8 Genotypes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Jun;116(6):493-8. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12355. Epub 2014 Dec 23. [PubMed:25424246]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
The current evidence available for this enzyme inhibition is limited to one in vitro study.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Taavitsainen P, Kiukaanniemi K, Pelkonen O: In vitro inhibition screening of human hepatic P450 enzymes by five angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 May;56(2):135-40. [PubMed:10877007]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW8
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10
Molecular Weight
59809.075 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The major substrates of this isozyme are eugenol > 4-methylumbe...
Gene Name
UGT2B17
Uniprot ID
O75795
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17
Molecular Weight
61094.915 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Mukai Y, Senda A, Toda T, Hayakawa T, Eliasson E, Rane A, Inotsume N: Drug-drug Interaction between Losartan and Paclitaxel in Human Liver Microsomes with Different CYP2C8 Genotypes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Jun;116(6):493-8. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12355. Epub 2014 Dec 23. [PubMed:25424246]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Sica DA, Gehr TW, Ghosh S: Clinical pharmacokinetics of losartan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(8):797-814. [PubMed:16029066]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Takara K, Kakumoto M, Tanigawara Y, Funakoshi J, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Interaction of digoxin with antihypertensive drugs via MDR1. Life Sci. 2002 Feb 15;70(13):1491-500. [PubMed:11895100]
  2. Borgnia MJ, Eytan GD, Assaraf YG: Competition of hydrophobic peptides, cytotoxic drugs, and chemosensitizers on a common P-glycoprotein pharmacophore as revealed by its ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 9;271(6):3163-71. [PubMed:8621716]
  3. Soldner A, Benet LZ, Mutschler E, Christians U: Active transport of the angiotensin-II antagonist losartan and its main metabolite EXP 3174 across MDCK-MDR1 and caco-2 cell monolayers. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar;129(6):1235-43. [PubMed:10725273]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Race JE, Grassl SM, Williams WJ, Holtzman EJ: Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel human renal organic anion transporters (hOAT1 and hOAT3). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Feb 16;255(2):508-14. [PubMed:10049739]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Urate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Required for efficient urate re-absorption in the kidney. Regulates blood urate levels. Mediates saturable urate uptake by facilitating the exchange of urate against organic anions.
Gene Name
SLC22A12
Uniprot ID
Q96S37
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 12
Molecular Weight
59629.57 Da
References
  1. Lipkowitz MS: Regulation of uric acid excretion by the kidney. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2012 Apr;14(2):179-88. doi: 10.1007/s11926-012-0240-z. [PubMed:22359229]
  2. Burnier M, Roch-Ramel F, Brunner HR: Renal effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade in normotensive subjects. Kidney Int. 1996 Jun;49(6):1787-90. [PubMed:8743498]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sugar:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Transport urate and fructose. May have a role in the urate reabsorption by proximal tubules. Also transports glucose at low rate.
Gene Name
SLC2A9
Uniprot ID
Q9NRM0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9
Molecular Weight
58701.205 Da
References
  1. Lipkowitz MS: Regulation of uric acid excretion by the kidney. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2012 Apr;14(2):179-88. doi: 10.1007/s11926-012-0240-z. [PubMed:22359229]
  2. Burnier M, Roch-Ramel F, Brunner HR: Renal effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade in normotensive subjects. Kidney Int. 1996 Jun;49(6):1787-90. [PubMed:8743498]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 08, 2019 13:56