Identification

Name
Troglitazone
Accession Number
DB00197  (APRD00488)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational, Withdrawn
Description

Troglitazone was withdrawn in 2000 due to risk of hepatotoxicity. It was superseded by pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • troglitazona
International/Other Brands
Noscal / Resulin / Rezulin / Romozin
Categories
UNII
I66ZZ0ZN0E
CAS number
97322-87-7
Weight
Average: 441.54
Monoisotopic: 441.160993669
Chemical Formula
C24H27NO5S
InChI Key
GXPHKUHSUJUWKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H27NO5S/c1-13-14(2)21-18(15(3)20(13)26)9-10-24(4,30-21)12-29-17-7-5-16(6-8-17)11-19-22(27)25-23(28)31-19/h5-8,19,26H,9-12H2,1-4H3,(H,25,27,28)
IUPAC Name
5-({4-[(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)methoxy]phenyl}methyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
CC1=C(C)C2=C(CCC(C)(COC3=CC=C(CC4SC(=O)NC4=O)C=C3)O2)C(C)=C1O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is used alone or in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin as an adjunct to diet and exercise.

Pharmacodynamics

Troglitazone is an oral antihyperglycemic agent which acts primarily by decreasing insulin resistance. Troglitazone is used in the management of type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) also known as adult-onset diabetes). It improves sensitivity to insulin in muscle and adipose tissue and inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. Troglitazone is not chemically or functionally related to either the sulfonylureas, the biguanides, or the g-glucosidase inhibitors. Troglitazone may be used concomitantly with a sulfonylurea or insulin to improve glycemic control.

Mechanism of action

Troglitazone is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent that lowers blood glucose by improving target cell response to insulin. It has a unique mechanism of action that is dependent on the presence of insulin for activity. Troglitazone decreases hepatic glucose output and increases insulin dependent glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. Its mechanism of action is thought to involve binding to nuclear receptors (PPAR) that regulate the transcription of a number of insulin responsive genes critical for the control of glucose and lipid metabolism. Troglitazone is a ligand to both PPARα and PPARγ, with a highter affinity for PPARγ. The drug also contains an α-tocopheroyl moiety, potentially giving it vitamin E-like activity. Troglitazone has been shown to reduce inflammation, and is associated with a decrase in nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and a concomitant increase in its inhibitor (IκB). NF-κB is an important cellular transcription regulator for the immune response. Unlike sulfonylureas, troglitazone is not an insulin secretagogue.

TargetActionsOrganism
APeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
agonist
Human
NLong-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4
inhibitor
Human
UPlasminogen activator inhibitor 1
antagonist
Human
NEquilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
inhibitor
Human
NEstrogen-related receptor gamma
inverse agonist
Human
NSteroid hormone receptor ERR1
inverse agonist
Human
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltaNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase PNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Absorbed rapidly. Food increases the extent of absorption by 30% to 85%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

> 99% (primarily to serum albumin)

Metabolism

A sulfate conjugate metabolite (Metabolite 1) and a quinone metabolite (Metabolite 3) have been detected in the plasma of healthy males. A glucuronide conjugate (Metabolite 2) has been detected in the urine and also in negligible amounts in the plasma. In healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes, the steady-state concentration of Metabolite 1 is six to seven times that of troglitazone and Metabolite 3. In in vivo drug interaction studies, troglitazone has been shown to induce cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 at clinically relevant doses.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

16-34 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Troglitazone.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Troglitazone.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Troglitazone is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Troglitazone.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Troglitazone.
5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Troglitazone can be increased when used in combination with 5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be increased when combined with Troglitazone.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be increased when combined with Troglitazone.
9-aminocamptothecinThe metabolism of 9-aminocamptothecin can be increased when combined with Troglitazone.
AbemaciclibThe metabolism of Abemaciclib can be increased when combined with Troglitazone.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Krishnamurthi Vyas, Chebiyyam Prabhakar, Sreenivas Dharmaraja Rao, Mamillapalli Ramabadhra Sarma, Om Gaddam Reddy, Rajagopalan Ramanujam, Ranjan Chakrabarti, "Polymorphic forms of troglitazone having enhanced anti-diabetic activity and a process for their preparation." U.S. Patent US5700820, issued June, 1992.

US5700820
General References
  1. Aljada A, Garg R, Ghanim H, Mohanty P, Hamouda W, Assian E, Dandona P: Nuclear factor-kappaB suppressive and inhibitor-kappaB stimulatory effects of troglitazone in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence of an antiinflammatory action? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul;86(7):3250-6. [PubMed:11443197]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00395
PubChem Compound
5591
PubChem Substance
46504655
ChemSpider
5389
ChEBI
9753
ChEMBL
CHEMBL408
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001337
PharmGKB
PA451799
IUPHAR
2693
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Troglitazone
ATC Codes
A10BG01 — Troglitazone
FDA label
Download (501 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentSarcomas1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Sankyo usa corp
  • Pfizer pharmaceuticals ltd
Packagers
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5602133No1997-02-112013-09-15Us
US5859037No1999-01-122017-11-13Us
US6011049No2000-01-042017-11-13Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)184-186 °CNot Available
logP3.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00121 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.16ALOGPS
logP5.5ChemAxon
logS-5.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area84.86 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity120.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.08 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.868
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8183
Caco-2 permeable-0.6915
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7514
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7854
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7015
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.861
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8329
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5726
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6843
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9266
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6359
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5517
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5121
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.584
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9211
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9881
Rat acute toxicity1.9768 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9911
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6643
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1-benzopyrans. These are organic aromatic compounds that 1-benzopyran, a bicyclic compound made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyran, so that the oxygen atom is at the 1-position.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzopyrans
Sub Class
1-benzopyrans
Direct Parent
1-benzopyrans
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Phenol ethers / Thiazolidinediones / Alkyl aryl ethers / Dicarboximides / Thiocarbamic acid derivatives / Organic carbonic acids and derivatives / Oxacyclic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
1-benzopyran / Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Thiazolidinedione / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Dicarboximide / Thiazolidine / Carbonic acid derivative
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
thiazolidinone, chromanes (CHEBI:9753) / a small molecule (CPD-11439)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Kitamura S, Miyazaki Y, Shinomura Y, Kondo S, Kanayama S, Matsuzawa Y: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces growth arrest and differentiation markers of human colon cancer cells. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999 Jan;90(1):75-80. [PubMed:10076568]
  2. Demetri GD, Fletcher CD, Mueller E, Sarraf P, Naujoks R, Campbell N, Spiegelman BM, Singer S: Induction of solid tumor differentiation by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand troglitazone in patients with liposarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30;96(7):3951-6. [PubMed:10097144]
  3. Petrova TV, Akama KT, Van Eldik LJ: Cyclopentenone prostaglandins suppress activation of microglia: down-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 13;96(8):4668-73. [PubMed:10200320]
  4. Camp HS, Whitton AL, Tafuri SR: PPARgamma activators down-regulate the expression of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FEBS Lett. 1999 Mar 26;447(2-3):186-90. [PubMed:10214942]
  5. Satoh T, Furuta K, Suzuki M, Watanabe Y: Prostaglandin J2 and its metabolites promote neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Apr 29;258(1):50-3. [PubMed:10222233]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Baek SJ, Wilson LC, Hsi LC, Eling TE: Troglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma ) ligand, selectively induces the early growth response-1 gene independently of PPAR gamma. A novel mechanism for its anti-tumorigenic activity. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 21;278(8):5845-53. Epub 2002 Dec 9. [PubMed:12475986]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Very long-chain fatty acid-coa ligase activity
Specific Function
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses arachidonate and eicosapentaenoate as substrates.
Gene Name
ACSL4
Uniprot ID
O60488
Uniprot Name
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4
Molecular Weight
79187.38 Da
References
  1. Kim JH, Lewin TM, Coleman RA: Expression and characterization of recombinant rat Acyl-CoA synthetases 1, 4, and 5. Selective inhibition by triacsin C and thiazolidinediones. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 6;276(27):24667-73. Epub 2001 Apr 23. [PubMed:11319222]
  2. Lewin TM, Van Horn CG, Krisans SK, Coleman RA: Rat liver acyl-CoA synthetase 4 is a peripheral-membrane protein located in two distinct subcellular organelles, peroxisomes, and mitochondrial-associated membrane. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002 Aug 15;404(2):263-70. [PubMed:12147264]
  3. Lewin TM, Kim JH, Granger DA, Vance JE, Coleman RA: Acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms 1, 4, and 5 are present in different subcellular membranes in rat liver and can be inhibited independently. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 6;276(27):24674-9. Epub 2001 Apr 23. [PubMed:11319232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Serine protease inhibitor. This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, protein C and matriptase-3/TMPRSS7. Its rapid interaction with PLAT may function as a major con...
Gene Name
SERPINE1
Uniprot ID
P05121
Uniprot Name
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
Molecular Weight
45059.695 Da
References
  1. Sobel BE: Insulin resistance and thrombosis: a cardiologist's view. Am J Cardiol. 1999 Jul 8;84(1A):37J-41J. [PubMed:10418858]
  2. Gottschling-Zeller H, Rohrig K, Hauner H: Troglitazone reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and secretion in cultured human adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2000 Mar;43(3):377-83. [PubMed:10768100]
  3. Nordt TK, Peter K, Bode C, Sobel BE: Differential regulation by troglitazone of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in human hepatic and vascular cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1563-8. [PubMed:10770198]
  4. Kato K, Yamada D, Midorikawa S, Sato W, Watanabe T: Improvement by the insulin-sensitizing agent, troglitazone, of abnormal fibrinolysis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2000 May;49(5):662-5. [PubMed:10831180]
  5. Kruszynska YT, Yu JG, Olefsky JM, Sobel BE: Effects of troglitazone on blood concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and in lean and obese normal subjects. Diabetes. 2000 Apr;49(4):633-9. [PubMed:10871202]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR...
Gene Name
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID
Q99808
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
Molecular Weight
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Leung GP, Man RY, Tse CM: Effect of thiazolidinediones on equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Aug 1;70(3):355-62. [PubMed:15963471]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inverse agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response ...
Gene Name
ESRRG
Uniprot ID
P62508
Uniprot Name
Estrogen-related receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fang F, Wong CW: Troglitazone is an estrogen-related receptor alpha and gamma inverse agonist. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jul 1;80(1):80-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.03.013. Epub 2010 Mar 16. [PubMed:20298676]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inverse agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Binds to an ERR-alpha response element (ERRE) containing a single consensus half-site, 5'-TNAAGGTCA-3'. Can bind to the medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) response element NRRE-1 and...
Gene Name
ESRRA
Uniprot ID
P11474
Uniprot Name
Steroid hormone receptor ERR1
Molecular Weight
45509.11 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Fang F, Wong CW: Troglitazone is an estrogen-related receptor alpha and gamma inverse agonist. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jul 1;80(1):80-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.03.013. Epub 2010 Mar 16. [PubMed:20298676]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-lin...
Gene Name
PPARD
Uniprot ID
Q03181
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Molecular Weight
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Inoue I, Itoh F, Aoyagi S, Tazawa S, Kusama H, Akahane M, Mastunaga T, Hayashi K, Awata T, Komoda T, Katayama S: Fibrate and statin synergistically increase the transcriptional activities of PPARalpha/RXRalpha and decrease the transactivation of NFkappaB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):131-9. [PubMed:11779144]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Inoue I, Itoh F, Aoyagi S, Tazawa S, Kusama H, Akahane M, Mastunaga T, Hayashi K, Awata T, Komoda T, Katayama S: Fibrate and statin synergistically increase the transcriptional activities of PPARalpha/RXRalpha and decrease the transactivation of NFkappaB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):131-9. [PubMed:11779144]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Boerma JS, Vermeulen NP, Commandeur JN: Application of CYP102A1M11H as a tool for the generation of protein adducts of reactive drug metabolites. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011 Aug 15;24(8):1263-74. doi: 10.1021/tx2001515. Epub 2011 Jun 16. [PubMed:21639118]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Prueksaritanont T, Vega JM, Zhao J, Gagliano K, Kuznetsova O, Musser B, Amin RD, Liu L, Roadcap BA, Dilzer S, Lasseter KC, Rogers JD: Interactions between simvastatin and troglitazone or pioglitazone in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 May;41(5):573-81. [PubMed:11361054]
  3. Dimaraki EV, Jaffe CA: Troglitazone induces CYP3A4 activity leading to falsely abnormal dexamethasone suppression test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jul;88(7):3113-6. doi: 10.1210/jc.2002-021778. [PubMed:12843151]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Schoch GA, Yano JK, Sansen S, Dansette PM, Stout CD, Johnson EF: Determinants of cytochrome P450 2C8 substrate binding: structures of complexes with montelukast, troglitazone, felodipine, and 9-cis-retinoic acid. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 20;283(25):17227-37. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M802180200. Epub 2008 Apr 15. [PubMed:18413310]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Backman JT, Filppula AM, Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ: Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 Jan;68(1):168-241. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.011411. [PubMed:26721703]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID
P11511
Uniprot Name
Aromatase
Molecular Weight
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  3. Yamazaki H, Suzuki M, Tane K, Shimada N, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: In vitro inhibitory effects of troglitazone and its metabolites on drug oxidation activities of human cytochrome P450 enzymes: comparison with pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Xenobiotica. 2000 Jan;30(1):61-70. [PubMed:10659951]
  4. Yamazaki H, Shibata A, Suzuki M, Nakajima M, Shimada N, Guengerich FP, Yokoi T: Oxidation of troglitazone to a quinone-type metabolite catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 2C8 and P-450 3A4 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Nov;27(11):1260-6. [PubMed:10534310]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Ogino M, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y: Selective suppressions of human CYP3A forms, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7, by troglitazone in HepG2 cells. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2002;17(1):42-6. [PubMed:15618651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Ogino M, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y: Selective suppressions of human CYP3A forms, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7, by troglitazone in HepG2 cells. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2002;17(1):42-6. [PubMed:15618651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID
P22310
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4
Molecular Weight
60024.535 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID
P19224
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6
Molecular Weight
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
  2. Ito M, Yamamoto K, Sato H, Fujiyama Y, Bamba T: Inhibitory effect of troglitazone on glucuronidation catalyzed by human uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;56(12):893-5. [PubMed:11317477]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW7
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7
Molecular Weight
59818.315 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW9
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8
Molecular Weight
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
  2. Barbier O, Villeneuve L, Bocher V, Fontaine C, Torra IP, Duhem C, Kosykh V, Fruchart JC, Guillemette C, Staels B: The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 enzyme is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma target gene. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 18;278(16):13975-83. Epub 2003 Feb 11. [PubMed:12582161]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW8
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10
Molecular Weight
59809.075 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xeno...
Gene Name
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID
P54855
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15
Molecular Weight
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Watanabe Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Troglitazone glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes: high catalytic activity of UGT1A8 and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1462-9. [PubMed:12433820]

Transporters

Details
1. Bile salt export pump
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. [PubMed:12739759]
  2. Funk C, Pantze M, Jehle L, Ponelle C, Scheuermann G, Lazendic M, Gasser R: Troglitazone-induced intrahepatic cholestasis by an interference with the hepatobiliary export of bile acids in male and female rats. Correlation with the gender difference in troglitazone sulfate formation and the inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) by troglitazone and troglitazone sulfate. Toxicology. 2001 Oct 5;167(1):83-98. [PubMed:11557132]
  3. Saito H, Osumi M, Hirano H, Shin W, Nakamura R, Ishikawa T: Technical pitfalls and improvements for high-speed screening and QSAR analysis to predict inhibitors of the human bile salt export pump (ABCB11/BSEP). AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):581-9. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9137-9. Epub 2009 Aug 18. [PubMed:19688600]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Goto A, Yokoi T, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):291-4. [PubMed:14977862]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 04:39