Identification

Name
Simvastatin
Accession Number
DB00641  (APRD00104)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Simvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that is derived synthetically from the fermentation of Aspergillus terreus. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hydroxymethylglutaryl COA reductases), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL receptors, it increases breakdown of LDL cholesterol.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2,2-dimethylbutyric acid, 8-ester with (4R,6R)-6-(2-((1S,2S,6R,8S,8aR)-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-8-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-1-naphthyl)ethyl)tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one
  • Simvastatina
  • Simvastatine
  • Simvastatinum
External IDs
MK 733 / MK-0733 / MK-733
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act SimvastatinTablet80 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-09-26Not applicableCanada
Act SimvastatinTablet10 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-09-26Not applicableCanada
Act SimvastatinTablet40 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-09-26Not applicableCanada
Act SimvastatinTablet5 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-09-26Not applicableCanada
Act SimvastatinTablet20 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2003-09-26Not applicableCanada
Bci SimvastatinTablet80 mgOralBaker Cummins IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bci SimvastatinTablet10 mgOralBaker Cummins IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bci SimvastatinTablet40 mgOralBaker Cummins IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bci SimvastatinTablet5 mgOralBaker Cummins IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bci SimvastatinTablet20 mgOralBaker Cummins IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-simvastatinTablet40 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-12-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-simvastatinTablet5 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-12-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-simvastatinTablet20 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-12-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-simvastatinTablet80 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-12-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-simvastatinTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation2002-12-20Not applicableCanada
Auro-simvastatinTablet80 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-07-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-simvastatinTablet40 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-07-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-simvastatinTablet20 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-07-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-simvastatinTablet5 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-07-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-simvastatinTablet10 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-07-08Not applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CholibSimvastatin (40 mg) + Fenofibrate (145 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Products Limited2013-08-26Not applicableEu
CholibSimvastatin (20 mg) + Fenofibrate (145 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Products Limited2013-08-26Not applicableEu
CholibSimvastatin (40 mg) + Fenofibrate (145 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Products Limited2013-08-26Not applicableEu
CholibSimvastatin (40 mg) + Fenofibrate (145 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Products Limited2013-08-26Not applicableEu
CholibSimvastatin (20 mg) + Fenofibrate (145 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Products Limited2013-08-26Not applicableEu
CholibSimvastatin (20 mg) + Fenofibrate (145 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Products Limited2013-08-26Not applicableEu
Ezetimibe and SimvastatinSimvastatin (20 mg/1) + Ezetimibe (10 mg/1)TabletOralA-S Medication Solutions2017-04-26Not applicableUs
Ezetimibe and SimvastatinSimvastatin (20 mg/1) + Ezetimibe (10 mg/1)TabletOralActavis Pharma, Inc.2017-04-26Not applicableUs
Ezetimibe and SimvastatinSimvastatin (10 mg/1) + Ezetimibe (10 mg/1)TabletOralDr. Reddy’s Laboratories Inc.2017-04-26Not applicableUs
Ezetimibe and SimvastatinSimvastatin (20 mg/1) + Ezetimibe (10 mg/1)TabletOralGolden State Medical Supply2017-04-26Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Cholestat (Kalbe) / Colemin (Biohorm) / Labistatin (Sandoz) / Lipex (Merck Sharp & Dohme) / Lodales (Sanofi-Aventis) / Medipo (Mediolanum Farmaceutici) / Nivelipol (Temis-Lostalo) / Simovil (Merck Sharp & Dohme) / Sinvacor (Merck Sharp & Dohme) / Sivastin (Sigma-Tau) / Sivatin (Rowex) / Sivinar (Anfarm) / Sorfox (Galex) / Sotovastin (Bros) / Starezin (Leovan Pharmaceuticals) / Starstat (Lupin) / Starzoko (Daewoong) / Stasiva (Pharmanel) / Statex (Pliva) / Staticor (Darnitsa) / Statinal (Alet Pharmaceuticals) / Stativer (Iapharm) / Synvinolin / Zocor
Categories
UNII
AGG2FN16EV
CAS number
79902-63-9
Weight
Average: 418.5662
Monoisotopic: 418.271924326
Chemical Formula
C25H38O5
InChI Key
RYMZZMVNJRMUDD-HGQWONQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C25H38O5/c1-6-25(4,5)24(28)30-21-12-15(2)11-17-8-7-16(3)20(23(17)21)10-9-19-13-18(26)14-22(27)29-19/h7-8,11,15-16,18-21,23,26H,6,9-10,12-14H2,1-5H3/t15-,16-,18+,19+,20-,21-,23-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-8-{2-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-oxooxan-2-yl]ethyl}-3,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl 2,2-dimethylbutanoate
SMILES
[H][C@]12[C@H](C[C@@H](C)C=C1C=C[C@H](C)[C@@H]2CC[C@@H]1C[C@@H](O)CC(=O)O1)OC(=O)C(C)(C)CC

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the reduction in the risk of cardiac heart disease mortality and cardiovascular events. It can also be used in adolescent patients for the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Simvastatin, the methylated form of lovastatin, is an oral antilipemic agent which inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. Simvastatin is used in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and is effective in reducing total and LDL-cholesterol as well as plasma triglycerides and apolipoprotein B.

Mechanism of action

Simvastatin is a prodrug in which the 6-membered lactone ring of simvastatin is hydrolyzed in vivo to generate the beta,delta-dihydroxy acid, an active metabolite structurally similar to HMG-CoA (hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA). Once hydrolyzed, simvastatin competes with HMG-CoA for HMG-CoA reductase, a hepatic microsomal enzyme. Interference with the activity of this enzyme reduces the quantity of mevalonic acid, a precursor of cholesterol.

TargetActionsOrganism
A3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
inhibitor
Human
NIntegrin beta-2
other
Human
UIntegrin alpha-L
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Absorption of simvastatin, estimated relative to an intravenous reference dose, in each of two animal species tested, averaged about 85% of an oral dose. In animal studies, after oral dosing, simvastatin achieved substantially higher concentrations in the liver than in non-target tissues. However, because simvastatin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, the availability of the drug in the systemic is low. Peak plasma concentration occurs 1.3 - 2.4 hours after administration.

Volume of distribution

Simvastatin can cross the blood-brain-barrier.

Protein binding

Both simvastatin and its β-hydroxyacid metabolite are highly bound (approximately 95%) to human plasma proteins.

Metabolism

Hepatic, simvastatin is a substrate for CYP3A4. The major active metabolites of simvastatin are β-hydroxyacid metabolite and its 6'-hydroxy, 6'-hydroxymethyl, and 6'-exomethylene derivatives

Route of elimination

Following an oral dose of 14C-labeled simvastatin in man, 13% of the dose was excreted in urine and 60% in feces.

Half life

3 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The most common adverse reactions that lead to discontinuation of therapy include gastrointestinal disorders (0.5%), myalgia (0.1%), and arthralgia (0.1%).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Simvastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Kinesin-like protein KIF6---(C;C) / (C;T)C AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have a greater reduction in risk of a major cardiovascular event with high dose simvastatin.Details
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase---(A;T)T AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have a lesser reduction in LDL cholesterol with simvastatin.Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1SLCO1B1*5(C;C) / (C;T)T > CADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in SLCO1B1 is associated with an increased risk of myopathy when treated with simvastatin.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Simvastatin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Simvastatin.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with 5-androstenedione.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with 6-O-benzylguanine.
AbemaciclibThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with Abemaciclib.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Simvastatin can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid drastic changes in dietary habit.
  • Avoid taking with grapefruit juice.

References

Synthesis Reference

Shieh-Shung J. Chen, Byron H. Arison, "Process for the preparation of 3-keto, 5-hydroxy simvastatin analogs." U.S. Patent US4965200, issued April, 1981.

US4965200
General References
  1. Wolozin B, Wang SW, Li NC, Lee A, Lee TA, Kazis LE: Simvastatin is associated with a reduced incidence of dementia and Parkinson's disease. BMC Med. 2007 Jul 19;5:20. [PubMed:17640385]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0005007
KEGG Drug
D00434
PubChem Compound
54454
PubChem Substance
46508654
ChemSpider
49179
BindingDB
50139181
ChEBI
9150
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1064
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001519
PharmGKB
PA451363
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Simvastatin
ATC Codes
C10BX04 — Simvastatin, acetylsalicylic acid and ramiprilC10BA02 — Simvastatin and ezetimibeC10BA04 — Simvastatin and fenofibrateA10BH51 — Sitagliptin and simvastatinC10AA01 — SimvastatinC10BX01 — Simvastatin and acetylsalicylic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 24:06.08 — Hmg-coa Reductase Inhibitors
FDA label
Download (102 KB)
MSDS
Download (87.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceHeart Failure, Unspecified1
0CompletedBasic SciencePeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
0CompletedTreatmentCavernous Angioma, Familial / Cerebral Cavernous Hemangioma / Cerebral Cavernous Malformations1
0Enrolling by InvitationPreventionAtherosclerosis1
0RecruitingSupportive CareMalignancies / Tumors, Solid1
0RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
0Unknown StatusBasic ScienceHeart Failure, Unspecified / Hepatic Failure / Renal Failure / Respiratory Failure / Transplantations1
0WithdrawnTreatmentRecurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic1
1CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedBasic ScienceDyslipidemias1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Participants1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedBasic ScienceHigh Cholesterol1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHuman Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceRheumatoid Arthritis1
1CompletedBasic ScienceSimvastatin Pharmacokinetics and Gut Microbiome1
1CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchRheumatoid Arthritis1
1CompletedOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
1CompletedTreatmentAlopecia Areata (AA)1
1CompletedTreatmentCholesterol, LDL / High Cholesterol1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
1CompletedTreatmentDrug Distribution1
1CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias1
1CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
1CompletedTreatmentHIV Seronegativity / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Participants1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Hyperlipidemias1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolemia, Dyslipidemia1
1CompletedTreatmentHypertriglyceridemias1
1CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
1CompletedTreatmentSleep disorders and disturbances1
1CompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentClear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Tissue / Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) / Germ Cell Tumors / Hepatoblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Non-rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma / Retinoblastoma / Rhabdoid Tumors / Rhabdomyosarcomas / Sarcoma, Osteogenic / Wilms' tumor1
1RecruitingTreatmentDyslipidemias / Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
1RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedDiagnosticGluten Enteropathy1
1TerminatedPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Depression1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Inflammatory Reaction1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPsychosis Not Otherwise Specified / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLymphangioleiomyomatosis / Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDelayed Vasospasm / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionSickle Cell Disorders / Strokes1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNon-segmental Vitiligo1
1, 2TerminatedSupportive CareChoroideremia1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Systemic Inflammation1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Stage I Breast Carcinoma / Stage II Breast Cancer / Stage III Breast Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedBasic ScienceOxidative Stress1
2CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2CompletedPreventionCancer, Breast2
2CompletedPreventionMigraines1
2CompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentCarotid Atherosclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentCirrhoses, Liver1
2CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Metastasis1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Dyslipidemias1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Polyneuropathy / Oxidative Stress1
2CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias2
2CompletedTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Portal Hypertension1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Brain Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
2CompletedTreatmentPeri-implant Mucositis1
2CompletedTreatmentPsychosis Not Otherwise Specified / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentSecondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS)1
2CompletedTreatmentThree Wall Intrabony Defects in Chronic Periodontitis1
2CompletedTreatmentVitiligo1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer Metastatic1
2RecruitingPreventionAcute Pancreatitis (AP) / Pancreatitis, Chronic / Recurrent Disease1
2RecruitingPreventionLiver Cirrhosis1
2RecruitingPreventionBone destruction / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of Rectum1
2RecruitingTreatmentBladder Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentCessation, Smoking1
2RecruitingTreatmentFibroid Tumor / Fibroid Uterus / Fibromyoma / Leiomyoma, Uterine / Leiomyomas1
2RecruitingTreatmentInvasive Breast Carcinoma / Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v71
2TerminatedPreventionElevated LDL Cholesterol2
2TerminatedTreatmentAcute maxillary sinusitis caused by M. catarrhalis1
2TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentIntracerebral Hemorrhage1
2TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2TerminatedTreatmentSepsis1
2TerminatedTreatmentWaldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentColorectal Cancers2
2WithdrawnTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma1
2WithdrawnTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2WithdrawnTreatmentSevere Asthma1
2WithdrawnTreatmentSmoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUveitis1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailablePre-Diabetic1
2, 3CompletedDiagnosticGluten Enteropathy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Metabolic Syndromes1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentTransplantation, Renal1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentClostridium Difficile1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHeart Arrest1
3CompletedBasic ScienceStroke, Ischemic1
3CompletedDiagnosticCholesterol1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / High Cholesterol / Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
3CompletedPreventionRetinopathy, Diabetic1
3CompletedSupportive CarePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial2
3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / High Cholesterol1
3CompletedTreatmentC Reactive Protein / Erectile Dysfunction (ED) / Vascular Disease Detected1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disorders / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Dyslipidemias / High Cholesterol1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Dyslipidemias / Mixed hypercholesterolemia2
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Dyslipidemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemia (Fredrickson Type Ⅱa) / Mixed hypercholesterolemia3
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertriglyceridemia1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / High Cholesterol3
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / High Cholesterol / Hyperlipidemias1
3CompletedTreatmentFredrickson Type IIa & Type IIb Dyslipidaemia1
3CompletedTreatmentHeterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol17
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Hypertension,Essential1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Metabolic Syndromes1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Myocardial Infarction1
3CompletedTreatmentHyperlipidemias5
3CompletedTreatmentHyperlipidemias / Mixed hypercholesterolemia1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertriglyceridemias2
3CompletedTreatmentIntestinal Neoplasms / Perioperative Care1
3CompletedTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Oesophageal varices haemorrhage / Portal Hypertension / Portal Vein Thrombosis1
3CompletedTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Portal Hypertension / Varices, Esophageal1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
3CompletedTreatmentSubarachnoid Haemorrhage1
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentMixed hypercholesterolemia2
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentEndothelial Dysfunction1
3RecruitingTreatmentGraves Ophthalmopathy / Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy / Thyroid Associated Orbitopathy1
3RecruitingTreatmentHigh Cholesterol2
3RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities1
3RecruitingTreatmentNoonan Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentPsychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1
3RecruitingTreatmentSecondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS)1
3TerminatedBasic ScienceAtherosclerosis / High Cholesterol1
3TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Accidents / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction1
3TerminatedTreatmentDyslipidemia (Fredrickson Type Ⅱa) / Dyslipidemias1
3TerminatedTreatmentDyslipidemia (Fredrickson Type Ⅱa) / Mixed hypercholesterolemia1
3TerminatedTreatmentDyslipidemias / High Cholesterol / Hyperlipidemias1
3TerminatedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Hyperlipidemias1
3TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3TerminatedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol2
3TerminatedTreatmentPneumonia1
3TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCommunity Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Optic Neuritis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentInflammatory Reaction1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
3Unknown StatusTreatment[X]Statin Causing Adverse Effect in Therapeutic Use1
3WithdrawnTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Hypertriglyceridemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cholesterol, LDL / Cognition / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedNot AvailableDyslipidemias1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAtherosclerosis1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Men1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4CompletedPreventionAging / Alzheimer's Disease (AD)1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / High Cholesterol / Hyperlipidemias1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedPreventionEndothelial Dysfunction / Inflammatory Reaction / Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedPreventionMyocardial Infarction1
4CompletedPreventionRenal Failure1
4CompletedPreventionTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias / Strokes1
4CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / High Cholesterol2
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Stable Angina Pectoris / Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / High Cholesterol1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Impaired Renal Function1
4CompletedTreatmentDiastolic Dysfunction / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis2
4CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias1
4CompletedTreatmentFenofibrate/Simvastatin Comparison1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol15
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperlipidemias1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertriglycemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes3
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentPortal Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentPostprandial Lipaemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentStroke, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost-Craniotomy Headache / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperlipidemias1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4RecruitingDiagnosticSkeletal Myopathy / Statin Adverse Reaction1
4RecruitingPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Strokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
4RecruitingPreventionMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Serious Mental Illness1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / High Cholesterol1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Fibrosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentPCOS, Insulin Resistance1
4RecruitingTreatmentST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4TerminatedNot AvailableStatin Adverse Reaction / Statin-Associated Myopathy1
4TerminatedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCholesterol, HDL1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionLiver Cirrhosis / Portal Hypertension2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Dyslipidemias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Hyperlipidemias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Nephropathy / High Cholesterol1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh LDL Cholesterol Level / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPerioperative Inflammatory Response1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPeritoneal dialysis therapy / Renal Failure, End Stage1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentShock, Septic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus Without Insulin Treatment1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMixed hypercholesterolemia1
4WithdrawnPreventionSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Hyperlipidemias1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCardiovascular Risk Factors / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDyslipidemias1
4WithdrawnTreatmentGlucose Metabolism Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Carotid Artery Diseases / Coronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHigh Cholesterol2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Cholesterol1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHeart Failure, Unspecified1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHigh Cholesterol1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnti Inflammatory Non-Steroidal / Cystic Fibrosis (CF) / Neutrophils1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAneurysms / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Valve Disease / Rheumatic Heart Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHeart Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHyperlipidemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBone Metastases of a Malignant Tumor1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Risks / High Cholesterol / Inflammatory Reaction / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarotid Artery Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCholesterol, LDL1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperlipidemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCirrhosis With Esophageal Varices / Cirrhosis With Large Esophageal Varices1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes / Obese / Sedentary1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStable Angina (SA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMixed hypercholesterolemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHyperlipidemias1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticGluten Enteropathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCongenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Valve Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentStatin Intolerance1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableCarotid Artery Diseases1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionAneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / Cerebral Vasospasm1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionThoracic Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableEndothelial Function1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHigh Cholesterol1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPre-Diabetic / Pre-Hypertension1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusScreeningMalignancies / Prostate1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPachyonychia Congenita1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentSmith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome1
Not AvailableWithdrawnBasic ScienceHydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / Myopathies1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAtherosclerosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Synthon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Accord healthcare inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Lupin ltd
  • Matrix laboratories ltd
  • Perrigo r and d co
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Merck research laboratories div merck co inc
Packagers
  • Abbott Laboratories Ltd.
  • Accord Healthcare
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Aeropharm Technology LLC
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Blu Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cadila Healthcare Ltd.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • DispenseXpress Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Laboratorios Belmac SA
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Merck & Co.
  • MSP Distribution Services LLC
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Northstar Rx LLC
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ohm Laboratories Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Stat Scripts LLC
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Zydus Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedOral
SuspensionOral20 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral40 mg/5mL
TabletOral5 mg
TabletOral80 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral40 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
TabletOral80 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral20 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral40 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral5 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral80 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral20 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral40 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral80 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedPeriarticular80 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral10 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral20 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral40 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral80 mg/1
TabletOral
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral20 mg
TabletOral40 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zocor 90 40 mg tablet Bottle525.16USD bottle
Simvastatin 100% powder10.71USD g
Vytorin 10-20 mg tablet5.05USD tablet
Vytorin 10-40 mg tablet5.05USD tablet
Vytorin 10-10 mg tablet4.97USD tablet
Zocor 20 mg tablet4.69USD tablet
Zocor 80 mg tablet4.69USD tablet
Vytorin 10-80 mg tablet4.63USD tablet
Zocor 40 mg tablet4.11USD tablet
Simvastatin 20 mg tablet3.83USD tablet
Simvastatin 40 mg tablet3.83USD tablet
Simvastatin 80 mg tablet3.83USD tablet
Zocor 10 mg tablet2.89USD tablet
Simvastatin 10 mg tablet2.31USD tablet
Zocor 5 mg tablet1.99USD tablet
Simvastatin 5 mg tablet1.63USD tablet
Phl-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Phl-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Pms-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Pms-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Pms-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Ran-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Ran-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Ran-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Ratio-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Ratio-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Ratio-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Sandoz Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Sandoz Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Sandoz Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Apo-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Apo-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Apo-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Co Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Co Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Co Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Jamp-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Jamp-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Jamp-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Mylan-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Mylan-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Mylan-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Novo-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Novo-Simvastatin 40 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Novo-Simvastatin 80 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Phl-Simvastatin 20 mg Tablet1.45USD tablet
Apo-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Co Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Jamp-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Mylan-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Novo-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Phl-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Pms-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Ran-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Ratio-Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Sandoz Simvastatin 10 mg Tablet1.17USD tablet
Apo-Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Co Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Jamp-Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Mylan-Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Novo-Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Phl-Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Pms-Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Ran-Simvastatin 5 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5846966No1993-09-212013-09-21Us
US7326708No2006-04-112026-04-11Us
US6080428No1997-05-272017-05-27Us
US6469035No1998-03-152018-03-15Us
US6699871No2002-07-262022-07-26Us
US7125873No2002-07-262022-07-26Us
USRE37721Yes1997-04-252017-04-25Us
USRE42461Yes1997-04-252017-04-25Us
US6303661No1997-04-242017-04-24Us
US6890898No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7078381No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7459428No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US8168637No2002-06-262022-06-26Us
US9597289No2010-02-232030-02-23Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)135-138 °CPhysProp
water solubilityInsoluble FDA label
logP4.68HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0122 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.51ALOGPS
logP4.46ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity117.68 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.88 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9475
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9422
Caco-2 permeable-0.5951
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8508
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7335
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8387
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8435
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.835
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9254
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7513
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9307
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7959
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8682
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.792
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9408
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9657
Rat acute toxicity2.0061 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8921
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8573
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0a4i-3900000000-d04758924bf88a90c017
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fya-0988400000-d9778b2f11696b81fb07
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006w-0790000000-4f23e0376d85845e0964
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05i1-0940000000-058f6298af54c05532ed
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0092-0910000000-6ecd838b2f6fddf67dad
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0597-0900000000-012d0d6fcabbd21d696d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000e-0590000000-7f99e0b9531d4f42831a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0092-1960000000-e8429bbec985c5ecdd2d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0592-1910000000-dc09a51ca37fe4d24a5a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0abd-1900000000-9b55821f49270e5dd598
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0536-1900000000-d8a41a97ccbdb30e5a5e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-2900000000-abe04d7f99c3eb0f2fcb

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as delta valerolactones. These are cyclic organic compounds containing an oxan-2- one moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Lactones
Sub Class
Delta valerolactones
Direct Parent
Delta valerolactones
Alternative Parents
Fatty acid esters / Oxanes / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Secondary alcohols / Carboxylic acid esters / Oxacyclic compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Delta valerolactone / Fatty acid ester / Delta_valerolactone / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Oxane / Fatty acyl / Carboxylic acid ester / Secondary alcohol / Carboxylic acid derivative / Oxacycle
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
statin (semi-synthetic), fatty acid ester, delta-lactone, carbobicyclic compound (CHEBI:9150)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including...
Gene Name
HMGCR
Uniprot ID
P04035
Uniprot Name
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Molecular Weight
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Cenedella RJ, Kuszak JR, Al-Ghoul KJ, Qin S, Sexton PS: Discordant expression of the sterol pathway in lens underlies simvastatin-induced cataracts in Chbb: Thom rats. J Lipid Res. 2003 Jan;44(1):198-211. [PubMed:12518039]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Kocarek TA, Dahn MS, Cai H, Strom SC, Mercer-Haines NA: Regulation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A expression by hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors in primary cultured human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1400-5. [PubMed:12433810]
  4. Liu L, Zhang R, Zhao JJ, Rogers JD, Hsieh JY, Fang W, Matuszewski BK, Dobrinska MR: Determination of simvastatin-derived HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in biomatrices using an automated enzyme inhibition assay with radioactivity detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003 Apr 24;32(1):107-23. [PubMed:12852453]
  5. Pappu AS, Bacon SP, Illingworth DR: Residual effects of lovastatin and simvastatin on urinary mevalonate excretions in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Apr;141(4):250-6. [PubMed:12677170]
  6. Stoebner PE, Michot C, Ligeron C, Durand L, Meynadier J, Meunier L: [Simvastatin-induced lichen planus pemphigoides]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2003 Feb;130(2 Pt 1):187-90. [PubMed:12671581]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Other
General Function
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function
Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. Integrins alpha-M/beta-2 and alpha-X/beta-2 are receptors for the iC3b fragment of the third complement component and for fi...
Gene Name
ITGB2
Uniprot ID
P05107
Uniprot Name
Integrin beta-2
Molecular Weight
84781.08 Da
References
  1. Fujii T, Masuyama K, Kawashima K: Simvastatin regulates non-neuronal cholinergic activity in T lymphocytes via CD11a-mediated pathways. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Oct;179(1-2):101-7. Epub 2006 Jul 10. [PubMed:16828882]
  2. Fujii T, Takada-Takatori Y, Kawashima K: Roles played by lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in the regulation of lymphocytic cholinergic activity. Life Sci. 2007 May 30;80(24-25):2320-4. Epub 2007 Jan 17. [PubMed:17289088]
  3. Katano H, Pesnicak L, Cohen JI: Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 6;101(14):4960-5. Epub 2004 Mar 23. [PubMed:15041742]
  4. Takahashi HK, Mori S, Iwagaki H, Yoshino T, Tanaka N, Nishibori M: Simvastatin induces interleukin-18 production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clin Immunol. 2005 Sep;116(3):211-6. [PubMed:15936988]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. It is involved in a variety of immune phenomena including leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytotoxic T-cell mediated ...
Gene Name
ITGAL
Uniprot ID
P20701
Uniprot Name
Integrin alpha-L
Molecular Weight
128768.495 Da
References
  1. Katano H, Pesnicak L, Cohen JI: Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 6;101(14):4960-5. Epub 2004 Mar 23. [PubMed:15041742]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT: Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec;80(6):565-81. [PubMed:17178259]
  2. Cohen LH, van Leeuwen RE, van Thiel GC, van Pelt JF, Yap SH: Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 Dec;21(9):353-64. [PubMed:11523064]
  3. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  5. Galetin A, Clarke SE, Houston JB: Quinidine and haloperidol as modifiers of CYP3A4 activity: multisite kinetic model approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1512-22. [PubMed:12433827]
  6. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  7. Website [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT: Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec;80(6):565-81. [PubMed:17178259]
  2. Tornio A, Pasanen MK, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: Comparison of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2C8. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Aug;97(2):104-8. [PubMed:15998357]
  3. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807]
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Supporting data are limited to findings of in vitro studies.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Cohen LH, van Leeuwen RE, van Thiel GC, van Pelt JF, Yap SH: Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 Dec;21(9):353-64. [PubMed:11523064]
  2. Transon C, Leemann T, Dayer P: In vitro comparative inhibition profiles of major human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;50(3):209-15. [PubMed:8737761]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Vermes A, Vermes I: Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 enzymes: effect on efficacy and tolerability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2004;4(4):247-55. [PubMed:15285699]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. [PubMed:17101742]
  3. Kocarek TA, Dahn MS, Cai H, Strom SC, Mercer-Haines NA: Regulation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A expression by hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors in primary cultured human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1400-5. [PubMed:12433810]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang E, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) characterized as direct inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Jun;18(6):800-6. [PubMed:11474784]
  2. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514]
  3. Hochman JH, Pudvah N, Qiu J, Yamazaki M, Tang C, Lin JH, Prueksaritanont T: Interactions of human P-glycoprotein with simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and atorvastatin. Pharm Res. 2004 Sep;21(9):1686-91. [PubMed:15497697]
  4. Sieczkowski E, Lehner C, Ambros PF, Hohenegger M: Double impact on p-glycoprotein by statins enhances doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 1;126(9):2025-35. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24885. [PubMed:19739078]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Hsiang B, Zhu Y, Wang Z, Wu Y, Sasseville V, Yang WP, Kirchgessner TG: A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide and identification of rat and human hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor transporters. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24;274(52):37161-8. [PubMed:10601278]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Hsiang B, Zhu Y, Wang Z, Wu Y, Sasseville V, Yang WP, Kirchgessner TG: A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide and identification of rat and human hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor transporters. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24;274(52):37161-8. [PubMed:10601278]
  2. Kameyama Y, Yamashita K, Kobayashi K, Hosokawa M, Chiba K: Functional characterization of SLCO1B1 (OATP-C) variants, SLCO1B1*5, SLCO1B1*15 and SLCO1B1*15+C1007G, by using transient expression systems of HeLa and HEK293 cells. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005 Jul;15(7):513-22. [PubMed:15970799]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Becker ML, Elens LL, Visser LE, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, van Schaik RH, Stricker BH: Genetic variation in the ABCC2 gene is associated with dose decreases or switches to other cholesterol-lowering drugs during simvastatin and atorvastatin therapy. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Jun;13(3):251-6. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2011.59. Epub 2011 Dec 20. [PubMed:22186618]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 13, 2018 07:50