Identification

Name
Vitamin C
Accession Number
DB00126  (NUTR00001, APRD00084, EXPT00568, DB11167, DB11316, DB11170, DB09541, DB11317)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • acide ascorbique
  • ácido ascórbico
  • acidum ascorbicum
  • acidum ascorbinicum
  • Ascorbate
  • Ascorbic Acid
  • Ascorbicap
  • Ascorbinsäure
  • L-(+)-ascorbic acid
  • L-Ascorbate
  • L-Ascorbic Acid
External IDs
E 300 / E-300 / E300 / FEMA NO. 2109 / INS NO.300 / INS-300 / NSC-218455 / NSC-33832
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Calcium ascorbate183E4W213WNot AvailableNot applicable
Magnesium ascorbate0N1G678593Not AvailableNot applicable
Niacinamide ascorbateJTL8B7TVW7Not AvailableNot applicable
Sodium ascorbateS033EH8359134-03-2PPASLZSBLFJQEF-RXSVEWSESA-M
Zinc ascorbate9TI35313XWNot AvailableNot applicable
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ascor L 500Solution500 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMcguff Pharmaceuticals Inc2014-09-11Not applicableCanada
Ascorbic Acid Inj 500mg/mlSolution500 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ascorbic Acid Injection USP 500 mg/mlSolution500 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2014-10-28Not applicableCanada
B.G. Plus FormulaTablet166.7 mgOralAbundance Naturally LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Betac Ascorbic Acid Injection, USP 500mg/mlSolution500 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousBioniche Pharma (Canada) Ltd2002-10-312006-08-04Canada
Cataplex C Tab 5.7mgTablet5.7 mgOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Chew C Berry Tablets - 125mgTablet125 mgOralMorter HealthsystemNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Chewable C Vitamin 300 Mg With AcerolaTablet300 mgOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Chewable Vitamin C 250 mgTablet250 mgOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mega C Acid Inj 500mg/mlLiquid500 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMerit Pharmaceuticals1984-12-312016-08-22Canada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcerotabTablet100 mgOralFrega Inc.1979-12-312008-02-13Canada
Acti-scorb 1000 Caplet 1000mgTablet1 gOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-scorb 500 Caplet 500mgTablet500 mgOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
All Natural Source Juicy Orange Vitamin CTablet500 mgOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1998-06-292009-09-28Canada
Ascorbate C-500Capsule500 mgOralSeroyal International Inc.1998-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ascorbic 500 Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralPharmadex Laboratories Inc.1993-12-311999-08-28Canada
Ascorbic Acid 500mgTablet500 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Ascorbic Acid Cap 500mgCapsule500 mgOralThorne Research Inc.1984-12-312000-09-18Canada
Ascorbic Acid PowderPowder5 gOralAlbi Naturals1981-12-312008-07-17Canada
Ascorbic Acid Tab 1000mgTablet1 gOralBionatal Drug Co1977-12-311999-07-14Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Regent1989-12-15Not applicableUs
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousFlon Laboratories Llc2017-04-01Not applicableUs
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntravenousRemedy Repack2015-10-092016-03-29Us
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousRaw Materials International Overseas Llc2015-07-02Not applicableUs
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousThe Torrance Company1999-06-01Not applicableUs
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMylan Institutional1999-06-012017-04-14Us
Ascorbic AcidInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMylan Institutional1999-06-01Not applicableUs
Dr Cellapy SR PremiumKitGm Holdings Co., Ltd2014-10-10Not applicableUs
Mega-C-acid PlusInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMerit Pharmaceuticals2010-01-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Ascoltin / Ascorbicap
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
A & C PowderVitamin C (7 mg) + Vitamin A (930 unit)Powder, for solutionOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Acetabolan III Vitamin and Mineral SupplementVitamin C (250.0 mg) + Magnesium (112.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.63 mg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2003-12-052007-07-18Canada
Acetabolan-II Vitamin and Mineral SupplementVitamin C (200 mg) + Magnesium (90 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.1 mg) + Zinc (6 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2000-11-202005-06-21Canada
Acti-megascorb Crystals PwrCalcium ascorbate (2 g) + Calcium (260 mg)PowderOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-MN + B1 + C CapletCalcium ascorbate (100 mg) + Manganese (30.0 mg) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (20 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Active FEVitamin C (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1250 ug/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Vitamin E (40 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUs
Adc ComprimesVitamin C (250 mg) + Vitamin A acetate (5000 unit) + Vitamin D (200 unit)TabletOralBio Vita1990-12-311996-09-09Canada
Adrenergy TabletsVitamin C (150 mg) + Manganese (1 mg) + Nicotinamide (80 mg) + Pantothenic acid (60 mg) + Zinc (5 mg)TabletOralMorter HealthsystemNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsVitamin C (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Folic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + Vitamin E acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsVitamin C (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Folic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + Vitamin E acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
PQ6CK8PD0R
CAS number
50-81-7
Weight
Average: 176.1241
Monoisotopic: 176.032087988
Chemical Formula
C6H8O6
InChI Key
CIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@]1(OC(=O)C(O)=C1O)[[email protected]@H](O)CO

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound and bone healing, urine acidification, and in general as an antioxidant. It has also been suggested to be an effective antiviral agent.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin indicated for the prevention and treatment of scurvy, as ascorbic acid deficiency results in scurvy. Collagenous structures are primarily affected, and lesions develop in bones and blood vessels. Administration of ascorbic acid completely reverses the symptoms of ascorbic acid deficiency.

Mechanism of action

In humans, an exogenous source of ascorbic acid is required for collagen formation and tissue repair by acting as a cofactor in the posttranslational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid in the body. These two forms of the vitamin are believed to be important in oxidation-reduction reactions. The vitamin is involved in tyrosine metabolism, conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, carbohydrate metabolism, synthesis of lipids and proteins, iron metabolism, resistance to infections, and cellular respiration.

TargetActionsOrganism
UProlyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1Not AvailableHuman
USolute carrier family 23 member 1Not AvailableHuman
UProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
activator
Human
UHyaluronate lyaseNot AvailableStreptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
UDNANot AvailableHuman
UXylose isomeraseNot AvailableStreptomyces rubiginosus
UProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2Not AvailableHuman
UPhytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomalNot AvailableHuman
UProcollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenaseNot AvailableHuman
UDopamine beta-hydroxylaseNot AvailableHuman
UPeptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenaseNot AvailableHuman
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 1Not AvailableHuman
U2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2Not AvailableHuman
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 2Not AvailableHuman
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 3Not AvailableHuman
U2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1Not AvailableHuman
UEgl nine homolog 2Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3Not AvailableHuman
ULysine-specific demethylase 5DNot AvailableHuman
UEgl nine homolog 1Not AvailableHuman
UEgl nine homolog 3Not AvailableHuman
UTrimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UTransmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylaseNot AvailableHuman
ULactase-phlorizin hydrolaseNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

70% to 90%

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

25%

Metabolism

Hepatic. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidised (by removal of the hydrogen from the enediol group of ascorbic acid) to dehydroascorbic acid. The two forms found in body fluids are physiologically active. Some ascorbic acid is metabolized to inactive compounds including ascorbic acid-2-sulfate and oxalic acid.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

16 days (3.4 hours in people who have excess levels of vitamin C)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
The oncogenic action of FumarateDisease
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolic
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
The oncogenic action of SuccinateDisease
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Refsum DiseaseDisease
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDisease
Tyrosinemia Type IDisease
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolic
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
AlkaptonuriaDisease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationMetabolic
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)Disease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe serum concentration of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental, Illicit
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental, Illicit
Aluminum hydroxideVitamin C can cause an increase in the absorption of Aluminum hydroxide resulting in an increased serum concentration and potentially a worsening of adverse effects.Approved
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Amphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Illicit
BenzphetamineThe serum concentration of Benzphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Illicit
BortezomibThe therapeutic efficacy of Bortezomib can be decreased when used in combination with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Chlorotrianisene can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorphentermineThe serum concentration of Chlorphentermine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Illicit, Withdrawn
Conjugated estrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
CopperThe serum concentration of Vitamin C can be decreased when it is combined with Copper.Approved
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DaidzeinThe serum concentration of Daidzein can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental
DeferoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin C is combined with Deferoxamine.Approved, Investigational
DextroamphetamineThe serum concentration of Dextroamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Illicit
DienestrolThe serum concentration of Dienestrol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational
DiethylpropionThe serum concentration of Diethylpropion can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Illicit
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational
EpimestrolThe serum concentration of Epimestrol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental
EquolThe serum concentration of Equol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Investigational
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe serum concentration of Estrogens, esterified can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Genistein can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Investigational
GepefrineThe serum concentration of Gepefrine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental
HexestrolThe serum concentration of Hexestrol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Withdrawn
HydroxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of Hydroxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
Iofetamine I-123The serum concentration of Iofetamine I-123 can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
LisdexamfetamineThe serum concentration of Lisdexamfetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational
MephedroneThe serum concentration of Mephedrone can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Investigational
MephentermineThe serum concentration of Mephentermine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
MestranolThe serum concentration of Mestranol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
MethallenestrilThe serum concentration of Methallenestril can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental
MethamphetamineThe serum concentration of Methamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Illicit
MethoxyphenamineThe serum concentration of Methoxyphenamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental
MidomafetamineThe serum concentration of Midomafetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental, Illicit, Investigational
MMDAThe serum concentration of MMDA can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental, Illicit
MoxestrolThe serum concentration of Moxestrol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Experimental
PhentermineThe serum concentration of Phentermine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Illicit
Polyestradiol phosphateThe serum concentration of Polyestradiol phosphate can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
PromestrieneThe serum concentration of Promestriene can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Investigational
PseudoephedrineThe serum concentration of Pseudoephedrine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
QuinestrolThe serum concentration of Quinestrol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
RitobegronThe serum concentration of Ritobegron can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Investigational
SecoisolariciresinolThe serum concentration of Secoisolariciresinol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Investigational
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe serum concentration of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThe serum concentration of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved
TiboloneThe serum concentration of Tibolone can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Investigational
ZeranolThe serum concentration of Zeranol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Vet Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Lewis D. Morse, Paul A. Hammes, "Beverage containing stabilized vitamin C and iron and method of making same." U.S. Patent US3958017, issued October, 1972.

US3958017
General References
  1. Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, Chen S, Corpe C, Dutta A, Dutta SK, Levine M: Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):18-35. [PubMed:12569111]
  2. Meister A: Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in animals. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 1;269(13):9397-400. [PubMed:8144521]
  3. Englard S, Seifter S: The biochemical functions of ascorbic acid. Annu Rev Nutr. 1986;6:365-406. [PubMed:3015170]
  4. Banhegyi G, Mandl J: The hepatic glycogenoreticular system. Pathol Oncol Res. 2001;7(2):107-10. [PubMed:11458272]
  5. Proctor P: Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man? Nature. 1970 Nov 28;228(5274):868. [PubMed:5477017]
  6. Korcok J, Dixon SJ, Lo TC, Wilson JX: Differential effects of glucose on dehydroascorbic acid transport and intracellular ascorbate accumulation in astrocytes and skeletal myocytes. Brain Res. 2003 Dec 12;993(1-2):201-7. [PubMed:14642847]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00044
KEGG Drug
D00018
KEGG Compound
C00072
PubChem Compound
54670067
PubChem Substance
46505070
ChemSpider
10189562
BindingDB
50090256
ChEBI
29073
ChEMBL
CHEMBL196
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000259
PharmGKB
PA451898
HET
ASC
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Vitamin_C
ATC Codes
A11GB01 — Ascorbic acid (vit c) and calciumA11GA01 — Ascorbic acid (vit c)S01XA15 — Ascorbic acidG01AD03 — Ascorbic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 88:04.00 — Vitamin A
  • 88:12.00 — Vitamin C
PDB Entries
1e71 / 1e72 / 1e73 / 1f9g / 1oaf / 1xid / 2x08 / 2yld / 2ylg / 3eka
show 23 more
MSDS
Download (74.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedDiagnosticPostural Tachycardia Syndrome1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPrimary Postpartum Haemorrhage1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
0Unknown StatusPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGBM / Glioblastoma Multiforme / Glioblastomas1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Pancreatic1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Mycobacterium avium complex infection1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionHIV / AIDS1
1CompletedTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Neovascular Maculopathy1
1CompletedTreatmentCancers1
1CompletedTreatmentCancers / Metastases1
1CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
1CompletedTreatmentGastric Emptying / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Pancreatic1
1CompletedTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1CompletedTreatmentSafety and Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Ascorbate1
1CompletedTreatmentVitamin C Deficiency1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Mineral deficiency / Vitamin Deficiency1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceArterial hypoxia / Hypercapnia1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Heart Failure, Unspecified / Hypertensive / Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceComplications Due to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft / Disorder of Vitamin C / Heart Valve Disease / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery1
1RecruitingOtherEndothelial Dysfunction / Smoking1
1TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Arterial Hypotension / Sepsis / Shock, Septic1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Liver Cancer / Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Gastrointestinal Problems1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Ovarian1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM) / Transplantation, Stem Cell1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTemporomandibular Joint Disorders1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentVitamin C Deficiency1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIb Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPostpartum Anemia1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentStage IV Colorectal Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Sepsis1
2CompletedNot AvailableOccluded Totally Implanted Central Venous Catheter1
2CompletedOtherBowel preparation therapy1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionPreeclampsia1
2CompletedSupportive CareOral Mucositis1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Ovarian / Cervical Cancers / Uterine Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
2CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy1
2CompletedTreatmentHereditary areflexic dystasia / Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2CompletedTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentNon-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentPneumonia With Hospitalized Elderly Patient1
2CompletedTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentStage IV Pancreatic Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingOtherColon Prep for Colonoscopy1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareTiredness1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Cancer of Pancreas / Cancer of the Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Neoplasms, Pancreatic / Pancreas Neoplasms1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCritically Ill / Shock, Septic / Vasoplegic Syndrome1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSevere Thermal Injury, Greater Than 20% TBSA1
2RecruitingTreatmentArteriovenous fistula occlusion1
2RecruitingTreatmentAtrial Fibrillation Ablation1
2RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Lung Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2RecruitingTreatmentDelayed Onset Muscle Soreness, DOMS1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus Type 2 With Hyperglycemia / Periodontitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Kidney Diseases1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2RecruitingTreatmentSepsis1
2SuspendedTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Carcinoma NOS / Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Sarcomas1
2SuspendedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
2TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Artery Diseases / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Heart Diseases / Intracranial Arteriosclerosis / Vascular Diseases1
2TerminatedPreventionShock1
2TerminatedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)1
2TerminatedTreatmentNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentSevere Sepsis1
2WithdrawnTreatmentRefractory Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Stage I Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Multiple Myeloma / Stage III Multiple Myeloma1
2WithdrawnTreatmentRefractory Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Stage II Multiple Myeloma / Stage III Multiple Myeloma1
2, 3CompletedPreventionElevated Blood Lead Levels1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Mortality1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCharcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Type Ia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentKidney Failure,Chronic / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSepsis / Shock, Septic1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionOral Mucositis1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentIron Chelation / Thalassemia Major (TM) / Vitamin c1
3CompletedPreventionAtrial Flutter / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedPreventionComplications, Pregnancy / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedPreventionEclampsia / HELLP Syndrome / Preeclampsia / Pregnancy1
3CompletedPreventionAcute Rhinitis / Gastroenteritis1
3CompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3CompletedSupportive CareColonic Diseases / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentBowel Preparation Prior to Endoscopic, Radiological and Other Examinations as Well as to Surgical Procedures Which Require Empty Bowel1
3CompletedTreatmentColon Diseases / Colonoscopy Preparation1
3CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy3
3CompletedTreatmentDiarrheal Illnesses / Growth Faltering / Respiratory Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis, Pulmonary1
3CompletedTreatmentUterine Leiomyomas1
3RecruitingPreventionComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) TYPE I1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
3TerminatedPreventionMetabolic Diseases / Oxidative Stress1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnemias / Low Birth Weight / Neonatal Mortality1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3Unknown StatusPreventionDrug Safety1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3WithdrawnPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3WithdrawnTreatmentRespiratory Tract Infections (RTI)2
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAspirin / Coronary Artery Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedNot AvailableColonoscopy1
4CompletedNot AvailableAcute Rhinitis / Flu caused by Influenza1
4CompletedBasic ScienceFunctional Constipation / Irritable Bowel Syndrome Characterized by Constipation1
4CompletedPreventionAlgodystrophy / CRPS Type I / RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy)1
4CompletedPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4CompletedPreventionInflammatory Reaction / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedPreventionRenal Failure1
4CompletedPreventionReperfusion Injury1
4CompletedScreeningColorectal Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Schizophrenia1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
4CompletedTreatmentBowel Preparation for Colonoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Alcoholic Hepatitis / Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cleansing Prior Operation1
4CompletedTreatmentGallbladder Inflammation1
4CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentGingival Hyperpigmentaion1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Uremia1
4CompletedTreatmentMultiple Organ Failure / Sepsis / Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) / Traumas1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) / Macular Edema (ME) / Retinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaemia Response to the Treatment / Oxalemia / Peripheral Iron Indices1
4RecruitingSupportive CareRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentAngina Pectoris1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Fluid Overload / Sepsis / Shock, Septic1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias1
4TerminatedPreventionSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI) / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnemias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Fatigue1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication1
4WithdrawnTreatmentNephritis / Proteinuria / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableOxidative Stress / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherOxidative Stress / Polytrauma1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHeart Failure, Unspecified1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHyponatremias1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeural Tube Defects (NTDs)1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningGlaucoma1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) / Perinatal Asphyxia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPalatally Impacted Canines1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentCholecystitis, Acute1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Finger Stiffness1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentGlucocorticoids Deficiency1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Disease / Chronic Diseases / Vitamin C Deficiency1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticColonoscopy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Calculous Cholecystitis / Gallstone formation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareCABG-Induced Oxidative Stress1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentKidney Failure,Chronic1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnScreeningPatients Undergoing Screening or Surveillance Colonoscopy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentMinor burns1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PowderOral
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous500 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg
PowderOral5 g
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
ElixirOral
TabletOral166.7 mg
PowderTopical.375 g/75g
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
TabletOral300 mg
TabletOral600 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral1000 mg
GranuleOral
PowderOral272 mg
TabletOral350 mg
TabletOral500 mg
WaferOral500 mg
LiquidOral50 mg
CapsuleOral375 mg
TabletOral333 mg
PowderOral1.25 g
PowderOral4.5 g
PowderOral825 mg
TabletOral5.7 mg
Solution / dropsOral50 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral120 mg
WaferOral
Kit
CapsuleOral200 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral1 g
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral
Powder, for solutionOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
SyrupOral
PowderOral15 mg
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral125 mg
Kit; powderOral
Kit; powder, for solutionOral
TabletOral750 mg
LiquidOral60 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral500 mg
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidOral250 mg
LiquidOral100 mg
Liquid; tabletOral
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous500 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous500 mg/mL
SolutionIntravenous250 mg
Tablet, chewableOral30 mg
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionIntravenous
Granule, effervescentOral
LiquidOral
SolutionOral
TabletOral250 mg
CapsuleOral660 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg
PowderOral1000 mg
LiquidTopical
TabletOral150 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Kit
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
PowderOral888.8 mg
EmulsionTopical
KitOral
KitOral30 mg
LozengeOral100 mg
CapsuleOral650 mg
TabletOral50 mg
CapsuleOral8 mg
Capsule; liquidOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
SolutionOral0.3 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral1 g
LiquidOral550 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous250 mg
CapsuleOral1000 mg
CapsuleOral1 g
CapsuleOral100 mg
TabletOral1.5 g
CapsuleOral250 mg
TabletOral400 mg
TabletOral60 mg
GranuleOral1000 mg
PowderOral1.3 g
PowderOral100 %
PowderOral1200 mg
PowderOral2 g
PowderOral3 g
PowderOral4 g
Tablet, extended releaseOral1.8 g
PowderOral1250 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral500 mg
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral1000 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral1.5 g
PowderOral1 g
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg
TabletOral1 g
LiquidOral1 g
CapsuleOral150 mg
CapsuleOral500 mg
LiquidOral500 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
LozengeOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cenolate 500 mg/1 ml ampul1.74USD ml
Cenolate 1 gm/2 ml ampul1.21USD ml
Calcium ascorbate powder0.79USD g
Ascorbic acid 222 mg/ml vial0.35USD ml
Ascor l 500 500 mg/ml vial0.24USD ml
Vitamin c 1500 mg tablet sa0.22USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vit c ener boost 1000 mg0.21USD each
Cemill+bioflavonoids tablet0.09USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet sa0.09USD tablet
Cemill-1000 tablet0.08USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Cemill-500 tablet sa0.07USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg tablet chw0.06USD tablet
Vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.06USD caplet
Ascorbic acid 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 1000 mg caplet0.04USD caplet
Pv ester-c 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c 500 mg chew tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Vitamin c drops0.04USD tablet
Ra vitamin c cough drops0.03USD tablet
Vitamin c 250 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Vitamin c 250 mg tablet chew0.03USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg caplet0.02USD caplet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin c 500 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Ra vitamin c 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Vicks vitamin c 60 mg drops0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US7169381No2004-09-012024-09-01Us
US7658914No2004-09-012024-09-01Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)191 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility4E+005 mg/L (at 40 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-1.85AVDEEF,A (1997)
pKa4.7 (at 10 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility245.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.9ChemAxon
logS0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area107.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity37.03 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.6559
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8532
Caco-2 permeable-0.771
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6077
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9097
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9807
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9008
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8133
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8696
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6361
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8958
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9478
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9347
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9383
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9662
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9249
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8941
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9417
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9526
Rat acute toxicity1.3059 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9676
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9286
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.32 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-004i-4900000000-e99089fd55560fb70cfe
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0912000000-baa8cffda0478e1bc197
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-8ff8f48bfa2dd4fd3cf5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-c1dc72c6cbc49fbf3454
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-b207f4024993c5a74769
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0911000000-9af0c08e85e0c51a25c4
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as butenolides. These are dihydrofurans with a carbonyl group at the C2 carbon atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Dihydrofurans
Sub Class
Furanones
Direct Parent
Butenolides
Alternative Parents
Vinylogous acids / Enoate esters / Secondary alcohols / Lactones / Enediols / 1,2-diols / Oxacyclic compounds / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Primary alcohols / Organic oxides
show 2 more
Substituents
2-furanone / Vinylogous acid / Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester / Enoate ester / 1,2-diol / Carboxylic acid ester / Enediol / Secondary alcohol / Lactone / Carboxylic acid derivative
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
ascorbic acid (CHEBI:29073) / Water-soluble vitamins (C00072)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name
P4HA1
Uniprot ID
P13674
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-dependent l-ascorbate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium/ascorbate cotransporter. Mediates electrogenic uptake of vitamin C, with a stoichiometry of 2 Na(+) for each ascorbate.
Gene Name
SLC23A1
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 23 member 1
Molecular Weight
64830.445 Da
References
  1. Kang JS, Kim HN, Jung da J, Kim JE, Mun GH, Kim YS, Cho D, Shin DH, Hwang YI, Lee WJ: Regulation of UVB-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in skin keratinocytes by increasing vitamin C uptake via the redistribution of SVCT-1 from the cytosol to the membrane. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Mar;127(3):698-706. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17008880]
  2. Johnston L, Laverty G: Vitamin C transport and SVCT1 transporter expression in chick renal proximal tubule cells in culture. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007 Mar;146(3):327-34. Epub 2006 Dec 5. [PubMed:17258485]
  3. Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV: SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake. Amino Acids. 2008 Apr;34(3):347-55. Epub 2007 Jun 1. [PubMed:17541511]
  4. Perez MJ, Castano B, Gonzalez-Buitrago JM, Marin JJ: Multiple protective effects of melatonin against maternal cholestasis-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat fetal liver-placenta-maternal liver trio. J Pineal Res. 2007 Sep;43(2):130-9. [PubMed:17645691]
  5. Steiling H, Longet K, Moodycliffe A, Mansourian R, Bertschy E, Smola H, Mauch C, Williamson G: Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter isoforms in skin: Distribution, kinetics, and effect of UVB-induced oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Sep 1;43(5):752-62. Epub 2007 May 10. [PubMed:17664139]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecu...
Gene Name
PLOD1
Uniprot ID
Q02809
Uniprot Name
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
83549.55 Da
References
  1. Salavoura K, Valari M, Kolialexi A, Mavrou A, Kitsiou S: A case of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI. Genet Couns. 2006;17(3):291-4. [PubMed:17100196]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Hyaluronate lyase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q54873
Uniprot Name
Hyaluronate lyase
Molecular Weight
120770.645 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Li S, Taylor KB, Kelly SJ, Jedrzejas MJ: Vitamin C inhibits the enzymatic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):15125-30. Epub 2001 Jan 12. [PubMed:11278838]
  4. Okorukwu ON, Vercruysse KP: Effects of ascorbic acid and analogs on the activity of testicular hyaluronidase and hyaluronan lyase on hyaluronan. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003 Aug;18(4):377-82. [PubMed:14567553]
  5. Botzki A, Rigden DJ, Braun S, Nukui M, Salmen S, Hoechstetter J, Bernhardt G, Dove S, Jedrzejas MJ, Buschauer A: L-Ascorbic acid 6-hexadecanoate, a potent hyaluronidase inhibitor. X-ray structure and molecular modeling of enzyme-inhibitor complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 29;279(44):45990-7. Epub 2004 Aug 18. [PubMed:15322107]
5. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Guarnieri S, Loft S, Riso P, Porrini M, Risom L, Poulsen HE, Dragsted LO, Moller P: DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation. Br J Nutr. 2008 May;99(5):1018-24. Epub 2007 Oct 10. [PubMed:17925050]
  4. Singh S, Rana SV: Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by L-Ascorbic acid in laboratory rat. J Environ Biol. 2007 Apr;28(2 Suppl):377-84. [PubMed:17929753]
  5. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC: Protection of arsenic-induced hepatic disorder by arjunolic acid. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Nov;101(5):333-8. [PubMed:17910617]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces rubiginosus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Xylose isomerase activity
Specific Function
Involved in D-xylose catabolism.
Gene Name
xylA
Uniprot ID
P24300
Uniprot Name
Xylose isomerase
Molecular Weight
43226.915 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecu...
Gene Name
PLOD2
Uniprot ID
O00469
Uniprot Name
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2
Molecular Weight
84685.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phytanoyl-coa dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Converts phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA.
Gene Name
PHYH
Uniprot ID
O14832
Uniprot Name
Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal
Molecular Weight
38538.065 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecu...
Gene Name
PLOD3
Uniprot ID
O60568
Uniprot Name
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3
Molecular Weight
84784.505 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name
BBOX1
Uniprot ID
O75936
Uniprot Name
Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase
Molecular Weight
44714.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Dunn WA, Rettura G, Seifter E, Englard S: Carnitine biosynthesis from gamma-butyrobetaine and from exogenous protein-bound 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine by the perfused guinea pig liver. Effect of ascorbate deficiency on the in situ activity of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 Sep 10;259(17):10764-70. [PubMed:6432788]
  4. Vaz FM, van Gool S, Ofman R, IJlst L, Wanders RJ: Carnitine biosynthesis. Purification of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase from rat liver. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;466:117-24. [PubMed:10709635]
  5. Rebouche CJ: Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1147S-1152S. [PubMed:1962562]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name
DBH
Uniprot ID
P09172
Uniprot Name
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Suzuki E, Kurata T, Shibata M, Mori M, Arakawa N: Activities of D- and L-xyloascorbic acid and D- and L-araboascorbic acid as a cofactor for dopamine beta-hydroxylase reaction. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997 Oct;43(5):491-6. [PubMed:9505234]
  4. Pettingill TM, Strange RW, Blackburn NJ: Carbonmonoxy dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Structural characterization by Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):16996-7003. [PubMed:1894598]
  5. Feng J, Shi J, Sirimanne SR, Mounier-Lee CE, May SW: Kinetic and stereochemical studies on novel inactivators of C-terminal amidation. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 1;350 Pt 2:521-30. [PubMed:10947967]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutat...
Gene Name
PAM
Uniprot ID
P19021
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
Molecular Weight
108331.35 Da
References
  1. Romero I, Teresa Sanchez-Ballesta M, Maldonado R, Isabel Escribano M, Merodio C: Anthocyanin, antioxidant activity and stress-induced gene expression in high CO2-treated table grapes stored at low temperature. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165(5):522-30. Epub 2007 Jun 13. [PubMed:17570561]
  2. Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Milczarek G, Arasimowicz M, Ciszewski A: Do nitric oxide donors mimic endogenous NO-related response in plants? Planta. 2006 Nov;224(6):1363-72. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16773376]
  3. Crespo A, Marti MA, Roitberg AE, Amzel LM, Estrin DA: The catalytic mechanism of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase investigated by computer simulation. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Oct 4;128(39):12817-28. [PubMed:17002377]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Basement membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in...
Gene Name
P3H1
Uniprot ID
Q32P28
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1
Molecular Weight
83393.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
OGFOD2
Uniprot ID
Q6N063
Uniprot Name
2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2
Molecular Weight
38996.065 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferrous iron binding
Specific Function
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA and RNA containing 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by oxidative demethylation. Can also repair alkylated DNA containing 1-ethenoadenine (in vitro). Has s...
Gene Name
ALKBH2
Uniprot ID
Q6NS38
Uniprot Name
DNA oxidative demethylase ALKBH2
Molecular Weight
29322.22 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Shows prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types II, IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H2
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL5
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2
Molecular Weight
80983.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H3
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL6
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3
Molecular Weight
81835.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase that catalyzes 3-hydroxylation of 'Pro-62' of small ribosomal subunit RPS23, thereby regulating protein translation termination efficiency. Involved in stress granule formation.
Gene Name
OGFOD1
Uniprot ID
Q8N543
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase OGFOD1
Molecular Weight
63245.655 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN2
Uniprot ID
Q96KS0
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 2
Molecular Weight
43650.03 Da
References
  1. Nytko KJ, Spielmann P, Camenisch G, Wenger RH, Stiehl DP: Regulated function of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) oxygen sensor proteins. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Sep;9(9):1329-38. [PubMed:17627474]
  2. Bruegge K, Jelkmann W, Metzen E: Hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and chemical compounds targeting the HIF-alpha hydroxylases. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(17):1853-62. [PubMed:17627521]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA containing 1-methyladenine (1meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3meC) by oxidative demethylation. Has a strong preference for single-stranded DNA. Able to process alk...
Gene Name
ALKBH3
Uniprot ID
Q96Q83
Uniprot Name
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3
Molecular Weight
33374.495 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 'Lys-9', H3 'Lys-27', H3 'Lys-36', H3 'Lys-...
Gene Name
KDM5D
Uniprot ID
Q9BY66
Uniprot Name
Lysine-specific demethylase 5D
Molecular Weight
174071.34 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN1
Uniprot ID
Q9GZT9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 1
Molecular Weight
46020.585 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN3
Uniprot ID
Q9H6Z9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 3
Molecular Weight
27261.06 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name
TMLHE
Uniprot ID
Q9NVH6
Uniprot Name
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
49517.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen into both donors
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates HIF1A at 'Pro-402' and 'Pro-564'. May function as a cellular oxygen sen...
Gene Name
P4HTM
Uniprot ID
Q9NXG6
Uniprot Name
Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
56660.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferase activity
Specific Function
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name
LCT
Uniprot ID
P09848
Uniprot Name
Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase
Molecular Weight
218584.77 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-dependent l-ascorbate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium/ascorbate cotransporter. Mediates electrogenic uptake of vitamin C, with a stoichiometry of 2 Na(+) for each ascorbate.
Gene Name
SLC23A1
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 23 member 1
Molecular Weight
64830.445 Da
References
  1. Tsukaguchi H, Tokui T, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, Chen XZ, Wang Y, Brubaker RF, Hediger MA: A family of mammalian Na+-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporters. Nature. 1999 May 6;399(6731):70-5. [PubMed:10331392]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34