Identification

Name
Morphine
Accession Number
DB00295  (APRD00215, DB05354)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. In January, 2017, morphine was approved for the treatment of chronic pain.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (−)-morphine
  • (5alpha,6alpha)-17-methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5alpha,6alpha)-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5R,6S,9R,13S,14R)-4,5-epoxy-N-methyl-7-morphinen-3,6-diol
  • (5α,6α)-17-methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5α,6α)-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (7R,7AS,12bs)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methano[1]benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diol
  • anhydrous morphine
  • morfina
  • Morphia
  • Morphin
  • Morphinum
  • Morphium
External IDs
IDS-NM-009 / N02AA01
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Morphine acetateVEO43W5229596-15-6CLDOGJORCNORLA-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine hydrochlorideJ28GE0ROVX52-26-6XCKKIKBIPZJUET-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine mesylateQXB8THK8QY335328-17-1MHEMFNFIWLUDDJ-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine nitrateDV2P23JCWV596-16-7VHBDDUMTLJSZDR-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine phosphate1LQ9207LZE596-17-8KZSZGTYWWBPNKB-VYKNHSEDSA-N
Morphine sulfateDY70C97N3064-31-3USAHOPJHPJHUNS-IFCNUISUSA-N
Morphine sulfate pentahydrateX3P646A2J06211-15-0GRVOTVYEFDAHCL-RTSZDRIGSA-N
Morphine tartrateU3NSU23LHD302-31-8SVTKSKRNLMAUKF-HAIKCVHQSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Arymo ERTablet, film coated, extended release15 mg/1OralEgalet US Inc.2017-02-01Not applicableUs
Arymo ERTablet, film coated, extended release60 mg/1OralEgalet US Inc.2017-02-01Not applicableUs
Arymo ERTablet, film coated, extended release30 mg/1OralEgalet US Inc.2017-02-01Not applicableUs
AvinzaCapsule, extended release60 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-10-302012-06-30Us
AvinzaCapsule, extended release60 mg/1OralLigand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated2006-08-08Not applicableUs
AvinzaCapsule, extended release90 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2002-03-20Not applicableUs
AvinzaCapsule, extended release90 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2011-10-252015-07-10Us
AvinzaCapsule, extended release90 mg/1OralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2002-03-202017-01-31Us
AvinzaCapsule, extended release30 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2002-03-20Not applicableUs
AvinzaCapsule, extended release45 mg/1OralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2002-03-202015-11-30Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AstramorphInjection0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012012-11-30Us
AstramorphInjection1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012012-06-30Us
AstramorphInjection0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012012-08-31Us
AstramorphInjection1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-09-302013-03-31Us
AstramorphInjection1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012013-04-30Us
AstramorphInjection0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1990-10-012013-02-28Us
Astramorph PFInjection, solution1 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-09-282013-05-10Us
Astramorph PFInjection, solution0.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intrathecal; IntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-09-282013-05-10Us
Bar-morphine SRTablet, extended release200 mgOralBard Pharmaceuticals (1990) IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bar-morphine SRTablet, extended release60 mgOralBard Pharmaceuticals (1990) IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (50 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (2 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUs
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (20 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (.8 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralStat Rx USA2009-08-13Not applicableUs
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (80 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (3.2 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUs
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (30 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (1.2 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUs
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (60 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (2.4 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUs
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (20 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (0.8 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUs
EmbedaMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (100 mg/1) + Naltrexone hydrochloride (4 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2009-08-13Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1991-04-112015-09-01Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (15 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1971-01-012017-05-31Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (10 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1997-06-092014-03-01Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (1 mg/1mL)InjectionParenteralAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1993-06-012009-12-18Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (8 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1971-01-012016-06-30Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (8 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1997-06-092013-10-01Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (15 mg/1)TabletOralGlenmark Generics, Inc. USA2006-08-012009-06-26Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (15 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousBaxter Laboratories2002-12-022013-10-31Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (20 mg/1mL)SolutionOralPaddock Laboratories, Inc.2009-10-082011-10-31Us
Morphine SulfateMorphine sulfate pentahydrate (1 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; IntravenousCantrell Drug Company2013-09-092017-12-06Us
International/Other Brands
Kapanol / MSIR / Oramorph / Roxanol
Categories
UNII
76I7G6D29C
CAS number
57-27-2
Weight
Average: 285.3377
Monoisotopic: 285.136493479
Chemical Formula
C17H19NO3
InChI Key
BQJCRHHNABKAKU-KBQPJGBKSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H19NO3/c1-18-7-6-17-10-3-5-13(20)16(17)21-15-12(19)4-2-9(14(15)17)8-11(10)18/h2-5,10-11,13,16,19-20H,6-8H2,1H3/t10-,11+,13-,16-,17-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,5R,13R,14S,17R)-4-methyl-12-oxa-4-azapentacyclo[9.6.1.0¹,¹³.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁷,¹⁸]octadeca-7(18),8,10,15-tetraene-10,14-diol
SMILES
[H][C@@]12OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(C)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1([H])C=C[C@@H]2O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the relief and treatment of severe pain.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Morphine is a narcotic pain management agent indicated for the relief of pain in patients who require opioid analgesics for more than a few days. Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas. They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. In clinical settings, morphine exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Morphine appears to increase the patient's tolerance for pain and to decrease discomfort, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Opioids also produce respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers.

Mechanism of action

The precise mechanism of the analgesic action of morphine is unknown. However, specific CNS opiate receptors have been identified and likely play a role in the expression of analgesic effects. Morphine first acts on the mu-opioid receptors. The mechanism of respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electrical stimulation. It has been shown that morphine binds to and inhibits GABA inhibitory interneurons. These interneurons normally inhibit the descending pain inhibition pathway. So, without the inhibitory signals, pain modulation can proceed downstream.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMu-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
AKappa-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
ADelta-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
ULymphocyte antigen 96Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Bioavailability is approximately 30%.

Volume of distribution
  • 1 to 6 L/kg
Protein binding

30-40%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic (90%), converted to dihydromorphinone and normorphine. Also converted to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide. Virtually all morphine is converted to glucuronide metabolites; only a small fraction (less than 5%) of absorbed morphine is demethylated.

Route of elimination

A small amount of glucuronide conjugates are excreted in bile, with minor enterohepatic recycling. Seven to 10% of administered morphine sulfate is excreted in the feces.

Half life

2-4 hours

Clearance
  • 20 – 30 mL/min/kg [Adult]
  • 1852 +/- 116 mL/min [Chinese]
  • 1495 +/- 80 mL/min [Caucasian]
Toxicity

LD50 = 461 mg/kg (rat, oral), 600 mg/kg (mouse, oral). Human lethal dose by ingestion is 120-250 mg of morphine sulfate. Symptoms of overdose include cold, clammy skin, flaccid muscles, fluid in the lungs, lowered blood pressure, "pinpoint" or dilated pupils, sleepiness leading to stupor and coma, slowed breathing, and slow pulse rate.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Heroin Action PathwayDrug action
Morphine Action PathwayDrug action
Codeine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Codeine Action PathwayDrug action
Morphine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Heroin Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Multidrug resistance protein 1---(T;T) / (C;T)T AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype may have an increased analgesic response to morphine.Details
Mu-type opioid receptor---(A;A)A AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype may have an increased analgesic response to morphine.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when (2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodide is combined with Morphine.
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of Morphine can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of Morphine can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe metabolism of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be decreased when combined with Morphine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Morphine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Morphine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Morphine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Morphine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Morphine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Morphine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food.
  • To avoid constipation: increase your daily intake of fiber (beans, whole grains, vegetables).

References

Synthesis Reference

Nagaraj R. Ayyangar, Anil R. Choudhary, Uttam R. Kalkote, Vasant K. Sharma, "Process for the preparation of codeine from morphine." U.S. Patent US4764615, issued May, 1912.

US4764615
General References
  1. Kilpatrick GJ, Smith TW: Morphine-6-glucuronide: actions and mechanisms. Med Res Rev. 2005 Sep;25(5):521-44. [PubMed:15952175]
  2. Loguinov AV, Anderson LM, Crosby GJ, Yukhananov RY: Gene expression following acute morphine administration. Physiol Genomics. 2001 Aug 28;6(3):169-81. [PubMed:11526201]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014440
KEGG Drug
D08233
KEGG Compound
C01516
PubChem Compound
5288826
PubChem Substance
46505161
ChemSpider
4450907
BindingDB
50000092
ChEBI
17303
ChEMBL
CHEMBL70
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000071
PharmGKB
PA450550
HET
MOI
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Morphine
ATC Codes
N02AA51 — Morphine, combinationsA07DA52 — Morphine, combinationsN02AA01 — MorphineN02AG01 — Morphine and antispasmodics
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.08 — Opiate Agonists
PDB Entries
1q0y
FDA label
Download (1.2 MB)
MSDS
Download (51.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedSupportive CareCancer of the Ovary / Cervical Cancers / Uterine Endometrial Cancer1
0CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
0Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticVasoplegia1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFracture; Rib, Multiple1
0RecruitingTreatmentPain1
0RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain1
1CompletedNot AvailableGastric Emptying / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedNot AvailablePain1
1CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Induced Constipation1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedBasic ScienceNondependent Opioid Abuse, Episodic1
1CompletedDiagnosticFatty Liver1
1CompletedTreatmentCancers / Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal2
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
1CompletedTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
1Not Yet RecruitingOtherMorphine / Organic Cation Transporter 11
1RecruitingTreatmentHeroin Dependence / Opioid Use Disorders1
1RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
1RecruitingTreatmentRenal Colic1
1TerminatedSupportive CareCancers1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea of Adult1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune System Suppression1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOpioid Abuse / Opioid Dependence1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceDrug Effect / Pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
1, 2Unknown StatusNot AvailableClose Head Injury / Head Trauma / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenotonsillitis / Tonsillitis1
2CompletedOtherAllelic Frequencies of Genetic Markers / Pain / Polymorphism-Genetic1
2CompletedPreventionCoagulation Defect; Bleeding1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
2CompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2CompletedSupportive CareCancers / Pain1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CarePain1
2CompletedSupportive CarePain / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2CompletedTreatmentAmputations / Pain, Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal / Neonatal Withdrawal Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus1
2CompletedTreatmentHeroin Dependence / Opioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentHysterectomy1
2CompletedTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders2
2CompletedTreatmentPain6
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute2
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain / Third Molar Extraction1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
2CompletedTreatmentPregnant Women2
2CompletedTreatmentPremature Neonates1
2CompletedTreatmentProgressive Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis1
2CompletedTreatmentRadicular syndrome / Sciatica1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
2CompletedTreatmentRespiratory Depression1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Block / General Surgery / Thoracic Injury1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain Management1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareReferred Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAutonomic Failure / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypoglycemia1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceOpioid Abuse / Opioid-use Disorder1
2RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Nephrectomy1
2RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms / Pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareMetastatic Cancers1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareMetastatic Cancers / Pain / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHb-SS Disease With Vasoocclusive Pain / Hemoglobin SS Disease With Crisis / Hemoglobin SS Disease With Vasoocclusive Crisis / Other Sickle Cell Disease With Vaso-Occlusive Pain / Sickle Cell Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticCancer, Breast1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailablePain1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPruritus1
2, 3CompletedSupportive CareChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcute Agitation / Dementias / Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentClosed Multiple Fractures of Upper and Lower Limbs1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentVesicular Stomatitis1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFlail Chest1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Arthritis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPost Surgical Pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal / Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancers, Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Leukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Pain / Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition / Small Intestine Cancer / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentBunionectomy / Pain / Pain, Acute / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentCancers2
3CompletedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal2
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Zoster / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentHysterectomy / Postoperative1
3CompletedTreatmentModerate to Severe Postoperative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms1
3CompletedTreatmentNewborn Infants / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentOpioids Use / Pain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentOther Acute Postoperative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPain1
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute3
3CompletedTreatmentPain / Sickle Cell Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentPain / Skin Transplantation1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Traumatic Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain9
3CompletedTreatmentPruritus1
3CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
3CompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
3CompletedTreatmentScoliosis1
3CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy1
3Not Yet RecruitingOtherAcute Traumatic Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntervertebral Disc Degeneration / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spondylolisthesis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpiate withdrawal symptoms / Opioid-Related Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentParecoxib / Rib Fractures1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Radical Prostatectomy1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePain, Intractable1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Traumatic Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3RecruitingTreatmentBlunt Injury of Thorax1
3RecruitingTreatmentCancer: Breakthrough Pain / Cancer: Extreme Pain on Movement1
3RecruitingTreatmentCancers / Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Dyspnea1
3RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Other Complications / Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioid Dependence1
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Shoulder Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain / Scoliosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3SuspendedSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)1
3SuspendedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Tumors, Solid1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Wounds / Local Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentPain1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareSigmoidal Tumour1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBreakthrough Cancer Pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCancers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentEmergency / Pain / Traumatic Injuries1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentWounds1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Dyspnea1
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailablePain1
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailablePain, Acute1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Obstetrical1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDrug Abuse / Narcotic Abuse / Opiate Addiction / Opioid-Related Disorders1
4CompletedNot AvailableAbdominal Pain (AP)1
4CompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Lung Cancers1
4CompletedBasic SciencePain1
4CompletedBasic SciencePharyngeal Dysfunction / Pharyngeal Swallowing1
4CompletedDiagnosticAppendicitis1
4CompletedDiagnosticChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) / Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia1
4CompletedDiagnosticPruritus1
4CompletedDiagnosticSphincter of Oddi Dysfunction1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium1
4CompletedPreventionNausea and Vomiting, Postoperative / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPain1
4CompletedPreventionPainful Bladder Syndrome (PBS) / Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / Urinary Bladder, Overactive / Urinary Urge Incontinence1
4CompletedSupportive CareAppendicitis1
4CompletedSupportive CareHysterectomy (MeSH nr: E04.950.300.399)1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareSickle Cell Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Hysterectomy (& Wertheim)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Pain Management / Renal Colic1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Postoperative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Obstetrical / Cesarean Section1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Cesarean Section / Pregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Obesity, Morbid1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign muscle neoplasm / Hysterectomy / Opioids / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBlock1
4CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Intractable1
4CompletedTreatmentCRP1
4CompletedTreatmentCaesarian Section1
4CompletedTreatmentCancers / Pain, Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentChildren / Postoperative pain / Recovery of Function1
4CompletedTreatmentChlorzoxazone / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) / Depression / Feeling Anxious / Intervertebral Disc Degeneration1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases / Solitary Mass1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentDisk Prolapse / Intervertebral Disk Displacement1
4CompletedTreatmentDissecting Aneurysm of the Thoracic Aorta1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Interaction Potentiation / Myocardial Infarction / VA Drug Interactions [VA Drug Interaction]1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
4CompletedTreatmentFemur Fractures / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease) / Pain Management / Scoliosis1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart; Dysfunction Postoperative, Cardiac Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Fractures1
4CompletedTreatmentInjections, Spinal / Morphine / Patients Satisfaction / Prostatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Post Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
4CompletedTreatmentMucositis / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentNon ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) / VA Drug Interactions / VA Drug Interactions [VA Drug Interaction]1
4CompletedTreatmentNumeric Pain Rating Scale > 5 / 10 / Severe Traumatic Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Orthopedic Procedures / Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Post-Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentOtitis Media (OM)1
4CompletedTreatmentPain12
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute3
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Sickle Cell Crisis1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic3
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Sickle Cell Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain2
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative Function Level / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain6
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted1
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic / Urinary Calculi1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentSevere, Acute Pain in a Pre-hospital Setting1
4CompletedTreatmentUrolithiasis1
4CompletedTreatmentVideo-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionChronic Pain Post-Proceduraal / Chronic Pain Post-Procedural1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pulmonary Edema1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCirculating Tumor Cells / Colorectal Cancers2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPertrochanteric Fracture1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRenal Colic2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSupratentorial Neoplasms1
4RecruitingOtherChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) / Neck Pain Chronic1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingPreventionHyperalgesia1
4RecruitingPreventionPostdural Puncture Headache1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBreakthrough Pain / Gastrostomy / Neoplasms, Upper Aerodigestive Tract1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareImpaired Renal Function / Pain / Terminal Illness1
4RecruitingSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareRight Ventricular Dysfunction1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Anesthesia; Spinal / Intravenous Drug Delivery Systems / Lumbar epidural anesthesia / Morphine / Surgery, Colorectal1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain Management / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal2
4RecruitingTreatmentDyspnea / Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) / Morphine1
4RecruitingTreatmentFracture, Ankle / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon / Minimal Residual Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentMastectomy / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Wound Infusion1
4RecruitingTreatmentNalbuphine , Morphine / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPectus Excavatum1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-Cesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentSciatica1
4SuspendedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4TerminatedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction2
4TerminatedPreventionPostoperative Pain Management / Scheduled Cesarean Sections / Side Effects1
4TerminatedSupportive CareDisease, Chronic / Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute Pain, Postoperative1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnesthesia Recovery Period / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentHip Arthroplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentMorphine Adverse Reaction / Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentRib Fractures1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticLiver Diseases1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Abdomen / Acute Low Back Pain / Extremity Pain, Acute / Flank Pain, Acute / Other Acute Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFracture Bone / Postoperative pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInflammatory Disorder of Immune System / Sepsis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRenal Colic1
4WithdrawnBasic ScienceSickle Cell Disorders1
4WithdrawnPreventionAutogenous Bone Grafts1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareFracture Bone / Lower Limb Injuries1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTraumatic Vaginal Delivery1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchPostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Surgeries / Thoracic Surgery1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentFlail Chest / General Surgery / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Abdominal Surgeries1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPain / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBreakthrough Cancer Pain / Pain, Cancer / Pain, Neuropathic / Tumors1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfant, Newborn, Diseases / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePain1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticDyspnea1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherObstetric Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnalgesia / Spinal Anaesthesia / Tranurethral Resection of Prostate1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)2
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningPerfusions1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLower Extremities Fracture1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA) / Post-traumatic; Arthrosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Treatment for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRespiratory Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Renal Colic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia Post Fracture / Upper Extremity Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Obstetrical / Obstetric Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancers / Mucositis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpidural Analgesia, Obstetric1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemodynamics After Spinal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fracture Surgery / Post Operative Pain Control1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip / Osteoarthritis, Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLiving Donor Hepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLumbar Spine Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMusculoskeletal Injuries1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Cesarean Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost-Op Complication1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain5
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Ultrasound1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentReconstruction Breast Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUltrasound Therapy; Complications1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableDrug Effect1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInterscalene Block / Regional Anesthesia / Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Osteoarthritis of Knee Nos1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) / Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) / Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) / Acute Pyelonephritis / Adenovirus / Adjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Adrenal Insufficiency / Airway Swelling / Anaesthesia therapy / Anxiolysis / Arterial Hypotension / Autism, Early Infantile / Autistic Disorder / Bartonellosis / Benzodiazepine Withdrawal / Benzodiazepines / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Bloodstream Infections / Bone and Joint Infections / Brain Swelling / Bronchospasm / Brucellosis / Cardiac Arrest / Central Nervous System Infections / Cholera / Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) / Complicated Urinary Tract Infections / Convulsions / Cyanide Poisoning / Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / Drug hypersensitivity reaction / Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders / Edema / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious / Flu caused by Influenza / Gastroparesis / Gynaecological infection / Headaches / Herpes Simplex Virus / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia / Hyperlipidemias / Infantile Hemangiomas / Infection NOS / Inflammatory Conditions / Inflammatory Reaction / Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis / Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) / Intra-Abdominal Infections / Life-threatening Fungal Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) / Meningitis, Bacterial / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Nausea / Opioid Addiction / Pain / Plague / Pneumonia / Prophylaxis / Psittacosis / Q Fever / Reflux / Relapsing Fever / Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Schizophrenic Disorders / Sedation therapy / Seizures / Sepsis / Skeletal Muscle Spasms / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections / Stable Angina (SA) / Thromboprophylaxis / Thrombosis / Trachoma / Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia / Tularemia / Typhus Fever / Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections / Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) / Vomiting / Withdrawal1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnesthesia and Analgesia / Cardiac Output / Pneumonectomy; Status / Robotic Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic SciencePain / Sleep Deprivation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPain Management in Pregnant Women1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Anesthesia Morbidity / Breast Neoplasm Female / Regional Anesthesia / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCerebrospinal Fluid Leaks / Post-Lumbar Puncture Headache / Postdural Puncture Headache1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain, Acute1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentInguinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Pancreatic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost Laparotomy Pain Treatment1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableSuspendedNot AvailableIschemia-Reperfusion Injury1
Not AvailableSuspendedPreventionInflammatory Reaction1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableComplications; Cesarean Section / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy / Hemodynamics Instability / Personal Satisfaction1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Leukemias / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Pain / Precancerous Conditions / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CarePain / Respiratory Depression1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLabour Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Shoulder Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSpastic Cerebral Palsy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAnalgesic Response1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAbdominal Muscles/Ultrasonography / Adults / Anesthetics, Local/Administration & Dosage / Cesarean Section / Humans / Nerve Block/Methods / Pain Measurement/Methods / Pain, Postoperative/Prevention & Control / Ropivacaine/Administration & Dosage / Ropivacaine/Analogs & Derivatives / Ultrasonography, Interventional1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLiver Dysfunction / Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPost Tonsillectomy Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareLow Back Pain (LBP)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCaesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentChildren / Feeling Anxious / Minor burns / Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentUlcers / Wounds and Injuries1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Ekr therapeutics inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Hospira inc
  • Mallinckrodt chemical inc
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Clonmel healthcare ltd
  • Endo pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Purdue pharma lp
  • Xanodyne pharmaceutics inc
  • Actavis
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Alpharma Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Amphastar Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotex Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Cerovene Inc.
  • Cody Laboratories Inc.
  • D.M. Graham Laboratories Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Edenbridge Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • EKR Therapeutics Inc.
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ethex Corp.
  • G & W Labs
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Ide Interstate
  • King Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • KV Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Lehigh Valley Technologies Inc.
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Marathon Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Meridian Medical Technologies Inc.
  • Novartis AG
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • P F Laboratories Inc.
  • Pacira Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Purdue Pharma LP
  • Quality Care
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Roxane Labs
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Tercica Inc.
  • Upsher Smith Laboratories
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
  • Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous0.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Capsule, coated, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral120 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral75 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
Injection, lipid complexEpidural10 mg/1mL
Injection, lipid complexEpidural15 mg/1.5mL
Injection, lipid complexEpidural20 mg/2mL
SyrupOral1 mg
SyrupOral5 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal25 mg/1mL
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral130 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral150 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral40 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral70 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg
CapsuleOral20 mg
CapsuleOral30 mg
CapsuleOral5 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral100 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral15 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral200 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 mg
TabletOral10 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral30 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral60 mg
SuppositoryRectal10 mg
SuppositoryRectal20 mg
SuppositoryRectal30 mg
TabletOral20 mg
TabletOral40 mg
SyrupOral50 mg
TabletOral60 mg
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal200 mg/20mL
InjectionEpidural; Intrathecal500 mg/20mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous25 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous50 mg
SolutionEpidural; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Intravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral80 mg/1
InjectionIntramuscular10 mg/0.7mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous15 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous5 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous8 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intrathecal; Intravenous2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intrathecal; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal40 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal; Intravenous0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/10mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous30 mg/30mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous25 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous50 mg/1mL
SolutionOral10 mg/5mL
SolutionOral20 mg/5mL
SolutionOral20 mg/1mL
Solution, concentrateOral100 mg/5mL
Solution, concentrateOral20 mg/1mL
SuppositoryRectal10 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal20 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal30 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal5 mg/1
TabletOral15 mg/1
TabletOral30 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral15 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral15 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral60 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral15 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
TabletOral60 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg/1
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous15 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous2 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous5 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous15 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous2 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous2 mg
SolutionIntravenous1 mg
SolutionIntravenous5 mg
SolutionOral100 mg/5mL
LiquidIntravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous25 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous50 mg
LiquidIntravenous; Subcutaneous2 mg
LiquidIntravenous25 mg
LiquidIntravenous50 mg
LiquidIntravenous1.1 mg
SolutionEpidural0.5 mg
SolutionEpidural1 mg
TabletOral200 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral15 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral200 mg
Suppository, extended releaseRectal100 mg
Suppository, extended releaseRectal200 mg
Suppository, extended releaseRectal30 mg
Suppository, extended releaseRectal60 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral5 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral150 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral90 mg
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral10 mg
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral20 mg
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral30 mg
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral5 mg
TinctureOral10 mg/1mL
TinctureOral10 mg
SolutionOral1 g/100mL
SolutionOral10 mg/1mL
LiquidOral2 mg/5mL
SyrupOral10 mg
SyrupOral20 mg
Solution / dropsOral50 mg
Solution / dropsOral20 mg
SuppositoryRectal5 mg
TabletOral5 mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral50 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral120 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral40 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Depodur 15 mg/1.5 ml vial618.18USD ml
Roxanol 20 mg/ml Solution 120ml Bottle95.98USD bottle
Morphine Sulfate 20 mg/5ml Solution 500ml Bottle65.05USD bottle
Apokyn 30 mg/3 ml cartridge52.48USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/5ml Solution 500ml Bottle38.55USD bottle
Kadian er 200 mg capsule35.43USD capsule
Kadian er 100 mg capsule23.01USD capsule
Roxanol 20 mg/ml Solution 30ml Bottle22.99USD bottle
Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/5ml Solution 100ml Bottle21.99USD bottle
Oramorph sr 60 mg tablet21.76USD tablet
Ms contin 200 mg tablet21.5USD tablet
Kadian er 80 mg capsule18.66USD capsule
Roxanol 20 mg/ml Solution 240ml Bottle17.99USD bottle
Avinza 90 mg capsule17.56USD capsule
Oramorph sr 100 mg tablet17.16USD tablet
Kadian 100 mg 24 Hour Capsule16.93USD capsule
MS Contin 200 mg 12 Hour tablet16.32USD tablet
Kadian 100 mg capsule sr16.25USD capsule
Kadian er 60 mg capsule14.31USD capsule
AVINza 90 mg 24 Hour Capsule13.21USD capsule
Kadian 80 mg capsule sr12.96USD capsule
Avinza 120 mg capsule12.07USD capsule
Kadian er 50 mg capsule11.76USD capsule
Ms contin 100 mg tablet11.75USD tablet
Avinza 60 mg capsule11.58USD capsule
AVINza 120 mg 24 Hour Capsule11.33USD capsule
Avinza 75 mg capsule10.79USD capsule
Morphine sulfate powder10.61USD g
Avinza 45 mg capsule10.22USD capsule
Kadian 60 mg 24 Hour Capsule9.06USD capsule
Morphine Sulfate CR 200 mg 12 Hour tablet8.97USD tablet
MS Contin 100 mg 12 Hour tablet8.89USD tablet
Morphine sulf 30 mg suppository8.44USD suppository
AVINza 60 mg 24 Hour Capsule8.36USD capsule
Ms contin 60 mg tablet7.95USD tablet
Infumorph 10 mg/ml ampul p-f7.8USD ml
Kadian 50 mg 24 Hour Capsule7.71USD capsule
Kadian er 30 mg capsule7.13USD capsule
Oramorph sr 30 mg tablet6.83USD tablet
Morphine sulf 20 mg suppository6.71USD suppository
Kadian er 10 mg capsule6.35USD capsule
Morphine sulf 10 mg suppository6.25USD suppository
Avinza 30 mg capsule6.0USD capsule
MS Contin 60 mg 12 Hour tablet5.71USD tablet
Kadian er 20 mg capsule5.69USD capsule
Ms Contin 200 mg Sustained-Release Tablet5.62USD tablet
Kadian 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.8USD capsule
Kadian 20 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.76USD capsule
AVINza 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.47USD capsule
Morphine sulf 5 mg suppository4.45USD suppository
Morphine Sulfate CR 100 mg 12 Hour tablet4.33USD tablet
M-Eslon 200 mg Extended-Release Capsule4.3USD capsule
Oramorph sr 15 mg tablet4.12USD tablet
Ms contin cr 30 mg tablet4.09USD tablet
Kadian 10 mg capsule sr4.05USD capsule
Morphine Hp 50 50 mg/ml4.01USD ml
Kadian 10 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.0USD capsule
Ms contin 15 mg tablet3.58USD tablet
MS Contin 30 mg 12 Hour tablet3.26USD tablet
Novo-Morphine Sr 200 mg Sustained-Release Tablet3.09USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 200 mg Sustained-Release Tablet3.09USD tablet
Ms Contin 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet3.02USD tablet
Morphine Sulfate CR 60 mg 12 Hour tablet3.0USD tablet
Morphine Hp 25 25 mg/ml2.9USD ml
Statex 30 mg Suppository2.55USD suppository
Kadian 100 mg Sustained-Release Capsule2.35USD capsule
Statex 20 mg Suppository2.32USD suppository
Morphine Lp Epidural 1 mg/ml2.24USD ml
M-Eslon 100 mg Extended-Release Capsule2.15USD capsule
MS Contin 15 mg 12 Hour tablet2.13USD tablet
Ms Contin 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.98USD tablet
Statex 10 mg Suppository1.95USD suppository
Morph sulf 5 mg/0.25 ml vial1.83USD vial
Statex 5 mg Suppository1.75USD suppository
Novo-Morphine Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.66USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.66USD tablet
Morphine Sulfate CR 30 mg 12 Hour tablet1.63USD tablet
Morphine 8 mg/ml ampule1.56USD ml
Kadian 50 mg Sustained-Release Capsule1.35USD capsule
Duramorph 0.5 mg/ml ampul1.31USD ml
Astramorph-pf 1 mg/ml ampul1.15USD ml
Ms Contin 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.13USD tablet
Morphine Lp Epidural 0.5 mg/ml1.12USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 15 mg/ml1.03USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/ml1.02USD ml
Novo-Morphine Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.01USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.01USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine Sulfate Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.01USD tablet
M-Eslon 60 mg Extended-Release Capsule1.0USD capsule
Statex 50 mg/ml Drops0.99USD ml
Morphine Sulfate CR 15 mg 12 Hour tablet0.93USD tablet
Duramorph 1 mg/ml ampul0.91USD ml
M.O.S.-Sr 60 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.89USD tablet
Morphine 50 mg/25 ml-d5w syr0.86USD ml
Morphine-ns 10 mg/ml syringe0.86USD ml
Morphine-ns 5 mg/ml syringe0.8USD ml
Ms Contin 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.75USD tablet
Morphine 5 mg/ml vial0.74USD ml
Kadian 20 mg Sustained-Release Capsule0.73USD capsule
Astramorph-pf 0.5 mg/ml amp0.72USD ml
Morphine Sulfate 15 mg tablet0.65USD tablet
Morphine Sulfate 30 mg tablet0.65USD tablet
Morphine 1 mg/ml vial p-f0.6USD ml
Morphine-ns 1 mg/ml syringe0.58USD ml
Novo-Morphine Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.57USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.57USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine Sulfate Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.57USD tablet
M-Eslon 30 mg Extended-Release Capsule0.56USD capsule
Morphine 0.5 mg/ml vial0.55USD ml
Morphine sulfate 50 mg/ml vial0.55USD ml
Morphine sulfate ir 30 mg tablet0.55USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine 20 mg/ml Syrup0.55USD syrup
Statex 20 mg/ml Drops0.52USD ml
M.O.S.-Sr 30 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.51USD tablet
Morphine 1 mg/ml syringe0.48USD ml
Morphine 10 mg/ml vial0.48USD ml
Ms.Ir 30 mg Tablet0.48USD tablet
Morphine sulfate 25 mg/ml vial0.43USD ml
Morphine sulf 1 mg/ml vial0.4USD ml
M.O.S. Sulfate 50 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Statex 50 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Kadian 10 mg Sustained-Release Capsule0.38USD capsule
M-Eslon 15 mg Extended-Release Capsule0.38USD capsule
Ms.Ir 20 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Novo-Morphine Sr 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Pms-Morphine Sulfate Sr 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine Sulfate Sr 15 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
M-Eslon 10 mg Extended-Release Capsule0.33USD capsule
Morphine sulfate ir 15 mg tablet0.32USD tablet
Morphine 15 mg/ml vial0.3USD ml
Morphine-ns 25 mg/25 ml syr0.26USD ml
M.O.S. Sulfate 25 mg Tablet0.25USD tablet
Statex 25 mg Tablet0.25USD tablet
Ms.Ir 10 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Ratio-Morphine 10 mg/ml Syrup0.19USD syrup
M.O.S. Sulfate 10 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Statex 10 mg Tablet0.19USD tablet
Morphine-ns 5 mg/ml0.16USD ml
Morphine-ns 55 mg/55 ml syr0.14USD ml
Ms.Ir 5 mg Tablet0.14USD tablet
M.O.S. Sulfate 5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Statex 5 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Morphine 1 mg/ml-d5w 100 ml0.1USD ml
Morphine-ns 150 mg/150 ml0.1USD ml
Statex 5 mg/ml Syrup0.08USD ml
Morphine 1 mg/ml-d5w 250 ml0.06USD ml
Ratio-Morphine 5 mg/ml Syrup0.05USD syrup
Ratio-Morphine 1 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD syrup
Statex 1 mg/ml Syrup0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5378474No1993-03-232010-03-23Us
CA2065210No2000-08-292012-04-06Canada
CA2128591No1999-03-232014-07-21Canada
US6066339No1997-11-252017-11-25Us
US5931809No1995-07-142015-07-14Us
US5962016No1997-01-312017-01-31Us
US6193998No1996-09-012016-09-01Us
US5997899No1996-09-012016-09-01Us
US6241999No1996-09-012016-09-01Us
US5807572No1995-09-152015-09-15Us
US5891467No1997-01-312017-01-31Us
US6171613No1996-10-012016-10-01Us
US8685443No2005-07-032025-07-03Us
US8158156No2007-06-192027-06-19Us
US7682633No2007-06-192027-06-19Us
US8623418No2009-11-072029-11-07Us
US8685444No2005-07-032025-07-03Us
US8846104No2007-06-192027-06-19Us
US7815934No2007-12-122027-12-12Us
US7682634No2007-06-192027-06-19Us
US8877247No2007-06-192027-06-19Us
US9192608No2014-03-122034-03-12Us
US9072781No2014-03-122034-03-12Us
US9248229No2014-03-122034-03-12Us
US7955619No2008-08-122028-08-12Us
US9044402No2013-07-012033-07-01Us
US9549899No2013-07-012033-07-01Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)255 °CPhysProp
water solubility149 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.89AVDEEF,A ET AL. (1996)
logS-3.28ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.21 (at 25 °C)LIDE,DR (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.2 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.99ALOGPS
logP0.9ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.26ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.12ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.93 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity80.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.95 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9971
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9882
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8787
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.956
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6221
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7451
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7375
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5191
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.647
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8155
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9176
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7503
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9634
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9944
Rat acute toxicity2.8989 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8367
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.874
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.42 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00li-8970000000-28acaf307ce4bc5aabf1
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-b9cf42b077ae0fa5b50d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-98125212ed8e73f219e1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-e9f7be236d827a716c1b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-5066e10cd96a2c376676
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0kui-0930000000-793deeb91de6d2459cbe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-100r-0900000000-f775c77035946f746daa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-0390000000-660ff44516f98e346016
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-22857c8ef81e65ad6bd3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-c5194c99a9e7f30ea0c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-1980ff8ab9e654f16fe1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0690000000-efa51d970eaf96d3b982
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pc9-0920000000-64a693f2f51c03129c94
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-100r-0900000000-49174c3db4b1c1847080
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-3cc8784093ef460d3030
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-4bc885836f18b77696f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-4a16648c3e86669f2446
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0690000000-f41b2f804790e9ad8f1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pc9-0920000000-69393fc6563baf39d91f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-100r-0900000000-467f39309be5edfa4c01
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-0390000000-bd9670761ff2a7dafc55

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morphinans. These are polycyclic compounds with a four-ring skeleton with three condensed six-member rings forming a partially hydrogenated phenanthrene moiety, one of which is aromatic while the two others are alicyclic.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Alkaloids and derivatives
Class
Morphinans
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Morphinans
Alternative Parents
Phenanthrenes and derivatives / Tetralins / Coumarans / Aralkylamines / Alkyl aryl ethers / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Piperidines / Trialkylamines / Secondary alcohols / Oxacyclic compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
Morphinan / Phenanthrene / Tetralin / Coumaran / Alkyl aryl ether / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aralkylamine / Piperidine / Benzenoid / Secondary alcohol
show 15 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
morphinane alkaloid, organic heteropentacyclic compound (CHEBI:17303) / Alkaloids, Isoquinoline alkaloids (C01516)

Targets

Details
1. Mu-type opioid receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
OPRM1
Uniprot ID
P35372
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Yamada H, Shimoyama N, Sora I, Uhl GR, Fukuda Y, Moriya H, Shimoyama M: Morphine can produce analgesia via spinal kappa opioid receptors in the absence of mu opioid receptors. Brain Res. 2006 Apr 14;1083(1):61-9. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16530171]
  2. Choi HS, Kim CS, Hwang CK, Song KY, Wang W, Qiu Y, Law PY, Wei LN, Loh HH: The opioid ligand binding of human mu-opioid receptor is modulated by novel splice variants of the receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 19;343(4):1132-40. Epub 2006 Mar 23. [PubMed:16580639]
  3. Castro RR, Cunha FQ, Silva FS Jr, Rocha FA: A quantitative approach to measure joint pain in experimental osteoarthritis--evidence of a role for nitric oxide. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Aug;14(8):769-76. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16580848]
  4. Johnson EA, Oldfield S, Braksator E, Gonzalez-Cuello A, Couch D, Hall KJ, Mundell SJ, Bailey CP, Kelly E, Henderson G: Agonist-selective mechanisms of mu-opioid receptor desensitization in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):676-85. Epub 2006 May 8. [PubMed:16682505]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  6. doi:10.1021/cn9000236 [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
OPRK1
Uniprot ID
P41145
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Leventhal L, Silva RM, Rossi GC, Pasternak GW, Bodnar RJ: Morphine-6beta-glucuronide-induced hyperphagia: characterization of opioid action by selective antagonists and antisense mapping in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):538-44. [PubMed:9808678]
  4. Kozak CA, Filie J, Adamson MC, Chen Y, Yu L: Murine chromosomal location of the mu and kappa opioid receptor genes. Genomics. 1994 Jun;21(3):659-61. [PubMed:7959748]
  5. Teodorov E, Modena CC, Sukikara MH, Felicio LF: Preliminary study of the effects of morphine treatment on opioid receptor gene expression in brain structures of the female rat. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 1;141(3):1225-31. Epub 2006 Jun 6. [PubMed:16753266]
  6. doi:10.1021/cn9000236 [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
OPRD1
Uniprot ID
P41143
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Yamada H, Shimoyama N, Sora I, Uhl GR, Fukuda Y, Moriya H, Shimoyama M: Morphine can produce analgesia via spinal kappa opioid receptors in the absence of mu opioid receptors. Brain Res. 2006 Apr 14;1083(1):61-9. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16530171]
  2. Dortch-Carnes J, Russell KR: Morphine-induced reduction of intraocular pressure and pupil diameter: role of nitric oxide. Pharmacology. 2006;77(1):17-24. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16534251]
  3. Koch T, Wu DF, Yang LQ, Brandenburg LO, Hollt V: Role of phospholipase D2 in the agonist-induced and constitutive endocytosis of G-protein coupled receptors. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):365-72. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539674]
  4. Galeotti N, Stefano GB, Guarna M, Bianchi E, Ghelardini C: Signaling pathway of morphine induced acute thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Pain. 2006 Aug;123(3):294-305. Epub 2006 May 2. [PubMed:16650582]
  5. Asensio VJ, Miralles A, Garcia-Sevilla JA: Stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK1/2) by mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists in the rat brain: regulation by chronic morphine and opioid withdrawal. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Jun 6;539(1-2):49-56. Epub 2006 Apr 6. [PubMed:16678156]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Kieffer BL, Gaveriaux-Ruff C: Exploring the opioid system by gene knockout. Prog Neurobiol. 2002 Apr;66(5):285-306. [PubMed:12015197]
  8. doi:10.1021/cn9000236 [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lipopolysaccharide receptor activity
Specific Function
Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response ...
Gene Name
LY96
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6Y9
Uniprot Name
Lymphocyte antigen 96
Molecular Weight
18545.345 Da
References
  1. Hutchinson MR, Lewis SS, Coats BD, Rezvani N, Zhang Y, Wieseler JL, Somogyi AA, Yin H, Maier SF, Rice KC, Watkins LR: Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal proinflammation and related behavioral consequences. Neuroscience. 2010 May 19;167(3):880-93. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.02.011. Epub 2010 Feb 21. [PubMed:20178837]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Sindrup SH, Brosen K: The pharmacogenetics of codeine hypoalgesia. Pharmacogenetics. 1995 Dec;5(6):335-46. [PubMed:8845855]
  3. Eckhardt K, Nevo I, Levy R, Mikus G, Eichelbaum M, Vogel Z: Morphine-related metabolites differentially activate adenylyl cyclase isozymes after acute and chronic administration. FEBS Lett. 2000 Mar 31;470(3):309-14. [PubMed:10745087]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Details
3. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Coffman BL, Rios GR, King CD, Tephly TR: Human UGT2B7 catalyzes morphine glucuronidation. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Jan;25(1):1-4. [PubMed:9010622]
  2. Takeda S, Ishii Y, Iwanaga M, Mackenzie PI, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y, Oguri K, Yamada H: Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase function by cytochrome P450: evidence for the alteration of UGT2B7-catalyzed glucuronidation of morphine by CYP3A4. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;67(3):665-72. Epub 2004 Dec 20. [PubMed:15611481]
  3. Yamada H, Ishii K, Ishii Y, Ieiri I, Nishio S, Morioka T, Oguri K: Formation of highly analgesic morphine-6-glucuronide following physiologic concentration of morphine in human brain. J Toxicol Sci. 2003 Dec;28(5):395-401. [PubMed:14746343]
  4. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Ohno S, Kawana K, Nakajin S: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A8 to morphine-6-glucuronidation and its kinetic properties. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Apr;36(4):688-94. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019281. Epub 2008 Jan 10. [PubMed:18187562]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW9
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8
Molecular Weight
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Ohno S, Kawana K, Nakajin S: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A8 to morphine-6-glucuronidation and its kinetic properties. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Apr;36(4):688-94. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019281. Epub 2008 Jan 10. [PubMed:18187562]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xeno...
Gene Name
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID
P54855
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15
Molecular Weight
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as...
Gene Name
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID
P06133
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4
Molecular Weight
60512.035 Da
References
  1. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Green MD, King CD, Mojarrabi B, Mackenzie PI, Tephly TR: Glucuronidation of amines and other xenobiotics catalyzed by expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A3. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jun;26(6):507-12. [PubMed:9616184]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389]
  2. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 16, 2018 08:25