Identification

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Name
Lovastatin
Accession Number
DB00227  (APRD00370)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Lovastatin, also known as the brand name product Mevacor, is a lipid-lowering drug and fungal metabolite derived synthetically from a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus.1 Originally named Mevinolin, lovastatin belongs to the statin class of medications, which are used to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and manage abnormal lipid levels by inhibiting the endogenous production of cholesterol in the liver.2 More specifically, statin medications competitively inhibit the enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase,12 which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid and is the third step in a sequence of metabolic reactions involved in the production of several compounds involved in lipid metabolism and transport including cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (sometimes referred to as "bad cholesterol"), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Prescribing of statin medications is considered standard practice following any cardiovascular events and for people with a moderate to high risk of development of CVD, such as those with Type 2 Diabetes. The clear evidence of the benefit of statin use coupled with very minimal side effects or long term effects has resulted in this class becoming one of the most widely prescribed medications in North America.13,14

Lovastatin and other drugs from the statin class of medications including atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, and simvastatin are considered first-line options for the treatment of dyslipidemia.13,14 Increasing use of the statin class of drugs is largely due to the fact that cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes heart attack, atherosclerosis, angina, peripheral artery disease, and stroke, has become a leading cause of death in high-income countries and a major cause of morbidity around the world.15 Elevated cholesterol levels, and in particular, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, are an important risk factor for the development of CVD.13,16 Use of statins to target and reduce LDL levels has been shown in a number of landmark studies to significantly reduce the risk of development of CVD and all-cause mortality.17,18,19,20,21,22 Statins are considered a cost-effective treatment option for CVD due to their evidence of reducing all-cause mortality including fatal and non-fatal CVD as well as the need for surgical revascularization or angioplasty following a heart attack.13,14 Evidence has shown that even for low-risk individuals (with <10% risk of a major vascular event occurring within 5 years) statins cause a 20%-22% relative reduction in major cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, coronary revascularization, and coronary death) for every 1 mmol/L reduction in LDL without any significant side effects or risks.24,23

While all statin medications are considered equally effective from a clinical standpoint, rosuvastatin is considered the most potent; doses of 10 to 40mg rosuvastatin per day were found in clinical studies to result in a 45.8% to 54.6% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels, while lovastatin has been found to have an average decrease in LDL-C of 25-40%.5,25,26,22,27 Potency is thought to correlate to tissue permeability as the more lipophilic statins such as lovastatin are thought to enter endothelial cells by passive diffusion, as opposed to hydrophilic statins such as pravastatin and rosuvastatin which are taken up into hepatocytes through OATP1B1 (organic anion transporter protein 1B1)-mediated transport.31,28 Despite these differences in potency, several trials have demonstrated only minimal differences in terms of clinical outcomes between statins.20

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-(2-(2R,4R)-(tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)ethyl)-1-naphthalenyl (S)-2-methyl-butyrate
  • 2β,6α-dimethyl-8alpha-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-mevinic acid lactone
  • 6-alpha-methylcompactin
  • 6alpha-methylcompactin
  • 6α-methylcompactin
  • Lovastatin
  • Lovastatina
  • Lovastatine
  • Lovastatinum
  • Mevinolin
External IDs
L-154803 / MK-803 / ML-530B
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act LovastatinTabletOralActavis Pharma Company2004-07-28Not applicableCanada
Act LovastatinTabletOralActavis Pharma Company2004-07-28Not applicableCanada
AltoprevTablet, extended release40 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-01-252011-06-30Us
AltoprevTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralCovis Pharma2016-05-01Not applicableUs
AltoprevTablet, extended release60 mg/1OralShionogi2002-06-262016-12-31Us
AltoprevTablet, extended release40 mg/1OralShionogi2002-06-262018-02-28Us
AltoprevTablet, extended release60 mg/1OralCovis Pharma2016-05-01Not applicableUs
AltoprevTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralShionogi2002-06-262017-12-31Us
AltoprevTablet, extended release60 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-07-112012-06-30Us
AltoprevTablet, extended release40 mg/1OralCovis Pharma2016-05-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-lovastatin - Tab 20mgTabletOralApotex Corporation1997-03-27Not applicableCanada
Apo-lovastatin - Tab 40mgTabletOralApotex Corporation1997-03-27Not applicableCanada
Ava-lovastatinTabletOralAvanstra Inc2011-08-182014-08-21Canada
Ava-lovastatinTabletOralAvanstra Inc2011-08-182014-08-21Canada
Dom-lovastatinTabletOralDominion Pharmacal2003-02-25Not applicableCanada
Dom-lovastatinTabletOralDominion Pharmacal2003-02-25Not applicableCanada
LovastatinTablet10 mg/1OralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
LovastatinTablet10 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2002-11-25Not applicableUs63629 358320180907 15195 5uj2fu
LovastatinTablet20 mg/1OralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2002-11-25Not applicableUs
LovastatinTablet40 mg/1OralActavis Pharma Company2001-12-172014-03-31Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AdvicorLovastatin (20 mg/1) + Niacin (750 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbvie2001-12-172017-04-30Us
AdvicorLovastatin (20 mg/1) + Niacin (500 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-06-03Not applicableUs
AdvicorLovastatin (40 mg) + Niacin (1000 mg)Tablet, extended release; Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOralSepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc2007-05-152010-07-26Canada
AdvicorLovastatin (20 mg/1) + Niacin (750 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralKos Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-02-202007-02-20Us
AdvicorLovastatin (20 mg/1) + Niacin (500 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbvie2001-12-172018-03-31Us
AdvicorLovastatin (20 mg) + Niacin (1000 mg)Tablet, extended release; Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOralSepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc2005-11-092012-08-02Canada
AdvicorLovastatin (20 mg/1) + Niacin (500 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralKos Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-02-202007-02-20Us
AdvicorLovastatin (40 mg/1) + Niacin (1000 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-08-08Not applicableUs
AdvicorLovastatin (20 mg) + Niacin (500 mg)Tablet, extended release; Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOralSepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc2005-11-092012-08-02Canada
AdvicorLovastatin (40 mg/1) + Niacin (1000 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbvie2001-12-172018-01-31Us
International/Other Brands
Altocor (Andrx)
Categories
UNII
9LHU78OQFD
CAS number
75330-75-5
Weight
Average: 404.5396
Monoisotopic: 404.256274262
Chemical Formula
C24H36O5
InChI Key
PCZOHLXUXFIOCF-BXMDZJJMSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H36O5/c1-5-15(3)24(27)29-21-11-14(2)10-17-7-6-16(4)20(23(17)21)9-8-19-12-18(25)13-22(26)28-19/h6-7,10,14-16,18-21,23,25H,5,8-9,11-13H2,1-4H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19+,20-,21-,23-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-8-{2-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-oxooxan-2-yl]ethyl}-3,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate
SMILES
[H][C@]12[C@H](C[C@@H](C)C=C1C=C[C@H](C)[C@@H]2CC[C@@H]1C[C@@H](O)CC(=O)O1)OC(=O)[C@@H](C)CC

Pharmacology

Indication

Lovastatin is indicated to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and the need for coronary revascularization procedures in individuals without symptomatic cardiovascular disease, average to moderately elevated total-C and LDL-C, and below average HDL-C. It is indicated as an intervention alternative in individuals presenting dyslipidemia at risk of developing atherosclerotic vascular disease. The administration of this agent should be accompanied by the implementation of a fat and cholesterol-restricted diet.41

Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be a component of multiple risk factor intervention in those individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Lovastatin is indicated as an adjunct to diet for the reduction of elevated total-C and LDL-C levels in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (Types IIa and IIb2), when the response to diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and to other nonpharmacological measures alone has been inadequate.41,42

Lovastatin is also indicated to slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary heart disease as part of a treatment strategy to lower total-C and LDL-C to target levels.41

Lovastatin is indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels in adolescent boys and girls with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) who are at least one year post-menarche, 10 to 17 years of age, with HeFH if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present: LDL-C remains greater than 189 mg/dL or LDL-C remains greater than 160 mg/dL and there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease or two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the adolescent patient.

Before administering lovastatin, it is important to rule out the presence of secondary causes of hypercholesterolemia and a lipid profile should be performed.

Prescribing of statin medications is considered standard practice following any cardiovascular events and for people with a moderate to high risk of development of CVD. Statin-indicated conditions include diabetes mellitus, clinical atherosclerosis (including myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes, stable angina, documented coronary artery disease, stroke, trans ischemic attack (TIA), documented carotid disease, peripheral artery disease, and claudication), abdominal aortic aneurysm, chronic kidney disease, and severely elevated LDL-C levels.13,14

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Lovastatin is an oral antilipemic agent which reversibly inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. It is used to lower total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and trigleride (TG) plasma concentrations while increasing HDL-C concentrations. High LDL-C, low HDL-C and high TG concentrations in the plasma are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease and high ratios are associated with higher risk of disease. Increased levels of HDL-C are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. By decreasing LDL-C and TG and increasing HDL-C, lovastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.5,13,14,30

Elevated cholesterol levels, and in particular, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, are an important risk factor for the development of CVD.13 Use of statins to target and reduce LDL levels has been shown in a number of landmark studies to significantly reduce the risk of development of CVD and all-cause mortality.17,18,19,20,21 Statins are considered a cost-effective treatment option for CVD due to their evidence of reducing all-cause mortality including fatal and non-fatal CVD as well as the need for surgical revascularization or angioplasty following a heart attack.13,14 Evidence has shown that even for low-risk individuals (with <10% risk of a major vascular event occurring within 5 years) statins cause a 20%-22% relative reduction in major cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, coronary revascularization, and coronary death) for every 1 mmol/L reduction in LDL without any significant side effects or risks.5,24,23 Clinical studies have shown that lovastatin reduces LDL-C and total cholesterol by 25-40%.5 The 50% inhibitory dose is known to be of 46 mcg/kg which is translated into a reduction of approximately 30% of plasma cholesterol.2

Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis

Lovastatin, like other inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, occasionally causes myopathy manifested as muscle pain, tenderness or weakness with creatine kinase (CK) above ten times the upper limit of normal (ULN). Myopathy sometimes takes the form of rhabdomyolysis with or without acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria, and rare fatalities have occurred. The risk of myopathy is dose-related and is increased by high levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity in plasma. In a clinical study (EXCEL)30 in which patients were carefully monitored and some interacting drugs were excluded, there was one case of myopathy among 4933 patients randomized to lovastatin 20 to 40 mg daily for 48 weeks, and 4 among 1649 patients randomized to 80 mg daily.

Predisposing factors for myopathy include advanced age (≥65 years), female gender, uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment. Chinese patients may also be at increased risk for myopathy. In most cases, muscle symptoms and CK increases resolved when treatment was promptly discontinued.

The risk of myopathy during treatment with lovastatin may be increased with concurrent administration of interacting drugs such as fenofibrate, niacin, gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, and strong inhibitors of the CYP3A4 enzyme. Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors coadministered with colchicine, and caution should therefore be exercised when prescribing these two medications together.41,42

Real-world data from observational studies has suggested that 10-15% of people taking statins may experience muscle aches at some point during treatment.38

Liver Dysfunction

Persistent increases (to more than 3 times the upper limit of normal) in serum transaminases occurred in 1.9% of adult patients who received lovastatin for at least one year in early clinical trials. When the drug was interrupted or discontinued in these patients, the transaminase levels usually fell slowly to pretreatment levels. The increases usually appeared 3 to 12 months after the start of therapy with lovastatin, and were not associated with jaundice or other clinical signs or symptoms.41 In the EXCEL study,30 the incidence of persistent increases in serum transaminases over 48 weeks was 0.1% for placebo, 0.1% at 20 mg/day, 0.9% at 40 mg/day, and 1.5% at 80 mg/day in patients on lovastatin. However, in post-marketing experience with lovastatin, symptomatic liver disease has been reported rarely at all dosages.41

Mechanism of action

Lovastatin is a lactone which is readily hydrolyzed in vivo to the corresponding β-hydroxyacid and strong inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, a hepatic microsomal enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A ) to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis.12,2 At therapeutic lovastatin doses, HMG-CoA reductase is not completely blocked, thereby allowing biologically necessary amounts of mevalonate to be available. Because the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate is an early step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol, therapy with lovastatin would not be expected to cause an accumulation of potentially toxic sterols.42

Lovastatin acts primarily in the liver, where decreased hepatic cholesterol concentrations stimulate the upregulation of hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors which increase hepatic uptake of LDL. Lovastatin also inhibits hepatic synthesis of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). The overall effect is a decrease in plasma LDL and VLDL and a significant reduction in the risk of development of CVD and all-cause mortality.17,18,19,20,21

A significant effect on LDL-C reduction was seen within 2 weeks of initiation of lovastatin, and the maximum therapeutic response occurred within 4-6 weeks. The response was maintained during continuation of therapy. Single daily doses given in the evening were more effective than the same dose given in the morning, perhaps because cholesterol is synthesized mainly at night. When therapy with lovastatin is stopped, total cholesterol has been shown to return to pre-treatment levels.42

In vitro and in vivo animal studies also demonstrate that lovastatin exerts vasculoprotective effects independent of its lipid-lowering properties, also known as the pleiotropic effects of statins.31 This includes improvement in endothelial function, enhanced stability of atherosclerotic plaques, reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, and inhibition of the thrombogenic response.

Statins have also been found to bind allosterically to β2 integrin function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which plays an important role in leukocyte trafficking and in T cell activation.32

Lovastatin has been reported to have beneficial effects on certain cancers. This includes a multi-factorial stress-triggered cell death (apoptosis) and DNA degradation response in breast cancer cells.33 It has also been shown to inhibit histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activity and increase the accumulation of acetylated histone-H3 and the expression of p21(WAF/CIP) in human cancer cells, suggesting that statins might serve as novel HDAC inhibitors for cancer therapy and chemoprevention.37

TargetActionsOrganism
A3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
inhibitor
Humans
UIntegrin alpha-L
inhibitory allosteric modulator
Humans
NHistone deacetylase 2
other
Humans
Additional Data Available
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Absorption

Lovastatin Cmax was found to be 3.013ng/mL with a Tmax of 3.36 hours.42

Plasma concentrations of total radioactivity (lovastatin plus 14C-metabolites) peaked at 2 hours and declined rapidly to about 10% of peak by 24 hours postdose. Absorption of lovastatin, estimated relative to an intravenous reference dose, in each of four animal species tested, averaged about 30% of an oral dose. In animal studies, after oral dosing, lovastatin had high selectivity for the liver, where it achieved substantially higher concentrations than in non-target tissues. Lovastatin undergoes extensive first-pass extraction in the liver, its primary site of action, with subsequent excretion of drug equivalents in the bile. As a consequence of extensive hepatic extraction of lovastatin, the availability of drug to the general circulation is low and variable. In a single dose study in four hypercholesterolemic patients, it was estimated that less than 5% of an oral dose of lovastatin reaches the general circulation as active inhibitors. Following administration of lovastatin tablets the coefficient of variation, based on between-subject variability, was approximately 40% for the area under the curve (AUC) of total inhibitory activity in the general circulation.41,42

The peak concentrations of lovastatin when a dose of 10-40 mg is administered are reported to range from 1.04-4.03 ng/ml and an AUC of 14-53 ng.h/ml. This indicates that lovastatin presents a dose-dependent pharmacokinetic profile.8 When lovastatin was given under fasting conditions, plasma concentrations of both active and total inhibitors were on average about two-thirds those found when lovastatin was administered immediately after a standard test meal.42

Genetic differences in the OATP1B1 (Organic-Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1B1) hepatic transporter encoded by the SCLCO1B1 gene (Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter family member 1B1) have been shown to impact lovastatin pharmacokinetics.34 Evidence from pharmacogenetic studies of the c.521T>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed that lovastatin Cmax and AUC were 340 and 286% higher, respectively, for individuals homozygous for 521CC compared to homozygous 521TT individuals.35 The 521CC genotype is also associated with a marked increase in the risk of developing myopathy, likely secondary to increased systemic exposure.36 Other statin drugs impacted by this polymorphism include rosuvastatin, pitavastatin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin.28

While specific dosage instructions are not included in the available product monographs for lovastatin, individuals with the above-mentioned c.521CC OATP1B1 genotype should be monitored for development of adverse effects from increased exposure to the drug, such as muscle pain and risk of rhabdomyolysis, particularly at higher doses.

Volume of distribution

Lovastatin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta.42

Protein binding

Both lovastatin and its β-hydroxy acid metabolite are highly bound (>95%) to human plasma proteins, largely due to its lipophilicity. Animal studies demonstrated that lovastatin crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers.41,42

Metabolism

Lovastatin is given as a lactone prodrug and thus, in order to produce its mechanism of action, it is required to be converted to the active beta-hydroxy form. This drug activation process does not seem to be related to CYP isoenzyme activity7 but rather to be controlled by the activity of serum paraoxonase.11

Lovastatin is metabolized by the microsomal hepatic enzyme system (Cytochrome P-450 isoform 3A4). The major active metabolites present in human plasma are the β-hydroxy acid of lovastatin, its 6'-hydroxy, 6'-hydroxymethyl, and 6'-exomethylene derivatives.42 The uptake of lovastatin by the liver is enhanced by the activity of OATP1B1.9

Route of elimination

Following an oral dose of 14C-labeled lovastatin to man, 10% of the dose was excreted in urine and 83% in feces. The latter represents absorbed drug excreted in bile, together with unabsorbed drug.42

Half life

Lovastatin half-life is reported to be of 13.37 hours.42 The elimination half-life of the hydroxy acid form of lovastatin is reported to be of 0.7-3 hours.6

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The median lethal dose of lovastatin is higher than 15 g/m2. Five healthy human volunteers have received up to 200 mg of lovastatin as a single dose without clinically significant adverse experiences. A few cases of accidental overdosage have been reported; no patients had any specific symptoms, and all patients recovered without sequelae. The maximum dose taken was 5 to 6 g.41

In carcinogenic studies, there is an increase in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas and adenomas, pulmonary adenomas, papilloma in non-glandular mucose in stomach and thyroid neoplasms. However, with respect to effects on fertility, lovastatin has been reported to present testicular atrophy, decreased spermatogenesis, spermatocytic degeneration and giant cell formation which derived into decreased fertility in males. Lastly, there is no evidence of mutagenicity induced by lovastatin.41

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Lovastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe serum concentration of (R)-warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Lovastatin.
(S)-WarfarinThe serum concentration of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Lovastatin.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be decreased when combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
3,5-DiiodotyrosineThe therapeutic efficacy of 3,5-Diiodotyrosine can be decreased when used in combination with Lovastatin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be decreased when combined with 5-androstenedione.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of Lovastatin can be decreased when combined with 6-O-benzylguanine.
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid drastic changes in dietary habit.
  • Avoid taking with grapefruit juice.
  • Take with food, 50% increase in bioavailability when taken with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Donald F. Gerson, Xinfa Xiao, "Process for the production of lovastatin using Coniothyrium fuckelii." U.S. Patent US5409820, issued January, 1984.

US5409820
General References
  1. Boruta T, Bizukojc M: Production of lovastatin and itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus: a comparative perspective. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Feb;33(2):34. doi: 10.1007/s11274-017-2206-9. Epub 2017 Jan 19. [PubMed:28102516]
  2. Alberts AW, Chen J, Kuron G, Hunt V, Huff J, Hoffman C, Rothrock J, Lopez M, Joshua H, Harris E, Patchett A, Monaghan R, Currie S, Stapley E, Albers-Schonberg G, Hensens O, Hirshfield J, Hoogsteen K, Liesch J, Springer J: Mevinolin: a highly potent competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jul;77(7):3957-61. [PubMed:6933445]
  3. Endo A: The origin of the statins. 2004. Atheroscler Suppl. 2004 Oct;5(3):125-30. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2004.08.033. [PubMed:15531285]
  4. Chiloeches A, Lasa M, Brihuega F, Montes A, Toro MJ: Effects of lovastatin on adenylyl cyclase activity and G proteins in GH4C1 cells. FEBS Lett. 1995 Mar 13;361(1):46-50. [PubMed:7890038]
  5. Henwood JM, Heel RC: Lovastatin. A preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic use in hyperlipidaemia. Drugs. 1988 Oct;36(4):429-54. doi: 10.2165/00003495-198836040-00003. [PubMed:3069436]
  6. Lennernas H, Fager G: Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Similarities and differences. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 May;32(5):403-25. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199732050-00005. [PubMed:9160173]
  7. Whirl-Carrillo M, McDonagh EM, Hebert JM, Gong L, Sangkuhl K, Thorn CF, Altman RB, Klein TE: Pharmacogenomics knowledge for personalized medicine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Oct;92(4):414-7. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2012.96. [PubMed:22992668]
  8. Lamson M, Phillips G, Shen J, Lukacsko P, Friedhoff L, Niecestro RM: Pharmacokinetics of lovastatin extended-release dosage form (Lovastatin XL) in healthy volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2002 May;23(4):143-9. doi: 10.1002/bdd.304. [PubMed:12015788]
  9. Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT, Niemi M: Pharmacokinetic comparison of the potential over-the-counter statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(7):463-74. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200847070-00003. [PubMed:18563955]
  10. Greenspan MD, Yudkovitz JB, Alberts AW, Argenbright LS, Arison BH, Smith JL: Metabolism of lovastatin by rat and human liver microsomes in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 1988 Sep-Oct;16(5):678-82. [PubMed:2906589]
  11. Draganov DI, Stetson PL, Watson CE, Billecke SS, La Du BN: Rabbit serum paraoxonase 3 (PON3) is a high density lipoprotein-associated lactonase and protects low density lipoprotein against oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 27;275(43):33435-42. [PubMed:10931838]
  12. Moghadasian MH: Clinical pharmacology of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Life Sci. 1999;65(13):1329-37. doi: 10.1016/s0024-3205(99)00199-x. [PubMed:10503952]
  13. Anderson TJ, Gregoire J, Pearson GJ, Barry AR, Couture P, Dawes M, Francis GA, Genest J Jr, Grover S, Gupta M, Hegele RA, Lau DC, Leiter LA, Lonn E, Mancini GB, McPherson R, Ngui D, Poirier P, Sievenpiper JL, Stone JA, Thanassoulis G, Ward R: 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemia for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Adult. Can J Cardiol. 2016 Nov;32(11):1263-1282. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.07.510. Epub 2016 Jul 25. [PubMed:27712954]
  14. Grundy SM, Stone NJ: 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Multisociety Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: Primary Prevention. JAMA Cardiol. 2019 Apr 10. pii: 2730287. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.0777. [PubMed:30969322]
  15. Kreatsoulas C, Anand SS: The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease. Can J Cardiol. 2010 Aug-Sep;26 Suppl C:8C-13C. doi: 10.1016/s0828-282x(10)71075-8. [PubMed:20847985]
  16. Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T, McNamara PM: Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease. The Framingham study. Ann Intern Med. 1971 Jan;74(1):1-12. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-74-1-1. [PubMed:5539274]
  17. Authors unspecified: Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med. 1998 Nov 5;339(19):1349-57. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199811053391902. [PubMed:9841303]
  18. Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Rader DJ, Rouleau JL, Belder R, Joyal SV, Hill KA, Pfeffer MA, Skene AM: Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 8;350(15):1495-504. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa040583. Epub 2004 Mar 8. [PubMed:15007110]
  19. Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, Genest J, Gotto AM Jr, Kastelein JJ, Koenig W, Libby P, Lorenzatti AJ, MacFadyen JG, Nordestgaard BG, Shepherd J, Willerson JT, Glynn RJ: Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med. 2008 Nov 20;359(21):2195-207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0807646. Epub 2008 Nov 9. [PubMed:18997196]
  20. Nicholls SJ, Ballantyne CM, Barter PJ, Chapman MJ, Erbel RM, Libby P, Raichlen JS, Uno K, Borgman M, Wolski K, Nissen SE: Effect of two intensive statin regimens on progression of coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 1;365(22):2078-87. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1110874. Epub 2011 Nov 15. [PubMed:22085316]
  21. Authors unspecified: MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Jul 6;360(9326):7-22. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09327-3. [PubMed:12114036]
  22. Authors unspecified: Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) Lancet. 1994 Nov 19;344(8934):1383-9. [PubMed:7968073]
  23. Taylor F, Huffman MD, Macedo AF, Moore TH, Burke M, Davey Smith G, Ward K, Ebrahim S: Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;(1):CD004816. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004816.pub5. [PubMed:23440795]
  24. Mihaylova B, Emberson J, Blackwell L, Keech A, Simes J, Barnes EH, Voysey M, Gray A, Collins R, Baigent C: The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2012 Aug 11;380(9841):581-90. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60367-5. Epub 2012 May 17. [PubMed:22607822]
  25. Adams SP, Sekhon SS, Wright JM: Lipid-lowering efficacy of rosuvastatin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 21;(11):CD010254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010254.pub2. [PubMed:25415541]
  26. Pedersen TR, Faergeman O, Kastelein JJ, Olsson AG, Tikkanen MJ, Holme I, Larsen ML, Bendiksen FS, Lindahl C, Szarek M, Tsai J: High-dose atorvastatin vs usual-dose simvastatin for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction: the IDEAL study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Nov 16;294(19):2437-45. doi: 10.1001/jama.294.19.2437. [PubMed:16287954]
  27. Jones PH, Davidson MH, Stein EA, Bays HE, McKenney JM, Miller E, Cain VA, Blasetto JW: Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin across doses (STELLAR* Trial). Am J Cardiol. 2003 Jul 15;92(2):152-60. [PubMed:12860216]
  28. Elsby R, Hilgendorf C, Fenner K: Understanding the critical disposition pathways of statins to assess drug-drug interaction risk during drug development: it's not just about OATP1B1. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Nov;92(5):584-98. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2012.163. Epub 2012 Oct 10. [PubMed:23047648]
  29. Jacobsen W, Kirchner G, Hallensleben K, Mancinelli L, Deters M, Hackbarth I, Benet LZ, Sewing KF, Christians U: Comparison of cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolism and drug interactions of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors lovastatin and pravastatin in the liver. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Feb;27(2):173-9. [PubMed:9929499]
  30. Bradford RH, Shear CL, Chremos AN, Dujovne CA, Franklin FA, Grillo RB, Higgins J, Langendorfer A, Nash DT, Pool JL, et al.: Expanded Clinical Evaluation of Lovastatin (EXCEL) study results: two-year efficacy and safety follow-up. Am J Cardiol. 1994 Oct 1;74(7):667-73. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(94)90307-7. [PubMed:7942524]
  31. Liao JK, Laufs U: Pleiotropic effects of statins. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:89-118. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.45.120403.095748. [PubMed:15822172]
  32. Weitz-Schmidt G, Welzenbach K, Brinkmann V, Kamata T, Kallen J, Bruns C, Cottens S, Takada Y, Hommel U: Statins selectively inhibit leukocyte function antigen-1 by binding to a novel regulatory integrin site. Nat Med. 2001 Jun;7(6):687-92. doi: 10.1038/89058. [PubMed:11385505]
  33. Mahmoud AM, Aboul-Soud MA, Han J, Al-Sheikh YA, Al-Abd AM, El-Shemy HA: Transcriptional profiling of breast cancer cells in response to mevinolin: Evidence of cell cycle arrest, DNA degradation and apoptosis. Int J Oncol. 2016 May;48(5):1886-94. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3418. Epub 2016 Mar 4. [PubMed:26983896]
  34. Zhao G, Liu M, Wu X, Li G, Qiu F, Gu J, Zhao L: Effect of polymorphisms in CYP3A4, PPARA, NR1I2, NFKB1, ABCG2 and SLCO1B1 on the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in healthy Chinese volunteers. Pharmacogenomics. 2017 Jan;18(1):65-75. doi: 10.2217/pgs.16.31. Epub 2016 Dec 14. [PubMed:27967318]
  35. Tornio A, Vakkilainen J, Neuvonen M, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M: SLCO1B1 polymorphism markedly affects the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin acid. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 Aug;25(8):382-7. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000148. [PubMed:26020121]
  36. Xiang Q, Chen SQ, Ma LY, Hu K, Zhang Z, Mu GY, Xie QF, Zhang XD, Cui YM: Association between SLCO1B1 T521C polymorphism and risk of statin-induced myopathy: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics J. 2018 Dec;18(6):721-729. doi: 10.1038/s41397-018-0054-0. Epub 2018 Sep 24. [PubMed:30250148]
  37. Lin YC, Lin JH, Chou CW, Chang YF, Yeh SH, Chen CC: Statins increase p21 through inhibition of histone deacetylase activity and release of promoter-associated HDAC1/2. Cancer Res. 2008 Apr 1;68(7):2375-83. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5807. [PubMed:18381445]
  38. Harper CR, Jacobson TA: The broad spectrum of statin myopathy: from myalgia to rhabdomyolysis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007 Aug;18(4):401-8. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e32825a6773. [PubMed:17620856]
  39. Acton A. (2013). Advances in Lovastatin Research and Application. ScholarlyBrief.
  40. Loughlin K. and Generali J. (2006). Prescription Drugs: Alternative Uses, Alternative Cures. Free Press. [ISBN:0-7432-9925-6]
  41. FDA Label - Lovastatin [File]
  42. Health Canada Monograph - Lovastatin [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014372
KEGG Drug
D00359
KEGG Compound
C07074
PubChem Compound
53232
PubChem Substance
46508223
ChemSpider
48085
BindingDB
34168
ChEBI
40303
ChEMBL
CHEMBL503
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000551
PharmGKB
PA450272
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
803
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Lovastatin
ATC Codes
C10AA02 — LovastatinC10BA01 — Lovastatin and nicotinic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 24:06.08 — Hmg-coa Reductase Inhibitors
PDB Entries
1cqp
MSDS
Download (118 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentLung Inflammation1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentLipid Metabolism Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentNeurofibromatosis 11
1CompletedTreatmentStrokes1
1TerminatedTreatmentAny Cancer / Cancer, Breast1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentSevere Persistent Asthma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentJaundice / Rhabdomyolysis / Strokes1
2CompletedBasic ScienceBlood Platelets Proteome1
2CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / High Cholesterol / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Stenosis / Cerebral Arteriosclerosis / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedPreventionPrecancerous Conditions / Stage 0 Melanoma / Stage I Melanoma / Stage II Melanoma1
2CompletedSupportive CareProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
2CompletedTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
2CompletedTreatmentHIV Seropositivity1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol1
2CompletedTreatmentNeurofibromatosis Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentRett's Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
2RecruitingOtherParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentBone Loss1
2RecruitingTreatmentConstipation-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-C)1
2RecruitingTreatmentImpaired Cognition / Impaired Synaptic Plasticity / Noonan Syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 11
2RecruitingTreatmentLearning Disability / Neurofibromatosis Type 1 / NF1 / Reading Disability1
2TerminatedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Radiation Toxicity1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer of the Ovary1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentXanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChild Syndrome / Conradi Syndrome / Smith Lemli Opitz Syndrome / Syndromic Ichthyoses1
2WithdrawnTreatmentMalignant Melanoma / Melanoma1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlveolar Bone Loss, Chronic Periodontitis, Lovestatin Gel, Regeneration1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Artery Disease1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHigh Cholesterol1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedPreventionHigh Cholesterol1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol1
3CompletedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)2
3RecruitingTreatmentHigh Cholesterol1
3TerminatedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol1
4CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Hyperlipidemias / Mixed hypercholesterolemia1
4CompletedTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS) / Genetic Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHigh Cholesterol1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Neurofibromatosis 11
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Andrx labs llc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Carlsbad technology inc
  • Lupin ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Merck research laboratories div merck co inc
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlsbad Technology Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Eon Labs
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • International Laboratories Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Merck & Co.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Mylan
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Shionogi Pharma Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Yung Shin Pharmaceutical Industry Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended release; tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral40 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
TabletOral
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral40 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg
TabletOral40 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Altoprev 60 mg 24 Hour tablet7.99USD tablet
Altoprev 60 mg tablet7.74USD tablet
Altoprev 20 mg 24 Hour tablet6.88USD tablet
Altoprev 20 mg tablet6.61USD tablet
Mevacor 40 mg tablet4.57USD tablet
Altoprev 40 mg tablet4.41USD tablet
Lovastatin 40 mg tablet4.36USD tablet
Altoprev 10 mg 24 Hour tablet3.07USD tablet
Mevacor 20 mg tablet2.53USD tablet
Lovastatin 20 mg tablet2.42USD tablet
Altocor 20 mg 24 Hour tablet2.36USD tablet
Apo-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Co Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Mylan-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Novo-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Pms-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Ran-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Ratio-Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Sandoz Lovastatin 40 mg Tablet2.11USD tablet
Mevacor 10 mg tablet1.65USD tablet
Lovastatin 10 mg tablet1.37USD tablet
Apo-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Co Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Mylan-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Novo-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Pms-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Ran-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Ratio-Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
Sandoz Lovastatin 20 mg Tablet1.14USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6080428No2000-06-272017-05-27Us
US6469035No2002-10-222018-03-15Us
US6080778No2000-06-272018-03-23Us
US6485748No2002-11-262017-12-12Us
US5916595No1999-06-292017-12-12Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)174.5 °C'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)559.2 ºC at 760 mmHgChemspider
water solubility0.0004 mg/mL'MSDS'
logP4.08'MSDS'
pKa13.49Chuong M. et al. (2013). International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0243 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.11ALOGPS
logP3.9ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity113.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9452
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9287
Caco-2 permeable-0.5484
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7861
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7046
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8388
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8299
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8333
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6868
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9291
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8682
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8475
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9519
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8819
Rat acute toxicity2.0554 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7272
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7484
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-2910000000-dc8caf3905a76d1dc259
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4j-1910000000-8aeacab386a420581150
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0k9j-0392200000-046f8ecdd9105ec8f133
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fg2-0590000000-79f2e6dc3b230361fea3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0092-0970000000-029f3798d63ab95ed321
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0592-0930000000-85de8f33dd78ba45de36
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fv-0910000000-7a730b8fcd91e3df5b8f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000e-0590000000-2206c97b74e146b3218d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0092-1960000000-6b3a14df210273b89f18
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0592-1910000000-38bd634327305fe325cf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0abd-1900000000-e7dab133ffe03d435831
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0536-2900000000-12e639483c7d1a83da05
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-2900000000-ed64daa9de830f1f3cb0

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as delta valerolactones. These are cyclic organic compounds containing an oxan-2- one moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Lactones
Sub Class
Delta valerolactones
Direct Parent
Delta valerolactones
Alternative Parents
Fatty acid esters / Oxanes / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Secondary alcohols / Carboxylic acid esters / Oxacyclic compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Delta valerolactone / Fatty acid ester / Delta_valerolactone / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Oxane / Fatty acyl / Carboxylic acid ester / Secondary alcohol / Carboxylic acid derivative / Oxacycle
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
polyketide, fatty acid ester, delta-lactone, carbobicyclic compound, statin (naturally occurring) (CHEBI:40303)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including...
Gene Name
HMGCR
Uniprot ID
P04035
Uniprot Name
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Molecular Weight
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Abe Y, Suzuki T, Ono C, Iwamoto K, Hosobuchi M, Yoshikawa H: Molecular cloning and characterization of an ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic gene cluster in Penicillium citrinum. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002 Jul;267(5):636-46. Epub 2002 Jun 28. [PubMed:12172803]
  2. Miyazaki A, Koieyama T, Shimada Y, Kikuchi T, Nezu H, Ito K, Kasanuki N, Koga T: Effects of pravastatin sodium on mevalonate metabolism in common marmosets. J Biochem. 2002 Sep;132(3):395-400. [PubMed:12204108]
  3. Buxbaum JD, Geoghagen NS, Friedhoff LT: Cholesterol depletion with physiological concentrations of a statin decreases the formation of the Alzheimer amyloid Abeta peptide. J Alzheimers Dis. 2001 Apr;3(2):221-229. [PubMed:12214063]
  4. Baranova NA, Kreier VG, Egorov NS: [Concentration on Diapak C 16 capsules of lovastatin, mevinolinic acid and other inhibitors of biosynthesis of sterins produced by Penicillium citrinum 89]. Antibiot Khimioter. 2002;47(4):3-6. [PubMed:12369143]
  5. Farina HG, Bublik DR, Alonso DF, Gomez DE: Lovastatin alters cytoskeleton organization and inhibits experimental metastasis of mammary carcinoma cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2002;19(6):551-9. [PubMed:12405293]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Podar K, Tai YT, Hideshima T, Vallet S, Richardson PG, Anderson KC: Emerging therapies for multiple myeloma. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2009 Mar;14(1):99-127. doi: 10.1517/14728210802676278 . [PubMed:19249983]
  8. Dimitroulakos J, Marhin WH, Tokunaga J, Irish J, Gullane P, Penn LZ, Kamel-Reid S: Microarray and biochemical analysis of lovastatin-induced apoptosis of squamous cell carcinomas. Neoplasia. 2002 Jul-Aug;4(4):337-46. [PubMed:12082550]
Details
2. Integrin alpha-L
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitory allosteric modulator
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. It is involved in a variety of immune phenomena including leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytotoxic T-cell mediated ...
Gene Name
ITGAL
Uniprot ID
P20701
Uniprot Name
Integrin alpha-L
Molecular Weight
128768.495 Da
References
  1. Kallen J, Welzenbach K, Ramage P, Geyl D, Kriwacki R, Legge G, Cottens S, Weitz-Schmidt G, Hommel U: Structural basis for LFA-1 inhibition upon lovastatin binding to the CD11a I-domain. J Mol Biol. 1999 Sep 10;292(1):1-9. [PubMed:10493852]
  2. Weitz-Schmidt G, Welzenbach K, Brinkmann V, Kamata T, Kallen J, Bruns C, Cottens S, Takada Y, Hommel U: Statins selectively inhibit leukocyte function antigen-1 by binding to a novel regulatory integrin site. Nat Med. 2001 Jun;7(6):687-92. doi: 10.1038/89058. [PubMed:11385505]
  3. Liao JK, Laufs U: Pleiotropic effects of statins. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:89-118. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.45.120403.095748. [PubMed:15822172]
Details
3. Histone deacetylase 2
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Other
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC2
Uniprot ID
Q92769
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 2
Molecular Weight
55363.855 Da
References
  1. Lin YC, Lin JH, Chou CW, Chang YF, Yeh SH, Chen CC: Statins increase p21 through inhibition of histone deacetylase activity and release of promoter-associated HDAC1/2. Cancer Res. 2008 Apr 1;68(7):2375-83. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5807. [PubMed:18381445]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  2. Hong SP, Yang JS, Han JY, Ha SI, Chung JW, Koh YY, Chang KS, Choi DH: Effects of lovastatin on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its main metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats: possible role of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by lovastatin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Jan;63(1):129-35. [PubMed:21189658]
  3. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
  4. Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT, Niemi M: Pharmacokinetic comparison of the potential over-the-counter statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(7):463-74. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200847070-00003. [PubMed:18563955]
  5. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
  6. TABLETS MEVACOR® (LOVASTATIN) FDA LABEL [Link]
  7. FDA Label - Lovastatin [File]
  8. Health Canada Monograph - Lovastatin [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- ...
Gene Name
PON3
Uniprot ID
Q15166
Uniprot Name
Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3
Molecular Weight
39607.185 Da
References
  1. Draganov DI, Stetson PL, Watson CE, Billecke SS, La Du BN: Rabbit serum paraoxonase 3 (PON3) is a high density lipoprotein-associated lactonase and protects low density lipoprotein against oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 27;275(43):33435-42. [PubMed:10931838]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Tornio A, Pasanen MK, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: Comparison of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2C8. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Aug;97(2):104-8. [PubMed:15998357]
  2. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807]
  3. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
  4. Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT, Niemi M: Pharmacokinetic comparison of the potential over-the-counter statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(7):463-74. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200847070-00003. [PubMed:18563955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
  2. Public presentations [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
  2. Public presentations [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Prueksaritanont T, Subramanian R, Fang X, Ma B, Qiu Y, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Baillie TA: Glucuronidation of statins in animals and humans: a novel mechanism of statin lactonization. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 May;30(5):505-12. [PubMed:11950779]
  2. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Lennernas H, Fager G: Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Similarities and differences. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 May;32(5):403-25. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199732050-00005. [PubMed:9160173]

Transporters

Details
1. P-glycoprotein 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang E, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) characterized as direct inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Jun;18(6):800-6. [PubMed:11474784]
  2. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514]
  3. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. [PubMed:10213372]
  4. Choi DH, Chung JH, Choi JS: Pharmacokinetic interaction between oral lovastatin and verapamil in healthy subjects: role of P-glycoprotein inhibition by lovastatin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;66(3):285-90. doi: 10.1007/s00228-009-0757-x. Epub 2009 Dec 12. [PubMed:20012601]
  5. Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT, Niemi M: Pharmacokinetic comparison of the potential over-the-counter statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(7):463-74. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200847070-00003. [PubMed:18563955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612]
  2. Hsiang B, Zhu Y, Wang Z, Wu Y, Sasseville V, Yang WP, Kirchgessner TG: A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide and identification of rat and human hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor transporters. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24;274(52):37161-8. [PubMed:10601278]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Hsiang B, Zhu Y, Wang Z, Wu Y, Sasseville V, Yang WP, Kirchgessner TG: A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide and identification of rat and human hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor transporters. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24;274(52):37161-8. [PubMed:10601278]
  2. Sandhu P, Lee W, Xu X, Leake BF, Yamazaki M, Stone JA, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Kim RB: Hepatic uptake of the novel antifungal agent caspofungin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 May;33(5):676-82. Epub 2005 Feb 16. [PubMed:15716364]
  3. Kunze A, Huwyler J, Camenisch G, Poller B: Prediction of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1- and 1B3-mediated hepatic uptake of statins based on transporter protein expression and activity data. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Sep;42(9):1514-21. doi: 10.1124/dmd.114.058412. Epub 2014 Jul 2. [PubMed:24989890]
  4. Tornio A, Vakkilainen J, Neuvonen M, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M: SLCO1B1 polymorphism markedly affects the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin acid. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 Aug;25(8):382-7. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000148. [PubMed:26020121]
  5. Zhao G, Liu M, Wu X, Li G, Qiu F, Gu J, Zhao L: Effect of polymorphisms in CYP3A4, PPARA, NR1I2, NFKB1, ABCG2 and SLCO1B1 on the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in healthy Chinese volunteers. Pharmacogenomics. 2017 Jan;18(1):65-75. doi: 10.2217/pgs.16.31. Epub 2016 Dec 14. [PubMed:27967318]
  6. Xiang Q, Chen SQ, Ma LY, Hu K, Zhang Z, Mu GY, Xie QF, Zhang XD, Cui YM: Association between SLCO1B1 T521C polymorphism and risk of statin-induced myopathy: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics J. 2018 Dec;18(6):721-729. doi: 10.1038/s41397-018-0054-0. Epub 2018 Sep 24. [PubMed:30250148]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Ellis LC, Hawksworth GM, Weaver RJ: ATP-dependent transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Jun 1;269(2):187-94. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.03.019. Epub 2013 Apr 2. [PubMed:23562342]
  2. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Kitzmiller JP, Mikulik EB, Dauki AM, Murkherjee C, Luzum JA: Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2016 Oct 3;9:97-106. doi: 10.2147/PGPM.S86013. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27757045]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 14, 2019 08:02