Glutamic Acid

Identification

Name
Glutamic Acid
Accession Number
DB00142  (NUTR00027)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-Glutamic acid
  • Glu
  • L-Glutamate
  • L-Glutamic acid
  • L-Glutaminic acid
External IDs
E 620 / E-620 / FEMA NO. 3285 / INS NO.620 / INS-620 / NSC-143503
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Glutamic acid hydrochlorideM0C2SP444T 138-15-8RPAJSBKBKSSMLJ-DFWYDOINSA-N
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Glutamic Acid HCl Cap 325mgCapsule325 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
Not Available
Unapproved/Other Products
Not Available
International/Other Brands
Not Available
Brand mixtures
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aminosyn IIInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-04-032017-05-18Us
Aminosyn II 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1991-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 15%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn II 5% InjLiquidIntravenousAbbott1988-12-311999-08-09Canada
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 7% M In 10% Dextrose(dual Chamber)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 7% With 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 7% With 50% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% M In 20% Dextrose (dual Chamber)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% With 50% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II In Dextrose InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II with ElectrolytesInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-04-03Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PFInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1985-09-06Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PF 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn-PF 7%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
ClinisolInjection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-08-30Not applicableUs
Glutamic Acid HCl Betaine HCl W PepsinTabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1963-12-312000-03-03Canada
Glutamic Acid Hydrochloride Nu LifeTabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1963-12-312005-03-15Canada
Glutamic Acid Pepsin and Betaine TabletsTabletOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1963-12-311996-09-10Canada
NovamineInjection, solution, concentrateIntravenousHospira, Inc.2011-11-22Not applicableUs
Olimel 3.3% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Olimel 4.4%EmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-09-29Not applicableCanada
Olimel 4.4% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-02-26Not applicableCanada
Olimel 5.7%EmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-03-01Not applicableCanada
Olimel 5.7% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-01-19Not applicableCanada
Periolimel 2.5% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-02-28Not applicableCanada
PlenamineSolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2015-01-30Not applicableUs
Premasol - sulfite-free (Amino Acid)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2003-06-19Not applicableUs
Primene 10%LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Primene 10%-liq IVLiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1995-12-311998-08-13Canada
ProSolInjection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1998-08-26Not applicableUs
Stomach Aid-digestive AidTabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
TrophAmineSolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1984-07-20Not applicableUs
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeSolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi Ab1996-12-302006-07-17Canada
Vamin NSolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi Ab1995-12-312006-07-17Canada
Categories
UNII
3KX376GY7L
CAS number
56-86-0
Weight
Average: 147.1293
Monoisotopic: 147.053157781
Chemical Formula
C5H9NO4
InChI Key
WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
SMILES
N[[email protected]@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Considered to be nature's "Brain food" by improving mental capacities; helps speed the healing of ulcers; gives a "lift" from fatigue; helps control alcoholism, schizophrenia and the craving for sugar.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

In addition to being one of the building blocks in protein synthesis, it is the most widespread neurotransmitter in brain function, as an excitatory neurotransmitter and as a precursor for the synthesis of GABA in GABAergic neurons.

Mechanism of action

Glutamate activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The ionotropic ones being non-NMDA (AMPA and kainate) and NMDA receptors. Free glutamic acid cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable quantities; instead it is converted into L-glutamine, which the brain uses for fuel and protein synthesis. It is conjectured that glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain, though excessive amounts may cause neuronal damage associated in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. Also, the drug phencyclidine (more commonly known as PCP) antagonizes glutamate at the NMDA receptor, causing behavior reminiscent of schizophrenia. Glutamate in action is extremely difficult to study due to its transient nature.

TargetActionsOrganism
UGlutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 1Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunitNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate carboxypeptidase 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate decarboxylase 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate decarboxylase 1Not AvailableHuman
UFormimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 3Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 4Not AvailableHuman
UDelta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 3Not AvailableHuman
UMetabotropic glutamate receptor 1Not AvailableHuman
UMetabotropic glutamate receptor 4Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 5Not AvailableHuman
UMetabotropic glutamate receptor 7Not AvailableHuman
UMetabotropic glutamate receptor 8Not AvailableHuman
UExcitatory amino acid transporter 5Not AvailableHuman
U5-oxoprolinaseNot AvailableHuman
UPhosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthaseNot AvailableHuman
UBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2DNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3BNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UBifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligaseNot AvailableHuman
UAsparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamine synthetaseNot AvailableHuman
UAspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmicNot AvailableHuman
UTyrosine aminotransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UAlanine aminotransferase 1Not AvailableHuman
UVitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylaseNot AvailableHuman
UExcitatory amino acid transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
UExcitatory amino acid transporter 2Not AvailableHuman
UExcitatory amino acid transporter 3Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunitNot AvailableHuman
UExcitatory amino acid transporter 4Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]Not AvailableHuman
UBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicNot AvailableHuman
U4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1Not AvailableHuman
UFolylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamyl aminopeptidaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2ANot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2BNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2CNot AvailableHuman
UAspartate aminotransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UProbable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
ULengsinNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetaseNot AvailableHuman
UKynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3Not AvailableHuman
UN-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UKynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3ANot AvailableHuman
UAlanine aminotransferase 2Not AvailableHuman
UMitochondrial glutamate carrier 2Not AvailableHuman
UMitochondrial glutamate carrier 1Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAspartyl aminopeptidaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-1Not AvailableHuman
UCystine/glutamate transporterNot AvailableHuman
UCarboxypeptidase QNot AvailableHuman
UPhosphoserine aminotransferaseNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes.Absorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Glutamate causes neuronal damage and eventual cell death, particularly when NMDA receptors are activated, High dosages of glutamic acid may include symptoms such as headaches and neurological problems.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolic
Cysteine MetabolismMetabolic
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolic
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug action
Mefenamic Acid Action PathwayDrug action
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolic
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)Disease
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDisease
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDisease
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IIDisease
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDisease
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDisease
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)Disease
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)Disease
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug action
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencyDisease
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDisease
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)Disease
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]Disease
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDisease
Xanthinuria type IIDisease
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDisease
Magnesium salicylate Action PathwayDrug action
Nepafenac Action PathwayDrug action
Salicylate-sodium Action PathwayDrug action
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe serum concentration of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-MethylenedioxymethamphetamineThe serum concentration of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Experimental, Illicit
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Experimental, Illicit
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Amphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved, Illicit
BenzphetamineThe serum concentration of Benzphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved, Illicit
ChlorphentermineThe serum concentration of Chlorphentermine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Illicit, Withdrawn
DextroamphetamineThe serum concentration of Dextroamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved, Illicit
DiethylpropionThe serum concentration of Diethylpropion can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of Hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved
LisdexamfetamineThe serum concentration of Lisdexamfetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved, Investigational
MephedroneThe serum concentration of Mephedrone can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Investigational
MephentermineThe serum concentration of Mephentermine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved
MethamphetamineThe serum concentration of Methamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved, Illicit
MMDAThe serum concentration of MMDA can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Experimental, Illicit
PhentermineThe serum concentration of Phentermine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved, Illicit
PseudoephedrineThe serum concentration of Pseudoephedrine can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Approved
RitobegronThe serum concentration of Ritobegron can be decreased when it is combined with L-Glutamic Acid.Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Nobuharu Tujimoto, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Osamu Kurahashi, Yoshiko Kawahara, "Mutant Escherichia coli capable of enhanced L-glutamic acid production." U.S. Patent US5393671, issued August, 1960.

US5393671
General References
  1. Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. [PubMed:10736373 ]
  2. Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. [PubMed:15939876 ]
  3. Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. [PubMed:10736365 ]
  4. Corrie JE, DeSantis A, Katayama Y, Khodakhah K, Messenger JB, Ogden DC, Trentham DR: Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:1-8. [PubMed:7901400 ]
  5. Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3;27(1):111-23. [PubMed:17202478 ]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00148
KEGG Drug
D00007
KEGG Compound
C00025
PubChem Compound
33032
PubChem Substance
46505816
ChemSpider
30572
BindingDB
17657
ChEBI
16015
ChEMBL
CHEMBL575060
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000015
PharmGKB
PA449776
IUPHAR
1369
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
GGL
Wikipedia
L-Glutamic_Acid
ATC Codes
A09AB01 — Glutamic acid hydrochloride
AHFS Codes
  • 40:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (72 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
1CompletedTreatmentColitis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentPropionic Acidemia (PA)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
3CompletedSupportive CareLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Neurotoxicity / Peripheral Neuropathy / Renal Cancers / Sarcomas1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1
3TerminatedSupportive CareCancer-related Problem/Condition / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Individuals1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Amend
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous
CapsuleOral325 mg
TabletOral
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-glutamic acid powder0.03USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)224 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility8570 mg/L (at 25 °C)BULL,HB ET AL. (1978)
logP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.23 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility80.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.03 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0002-0790000000-79d3e289c22cb183faa1
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQGC-MSsplash10-00ea-6932100000-30d3f5dcc198a5971e96
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-003r-6900000000-95b0a084dc076f9c7b91
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-c37d4c80a14ec029ef63
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-9000000000-6f1888aa71bcb0adf76c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004j-0900000000-5fa8a338dcd2f2a6bdd2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-16763200aa07f7629ad4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3900000000-d9cfc5187aa799f6f978
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-10ee9a593e13550bec1c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-4d045a3c1fc6e56f801b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-c3c7f8f3754109a0c25b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-48bfae26c69408b7f0ae
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-82c2a681e7522a7bb1d1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0905010000-af1c9ec4d0062fa6960e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-9700000000-2b967b896a6e48914512
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-1434321646181ea894a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-11fadb2530828eedad8a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-0941100000-07d051890cb1d9e5c856
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9200000000-f8619d11f1f54d836bb1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-ea2dd00e79ef06e8dc04
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-3e239d4014c95a2ef873
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-b548959edce39d319cf4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-40d901f655797db2cd0f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-f997527a39900ac431c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-7900000000-60816f0601a4e6d25ffb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-9000000000-6ee821f657c604d1afca
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000t-0900000000-7c02624abe56da9247a2
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. These are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Glutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
L-alpha-amino acids / Amino fatty acids / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Amino acids / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Glutamic acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / L-alpha-amino acid / Amino fatty acid / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Fatty acid / Fatty acyl / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
proteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, glutamic acid, glutamine family amino acid (CHEBI:16015 ) / Common amino acids, Amino acids (C00025 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad+ binding
Specific Function
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in th...
Gene Name
GLUD1
Uniprot ID
P00367
Uniprot Name
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61397.315 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Anagnou NP, Seuanez H, Modi W, O'Brien SJ, Papamatheakis J, Moschonas NK: Chromosomal mapping of two members of the human glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) gene family to chromosomes 10q22.3-q23 and Xq22-q23. Hum Hered. 1993 Nov-Dec;43(6):351-6. [PubMed:8288265 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK1
Uniprot ID
P39086
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1
Molecular Weight
103979.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Sahara Y, Noro N, Iida Y, Soma K, Nakamura Y: Glutamate receptor subunits GluR5 and KA-2 are coexpressed in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 1;17(17):6611-20. [PubMed:9254673 ]
  4. Valgeirsson J, Christensen JK, Kristensen AS, Pickering DS, Nielsen B, Fischer CH, Brauner-Osborne H, Nielsen EO, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Madsen U: Synthesis and in vitro pharmacology at AMPA and kainate preferring glutamate receptors of 4-heteroarylmethylidene glutamate analogues. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Oct 1;11(20):4341-9. [PubMed:13129570 ]
  5. Stensbol TB, Borre L, Johansen TN, Egebjerg J, Madsen U, Ebert B, Krogsgaard-Larsen P: Resolution, absolute stereochemistry and molecular pharmacology of the enantiomers of ATPA. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 10;380(2-3):153-62. [PubMed:10513575 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIA1
Uniprot ID
P42261
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Stein E, Cox JA, Seeburg PH, Verdoorn TA: Complex pharmacological properties of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;42(5):864-71. [PubMed:1279377 ]
  4. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
  5. Li F, Owens N, Verdoorn TA: Functional effects of mutations in the putative agonist binding region of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;47(1):148-54. [PubMed:7838123 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GCLM
Uniprot ID
P48507
Uniprot Name
Glutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunit
Molecular Weight
30726.745 Da
References
  1. Giordano G, White CC, McConnachie LA, Fernandez C, Kavanagh TJ, Costa LG: Neurotoxicity of domoic Acid in cerebellar granule neurons in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;70(6):2116-26. Epub 2006 Sep 25. [PubMed:17000861 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tetrahydrofolyl-poly(glutamate) polymer binding
Specific Function
Has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) activity. Has a preference for tri-alpha-glutamate peptides. In the intestine, required for the uptake of fola...
Gene Name
FOLH1
Uniprot ID
Q04609
Uniprot Name
Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2
Molecular Weight
84330.015 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Rodriguez CE, Lu H, Martinez AR, Hu Y, Brunelle A, Berkman CE: Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II by phosphonamidothionate derivatives of glutamic acid. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Oct;16(4):359-65. [PubMed:11916141 ]
  4. Davis MI, Bennett MJ, Thomas LM, Bjorkman PJ: Crystal structure of prostate-specific membrane antigen, a tumor marker and peptidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 26;102(17):5981-6. Epub 2005 Apr 18. [PubMed:15837926 ]
  5. Maung J, Mallari JP, Girtsman TA, Wu LY, Rowley JA, Santiago NM, Brunelle AN, Berkman CE: Probing for a hydrophobic a binding register in prostate-specific membrane antigen with phenylalkylphosphonamidates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Sep 15;12(18):4969-79. [PubMed:15336276 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name
GAD2
Uniprot ID
Q05329
Uniprot Name
Glutamate decarboxylase 2
Molecular Weight
65410.77 Da
References
  1. Wei J, Lin CH, Wu H, Jin Y, Lee YH, Wu JY: Activity-dependent cleavage of brain glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 by calpain. J Neurochem. 2006 Sep;98(5):1688-95. Epub 2006 Jul 31. [PubMed:16879709 ]
  2. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. [PubMed:17600364 ]
  3. Pop SM, Wong CP, He Q, Wang Y, Wallet MA, Goudy KS, Tisch R: The type and frequency of immunoregulatory CD4+ T-cells govern the efficacy of antigen-specific immunotherapy in nonobese diabetic mice. Diabetes. 2007 May;56(5):1395-402. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17317763 ]
  4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. [PubMed:16643338 ]
  5. Castelli MP, Piras AP, Melis T, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis MR, Collu S, Ennas MG, Diaz G, Mackie K, Argiolas A: Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus and central control of penile erection: immunocytochemistry, autoradiography and behavioral studies. Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 15;147(1):197-206. Epub 2007 May 15. [PubMed:17507169 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name
GAD1
Uniprot ID
Q99259
Uniprot Name
Glutamate decarboxylase 1
Molecular Weight
66896.065 Da
References
  1. Akama K, Takaiwa F: C-terminal extension of rice glutamate decarboxylase (OsGAD2) functions as an autoinhibitory domain and overexpression of a truncated mutant results in the accumulation of extremely high levels of GABA in plant cells. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(10):2699-707. Epub 2007 Jun 11. [PubMed:17562689 ]
  2. Tueting P, Doueiri MS, Guidotti A, Davis JM, Costa E: Reelin down-regulation in mice and psychosis endophenotypes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(8):1065-77. [PubMed:16769115 ]
  3. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. [PubMed:17600364 ]
  4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. [PubMed:16643338 ]
  5. Tronci E, Simola N, Borsini F, Schintu N, Frau L, Carminati P, Morelli M: Characterization of the antiparkinsonian effects of the new adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535: acute and subchronic studies in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 2;566(1-3):94-102. Epub 2007 Mar 24. [PubMed:17445798 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Microtubule binding
Specific Function
Folate-dependent enzyme, that displays both transferase and deaminase activity. Serves to channel one-carbon units from formiminoglutamate to the folate pool.Binds and promotes bundling of vimentin...
Gene Name
FTCD
Uniprot ID
O95954
Uniprot Name
Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase
Molecular Weight
58925.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Gao YS, Alvarez C, Nelson DS, Sztul E: Molecular cloning, characterization, and dynamics of rat formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase, a Golgi-associated 58-kDa protein. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 11;273(50):33825-34. [PubMed:9837973 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
  4. Stein E, Cox JA, Seeburg PH, Verdoorn TA: Complex pharmacological properties of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;42(5):864-71. [PubMed:1279377 ]
  5. Li F, Owens N, Verdoorn TA: Functional effects of mutations in the putative agonist binding region of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;47(1):148-54. [PubMed:7838123 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA3
Uniprot ID
P42263
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 3
Molecular Weight
101155.975 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA4
Uniprot ID
P48058
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 4
Molecular Weight
100870.085 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Linden AM, Yu H, Zarrinmayeh H, Wheeler WJ, Skolnick P: Binding of an AMPA receptor potentiator ([3H]LY395153) to native and recombinant AMPA receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2001 Jun;40(8):1010-8. [PubMed:11406192 ]
  4. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
  5. Cristovao AJ, Oliveira CR, Carvalho CM: Expression of AMPA/kainate receptors during development of chick embryo retina cells: in vitro versus in vivo studies. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2002 Feb;20(1):1-9. [PubMed:12008069 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme that converts glutamate to glutamate 5-semialdehyde, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of proline, ornithine and arginine.
Gene Name
ALDH18A1
Uniprot ID
P54886
Uniprot Name
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase
Molecular Weight
87301.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Morita Y, Nakamori S, Takagi H: L-proline accumulation and freeze tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are caused by a mutation in the PRO1 gene encoding gamma-glutamyl kinase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Jan;69(1):212-9. [PubMed:12513997 ]
  4. Krishna RV, Beilstein P, Leisinger T: Biosynthesis of proline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Properties of gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Biochem J. 1979 Jul 1;181(1):223-30. [PubMed:114173 ]
  5. Kamoun P, Aral B, Saudubray JM: [A new inherited metabolic disease: delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate synthetase deficiency]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1998;182(1):131-7; discussion 138-9. [PubMed:9622938 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK2
Uniprot ID
Q13002
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Molecular Weight
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Wong AY, MacLean DM, Bowie D: Na+/Cl- dipole couples agonist binding to kainate receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 20;27(25):6800-9. [PubMed:17581967 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIK3
Uniprot ID
Q13003
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 3
Molecular Weight
104036.06 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bettler B, Egebjerg J, Sharma G, Pecht G, Hermans-Borgmeyer I, Moll C, Stevens CF, Heinemann S: Cloning of a putative glutamate receptor: a low affinity kainate-binding subunit. Neuron. 1992 Feb;8(2):257-65. [PubMed:1371217 ]
  4. Takeda M, Haga M, Yamada H, Kinoshita M, Otsuka M, Tsuboi S, Moriyama Y: Ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2000 Nov 17;294(2):97-100. [PubMed:11058796 ]
  5. Stuhmer T, Amar M, Harvey RJ, Bermudez I, van Minnen J, Darlison MG: Structure and pharmacological properties of a molluscan glutamate-gated cation channel and its likely role in feeding behavior. J Neurosci. 1996 May 1;16(9):2869-80. [PubMed:8622118 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down...
Gene Name
GRM1
Uniprot ID
Q13255
Uniprot Name
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
132355.855 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
  2. Chiocchetti A, Miglio G, Mesturini R, Varsaldi F, Mocellin M, Orilieri E, Dianzani C, Fantozzi R, Dianzani U, Lombardi G: Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;148(6):760-8. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [PubMed:16751798 ]
  3. San Gabriel AM, Maekawa T, Uneyama H, Yoshie S, Torii K: mGluR1 in the fundic glands of rat stomach. FEBS Lett. 2007 Mar 20;581(6):1119-23. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17331504 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Group iii metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down...
Gene Name
GRM4
Uniprot ID
Q14833
Uniprot Name
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4
Molecular Weight
101866.835 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors tha...
Gene Name
GRIK4
Uniprot ID
Q16099
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4
Molecular Weight
107244.485 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Korczak B, Nutt SL, Fletcher EJ, Hoo KH, Elliott CE, Rampersad V, McWhinnie EA, Kamboj RK: cDNA cloning and functional properties of human glutamate receptor EAA3 (GluR5) in homomeric and heteromeric configuration. Receptors Channels. 1995;3(1):41-9. [PubMed:8589992 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors tha...
Gene Name
GRIK5
Uniprot ID
Q16478
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 5
Molecular Weight
109263.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Takeda M, Haga M, Yamada H, Kinoshita M, Otsuka M, Tsuboi S, Moriyama Y: Ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2000 Nov 17;294(2):97-100. [PubMed:11058796 ]
  4. Murphy DE, Hutchison AJ, Hurt SD, Williams M, Sills MA: Characterization of the binding of [3H]-CGS 19755: a novel N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist with nanomolar affinity in rat brain. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Nov;95(3):932-8. [PubMed:2850065 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down...
Gene Name
GRM7
Uniprot ID
Q14831
Uniprot Name
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7
Molecular Weight
102250.06 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Group iii metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down...
Gene Name
GRM8
Uniprot ID
O00222
Uniprot Name
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8
Molecular Weight
101739.575 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
  2. Morimoto R, Uehara S, Yatsushiro S, Juge N, Hua Z, Senoh S, Echigo N, Hayashi M, Mizoguchi T, Ninomiya T, Udagawa N, Omote H, Yamamoto A, Edwards RH, Moriyama Y: Secretion of L-glutamate from osteoclasts through transcytosis. EMBO J. 2006 Sep 20;25(18):4175-86. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16957773 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Transports L-glutamate; the L-glutamate uptake is sodium- and voltage-dependent and chloride-independent. Its associated chloride conductance may participate in visual processing.
Gene Name
SLC1A7
Uniprot ID
O00341
Uniprot Name
Excitatory amino acid transporter 5
Molecular Weight
60657.825 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Takarada T, Hinoi E, Balcar VJ, Taniura H, Yoneda Y: Possible expression of functional glutamate transporters in the rat testis. J Endocrinol. 2004 May;181(2):233-44. [PubMed:15128272 ]
  4. Arriza JL, Eliasof S, Kavanaugh MP, Amara SG: Excitatory amino acid transporter 5, a retinal glutamate transporter coupled to a chloride conductance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 15;94(8):4155-60. [PubMed:9108121 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Atp binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the cleavage of 5-oxo-L-proline to form L-glutamate coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Gene Name
OPLAH
Uniprot ID
O14841
Uniprot Name
5-oxoprolinase
Molecular Weight
137456.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nishimura A, Itoh H, Oyama H, Murao S, Oda K: A simultaneous assay method for L-glutamate and L-pyroglutamate contents in soy sauce using a 5-oxoprolinase (without ATP hydrolyzing activity). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Feb;65(2):477-9. [PubMed:11302195 ]
  4. Van der Werf P, Stephani RA, Orlowski M, Meister A: Inhibition of 5-oxoprolinase by 2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Mar;70(3):759-61. [PubMed:4514988 ]
  5. Seddon AP, Li LY, Meister A: Resolution of 5-oxo-L-prolinase into a 5-oxo-L-proline-dependent ATPase and a coupling protein. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 10;259(13):8091-4. [PubMed:6145710 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase activity
Specific Function
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase involved in the purines biosynthetic pathway. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine to yield for...
Gene Name
PFAS
Uniprot ID
O15067
Uniprot Name
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase
Molecular Weight
144733.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Jayaram HN, Lui MS, Plowman J, Pillwein K, Reardon MA, Elliott WL, Weber G: Oncolytic activity and mechanism of action of a novel L-cysteine derivative, L-cysteine, ethyl ester, S-(N-methylcarbamate) monohydrochloride. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;26(2):88-92. [PubMed:2347042 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-valine transaminase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.
Gene Name
BCAT2
Uniprot ID
O15382
Uniprot Name
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
44287.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name
GRIN2D
Uniprot ID
O15399
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D
Molecular Weight
143750.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Pliss L, Jezova D, Mares V, Balcar VJ, St'astny F: N-Acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate changes functional and structural properties of rat blood-brain barrier. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Jan 11;317(2):85-8. [PubMed:11755246 ]
  4. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. [PubMed:8886398 ]
  5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. [PubMed:9417820 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors tha...
Gene Name
GRID2
Uniprot ID
O43424
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-2
Molecular Weight
113355.16 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID
O60391
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B
Molecular Weight
112990.98 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Translation factor activity, rna binding
Specific Function
Allows the formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP th...
Gene Name
GATB
Uniprot ID
O75879
Uniprot Name
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61863.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutaminase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate ...
Gene Name
GLS
Uniprot ID
O94925
Uniprot Name
Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
73460.56 Da
References
  1. Karmaker S, Saha TK, Yoshikawa Y, Yasui H, Sakurai H: A novel drug delivery system for type 1 diabetes: insulin-mimetic vanadyl-poly(gamma-glutamic acid) complex. J Inorg Biochem. 2006 Sep;100(9):1535-46. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16824605 ]
  2. Shi F, Xu Z, Cen P: Efficient production of poly-gamma-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Jun;133(3):271-82. [PubMed:16720907 ]
  3. Yang XX, Hu ZP, Xu AL, Duan W, Zhu YZ, Huang M, Sheu FS, Zhang Q, Bian JS, Chan E, Li X, Wang JC, Zhou SF: A mechanistic study on reduced toxicity of irinotecan by coadministered thalidomide, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):82-104. Epub 2006 Jun 30. [PubMed:16815871 ]
  4. Ashiuchi M, Shimanouchi K, Horiuchi T, Kamei T, Misono H: Genetically engineered poly-gamma-glutamate producer from Bacillus subtilis ISW1214. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jul;70(7):1794-7. [PubMed:16861819 ]
  5. Ashiuchi M, Nakamura H, Yamamoto M, Misono H: Novel poly-gamma-glutamate-processing enzyme catalyzing gamma-glutamyl DD-amidohydrolysis. J Biosci Bioeng. 2006 Jul;102(1):60-5. [PubMed:16952838 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange betwe...
Gene Name
GOT2
Uniprot ID
P00505
Uniprot Name
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
47517.285 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Recasens M, Mandel P: Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Ciba Found Symp. 1979;(72):259-70. [PubMed:261660 ]
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Rna stem-loop binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of the cognate amino acid to the corresponding tRNA in a two-step reaction: the amino acid is first activated by ATP to form a covalent intermediate with AMP and is then tr...
Gene Name
EPRS
Uniprot ID
P07814
Uniprot Name
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase
Molecular Weight
170589.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Cerini C, Semeriva M, Gratecos D: Evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and the organization of the Drosophila glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene. Intron/exon structure of the gene, control of expression of the two mRNAs, selective advantage of the multienzyme complex. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Feb 15;244(1):176-85. [PubMed:9063462 ]
  4. Ting SM, Dignam JD: Post-transcriptional regulation of glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase in rat salivary gland. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25;269(12):8993-8. [PubMed:8132637 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ASNS
Uniprot ID
P08243
Uniprot Name
Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
Molecular Weight
64369.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function
This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). E...
Gene Name
GLUL
Uniprot ID
P15104
Uniprot Name
Glutamine synthetase
Molecular Weight
42064.15 Da
References
  1. Re DB, Nafia I, Melon C, Shimamoto K, Kerkerian-Le Goff L, Had-Aissouni L: Glutamate leakage from a compartmentalized intracellular metabolic pool and activation of the lipoxygenase pathway mediate oxidative astrocyte death by reversed glutamate transport. Glia. 2006 Jul;54(1):47-57. [PubMed:16673373 ]
  2. Singh U, Sarkar D: Development of a simple high-throughput screening protocol based on biosynthetic activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase for the identification of novel Inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2006 Dec;11(8):1035-42. Epub 2006 Sep 14. [PubMed:16973920 ]
  3. Yamamoto S, Wakayama M, Tachiki T: Characterization of theanine-forming enzyme from Methylovorus mays no. 9 in respect to utilization of theanine production. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Feb;71(2):545-52. Epub 2007 Feb 7. [PubMed:17284842 ]
  4. Scaraffia PY, Zhang Q, Wysocki VH, Isoe J, Wells MA: Analysis of whole body ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti using [15N]-labeled compounds and mass spectrometry. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Aug;36(8):614-22. Epub 2006 May 19. [PubMed:16876704 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a sca...
Gene Name
GOT1
Uniprot ID
P17174
Uniprot Name
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
46247.14 Da
References
  1. Yudkoff M, Daikhin Y, Melo TM, Nissim I, Sonnewald U, Nissim I: The ketogenic diet and brain metabolism of amino acids: relationship to the anticonvulsant effect. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007;27:415-30. [PubMed:17444813 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has...
Gene Name
TAT
Uniprot ID
P17735
Uniprot Name
Tyrosine aminotransferase
Molecular Weight
50398.895 Da
References
  1. Ozturk M, Chiu CY, Akdeniz N, Jenq SF, Chang SC, Hsa CY, Jap TS: Two novel mutations in the MEN1 gene in subjects with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Jun;29(6):523-7. [PubMed:16840830 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting wi...
Gene Name
GPT
Uniprot ID
P24298
Uniprot Name
Alanine aminotransferase 1
Molecular Weight
54636.415 Da
References
  1. Ohgami N, Upadhyay S, Kabata A, Morimoto K, Kusakabe H, Suzuki H: Determination of the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in a microfluidic system. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007 Feb 15;22(7):1330-6. Epub 2006 Jul 18. [PubMed:16854580 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity
Specific Function
Mediates the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamate residues to calcium-binding gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues with the concomitant conversion of the reduced hydroquinone form of vit...
Gene Name
GGCX
Uniprot ID
P38435
Uniprot Name
Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase
Molecular Weight
87560.065 Da
References
  1. Zhu A, Sun H, Raymond RM Jr, Furie BC, Furie B, Bronstein M, Kaufman RJ, Westrick R, Ginsburg D: Fatal hemorrhage in mice lacking gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5270-5. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327402 ]
  2. Lal S, Jada SR, Xiang X, Lim WT, Lee EJ, Chowbay B: Pharmacogenetics of target genes across the warfarin pharmacological pathway. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(12):1189-200. [PubMed:17112295 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport ...
Gene Name
SLC1A3
Uniprot ID
P43003
Uniprot Name
Excitatory amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
59571.855 Da
References
  1. Glowatzki E, Cheng N, Hiel H, Yi E, Tanaka K, Ellis-Davies GC, Rothstein JD, Bergles DE: The glutamate-aspartate transporter GLAST mediates glutamate uptake at inner hair cell afferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 19;26(29):7659-64. [PubMed:16855093 ]
  2. Beart PM, O'Shea RD: Transporters for L-glutamate: an update on their molecular pharmacology and pathological involvement. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;150(1):5-17. Epub 2006 Nov 6. [PubMed:17088867 ]
  3. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959378 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport ...
Gene Name
SLC1A2
Uniprot ID
P43004
Uniprot Name
Excitatory amino acid transporter 2
Molecular Weight
62103.665 Da
References
  1. King N, Lin H, McGivan JD, Suleiman MS: Expression and activity of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 in cardiac hypertrophy: implications for ischaemia reperfusion injury. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Sep;452(6):674-82. Epub 2006 May 23. [PubMed:16718509 ]
  2. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959378 ]
  3. Beart PM, O'Shea RD: Transporters for L-glutamate: an update on their molecular pharmacology and pathological involvement. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;150(1):5-17. Epub 2006 Nov 6. [PubMed:17088867 ]
  4. Glowatzki E, Cheng N, Hiel H, Yi E, Tanaka K, Ellis-Davies GC, Rothstein JD, Bergles DE: The glutamate-aspartate transporter GLAST mediates glutamate uptake at inner hair cell afferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 19;26(29):7659-64. [PubMed:16855093 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Transports L-glutamate, L- and D-aspartate and L-cystein (PubMed:21123949). Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic c...
Gene Name
SLC1A1
Uniprot ID
P43005
Uniprot Name
Excitatory amino acid transporter 3
Molecular Weight
57099.835 Da
References
  1. Menaker D, Bendahan A, Kanner BI: The substrate specificity of a neuronal glutamate transporter is determined by the nature of the coupling ion. J Neurochem. 2006 Oct;99(1):20-8. Epub 2006 Jul 11. [PubMed:16831195 ]
  2. Yun JY, Park KS, Kim JH, Do SH, Zuo Z: Propofol reverses oxidative stress-attenuated glutamate transporter EAAT3 activity: evidence of protein kinase C involvement. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 22;565(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Mar 3. [PubMed:17382927 ]
  3. Tao Z, Grewer C: Cooperation of the conserved aspartate 439 and bound amino acid substrate is important for high-affinity Na+ binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Apr;129(4):331-44. [PubMed:17389249 ]
  4. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959378 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GCLC
Uniprot ID
P48506
Uniprot Name
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Seems to act as a symport by cotransporting sodium.
Gene Name
SLC1A6
Uniprot ID
P48664
Uniprot Name
Excitatory amino acid transporter 4
Molecular Weight
61564.875 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Gegelashvili G, Schousboe A: High affinity glutamate transporters: regulation of expression and activity. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jul;52(1):6-15. [PubMed:9224806 ]
  4. Lin CL, Tzingounis AV, Jin L, Furuta A, Kavanaugh MP, Rothstein JD: Molecular cloning and expression of the rat EAAT4 glutamate transporter subtype. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998 Dec 10;63(1):174-9. [PubMed:9838098 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Leucine binding
Specific Function
Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
Gene Name
GLUD2
Uniprot ID
P49448
Uniprot Name
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61433.465 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides which are not only essential for DNA and RNA synthesis, but also provide GTP, which is involved in a number of cellular processes important ...
Gene Name
GMPS
Uniprot ID
P49915
Uniprot Name
GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
Molecular Weight
76714.79 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Ravasio S, Dossena L, Martin-Figueroa E, Florencio FJ, Mattevi A, Morandi P, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Properties of the recombinant ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase of Synechocystis PCC6803. Comparison with the Azospirillum brasilense NADPH-dependent enzyme and its isolated alpha subunit. Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8120-33. [PubMed:12069605 ]
  4. Myers RS, Amaro RE, Luthey-Schulten ZA, Davisson VJ: Reaction coupling through interdomain contacts in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 13;44(36):11974-85. [PubMed:16142895 ]
  5. Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM: Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B. Searching for the catalytic triad. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 11;269(10):7450-7. [PubMed:7907328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-valine transaminase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
Gene Name
BCAT1
Uniprot ID
P54687
Uniprot Name
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic
Molecular Weight
42965.815 Da
References
  1. Smirnov SV, Samsonova NN, Novikova AE, Matrosov NG, Rushkevich NY, Kodera T, Ogawa J, Yamanaka H, Shimizu S: A novel strategy for enzymatic synthesis of 4-hydroxyisoleucine: identification of an enzyme possessing HMKP (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-keto-pentanoate) aldolase activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):70-7. Epub 2007 Jun 6. [PubMed:17559390 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-al...
Gene Name
ABAT
Uniprot ID
P80404
Uniprot Name
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Imai H, Okuno T, Wu JY, Lee TJ: GABAergic innervation in cerebral blood vessels: an immunohistochemical demonstration of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA transaminase. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Jan;11(1):129-34. [PubMed:1983997 ]
  4. Happola O, Paivarinta H, Soinila S, Wu JY, Panula P: Localization of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase immunoreactivity in the sympathetic ganglia of the rat. Neuroscience. 1987 Apr;21(1):271-81. [PubMed:3299141 ]
  5. Far SR, Millimoria FR: Levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), gamma amino butyric acid transaminase (GABA-T), glutamic acid dehydrogenase (GLDH) and proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of certain neurological disorders. Indian J Med Sci. 1996 Apr;50(4):99-102. [PubMed:8979623 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...
Gene Name
GRIN1
Uniprot ID
Q05586
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1
Molecular Weight
105371.945 Da
References
  1. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. [PubMed:17662248 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrate...
Gene Name
FPGS
Uniprot ID
Q05932
Uniprot Name
Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
64608.53 Da
References
  1. DeMartino JK, Hwang I, Xu L, Wilson IA, Boger DL: Discovery of a potent, nonpolyglutamatable inhibitor of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase. J Med Chem. 2006 May 18;49(10):2998-3002. [PubMed:16686541 ]
  2. Gangjee A, Yang J, McGuire JJ, Kisliuk RL: Synthesis and evaluation of a classical 2,4-diamino-5-substituted-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and a 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine as antifolates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Dec 15;14(24):8590-8. Epub 2006 Sep 20. [PubMed:16990006 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Appears to have a role in the catabolic pathway of the renin-angiotensin system. Probably plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation of early B-lineage cells.
Gene Name
ENPEP
Uniprot ID
Q07075
Uniprot Name
Glutamyl aminopeptidase
Molecular Weight
109243.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Tobe H, Kojima F, Aoyagi T, Umezawa H: Purification by affinity chromatography using amastatin and properties of aminopeptidase A from pig kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Jun 13;613(2):459-68. [PubMed:7448199 ]
  4. Acarturk F, Parlatan ZI, Saracoglu OF: Comparison of vaginal aminopeptidase enzymatic activities in various animals and in humans. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Nov;53(11):1499-504. [PubMed:11732752 ]
  5. Sasaki M, Bosman BW, Tan PS: Comparison of proteolytic activities in various lactobacilli. J Dairy Res. 1995 Nov;62(4):601-10. [PubMed:8568030 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of sub...
Gene Name
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID
Q12879
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
Molecular Weight
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Rutter AR, Freeman FM, Stephenson FA: Further characterization of the molecular interaction between PSD-95 and NMDA receptors: the effect of the NR1 splice variant and evidence for modulation of channel gating. J Neurochem. 2002 Jun;81(6):1298-307. [PubMed:12068077 ]
  4. Rutter AR, Stephenson FA: Coexpression of postsynaptic density-95 protein with NMDA receptors results in enhanced receptor expression together with a decreased sensitivity to L-glutamate. J Neurochem. 2000 Dec;75(6):2501-10. [PubMed:11080203 ]
  5. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. [PubMed:8886398 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic site...
Gene Name
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID
Q13224
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
Molecular Weight
166365.885 Da
References
  1. Verkhratsky A, Kirchhoff F: NMDA Receptors in glia. Neuroscientist. 2007 Feb;13(1):28-37. [PubMed:17229973 ]
  2. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. [PubMed:17662248 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name
GRIN2C
Uniprot ID
Q14957
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C
Molecular Weight
134207.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kuner T, Schoepfer R, Korpi ER: Ethanol inhibits glutamate-induced currents in heteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes. Neuroreport. 1993 Dec 13;5(3):297-300. [PubMed:7905294 ]
  4. Olmos G, DeGregorio-Rocasolano N, Paz Regalado M, Gasull T, Assumpcio Boronat M, Trullas R, Villarroel A, Lerma J, Garcia-Sevilla JA: Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;127(6):1317-26. [PubMed:10455281 ]
  5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. [PubMed:9417820 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GIG18
Uniprot ID
Q2TU84
Uniprot Name
Aspartate aminotransferase
Molecular Weight
46319.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).
Gene Name
EARS2
Uniprot ID
Q5JPH6
Uniprot Name
Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
58688.1 Da
References
  1. Sekine S, Shichiri M, Bernier S, Chenevert R, Lapointe J, Yokoyama S: Structural bases of transfer RNA-dependent amino acid recognition and activation by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure. 2006 Dec;14(12):1791-9. [PubMed:17161369 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific Function
May act as a component of the cytoskeleton or as a chaperone for the reorganization of intermediate filament proteins during terminal differentiation in the lens. Does not seem to have enzymatic ac...
Gene Name
LGSN
Uniprot ID
Q5TDP6
Uniprot Name
Lengsin
Molecular Weight
57277.46 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
NADSYN1
Uniprot ID
Q6IA69
Uniprot Name
Glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase
Molecular Weight
79283.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). May catalyze the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)c...
Gene Name
CCBL2
Uniprot ID
Q6YP21
Uniprot Name
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3
Molecular Weight
51399.855 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Arginine binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the regulation of ureagenesis by producing the essential cofactor N-acetylglutamate (NAG), thus modulating carbamoylphosphate synthase I (CPSI) activity.
Gene Name
NAGS
Uniprot ID
Q8N159
Uniprot Name
N-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
58155.835 Da
References
  1. Xu Y, Labedan B, Glansdorff N: Surprising arginine biosynthesis: a reappraisal of the enzymology and evolution of the pathway in microorganisms. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007 Mar;71(1):36-47. [PubMed:17347518 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykyn...
Gene Name
AADAT
Uniprot ID
Q8N5Z0
Uniprot Name
Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
47351.17 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kocki T, Luchowski P, Luchowska E, Wielosz M, Turski WA, Urbanska EM: L-cysteine sulphinate, endogenous sulphur-containing amino acid, inhibits rat brain kynurenic acid production via selective interference with kynurenine aminotransferase II. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jul 31;346(1-2):97-100. [PubMed:12850557 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.
Gene Name
GPT2
Uniprot ID
Q8TD30
Uniprot Name
Alanine aminotransferase 2
Molecular Weight
57903.11 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Glutamate is cotransported with H(+).
Gene Name
SLC25A18
Uniprot ID
Q9H1K4
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 2
Molecular Weight
33848.44 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Glutamate is cotransported with H(+).
Gene Name
SLC25A22
Uniprot ID
Q9H936
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1
Molecular Weight
34469.85 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Saccharopine dehydrogenase (nadp+, l-lysine-forming) activity
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respe...
Gene Name
AASS
Uniprot ID
Q9UDR5
Uniprot Name
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
102130.895 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Gaziola SA, Teixeira CM, Lugli J, Sodek L, Azevedo RA: The enzymology of lysine catabolism in rice seeds--isolation, characterization, and regulatory properties of a lysine 2-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional polypeptide. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Jul 1;247(1):364-71. [PubMed:9249048 ]
  4. Goncalves-Butruille M, Szajner P, Torigoi E, Leite A, Arruda P: Purification and Characterization of the Bifunctional Enzyme Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase-Saccharopine Dehydrogenase from Maize. Plant Physiol. 1996 Mar;110(3):765-771. [PubMed:12226216 ]
  5. Noda C, Ichihara A: Purification and properties of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate reductase from rat liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Aug 7;525(2):307-13. [PubMed:687635 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutaminase activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketogl...
Gene Name
GLS2
Uniprot ID
Q9UI32
Uniprot Name
Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
66322.225 Da
References
  1. Dossena L, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Activation and coupling of the glutaminase and synthase reaction of glutamate synthase is mediated by E1013 of the ferredoxin-dependent enzyme, belonging to loop 4 of the synthase domain. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 17;46(15):4473-85. Epub 2007 Mar 21. [PubMed:17373776 ]
  2. Kita K, Suzuki T, Ochi T: Down-regulation of glutaminase C in human hepatocarcinoma cell by diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 May 1;220(3):262-70. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17321558 ]
  3. Yoshimune K, Shirakihara Y, Shiratori A, Wakayama M, Chantawannakul P, Moriguchi M: Crystal structure of a major fragment of the salt-tolerant glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Aug 11;346(4):1118-24. Epub 2006 Jun 6. [PubMed:16793004 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Aminopeptidase with specificity towards an acidic amino acid at the N-terminus. Likely to play an important role in intracellular protein and peptide metabolism.
Gene Name
DNPEP
Uniprot ID
Q9ULA0
Uniprot Name
Aspartyl aminopeptidase
Molecular Weight
52427.87 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Watanabe J, Tanaka H, Akagawa T, Mogi Y, Yamazaki T: Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae aspartyl aminopeptidase expressed in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Oct;71(10):2557-60. Epub 2007 Oct 7. [PubMed:17928682 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors tha...
Gene Name
GRID1
Uniprot ID
Q9ULK0
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-1
Molecular Weight
112129.96 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.
Gene Name
SLC7A11
Uniprot ID
Q9UPY5
Uniprot Name
Cystine/glutamate transporter
Molecular Weight
55422.44 Da
References
  1. Natale NR, Magnusson KR, Nelson JK: Can selective ligands for glutamate binding proteins be rationally designed? Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(8):823-47. [PubMed:16719820 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Carboxypeptidase that may play an important role in the hydrolysis of circulating peptides. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of dipeptides with unsubstituted terminals into amino acids. May play a role in ...
Gene Name
CPQ
Uniprot ID
Q9Y646
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase Q
Molecular Weight
51887.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
O-phospho-l-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine.
Gene Name
PSAT1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y617
Uniprot Name
Phosphoserine aminotransferase
Molecular Weight
40422.355 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hester G, Stark W, Moser M, Kallen J, Markovic-Housley Z, Jansonius JN: Crystal structure of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli at 2.3 A resolution: comparison of the unligated enzyme and a complex with alpha-methyl-l-glutamate. J Mol Biol. 1999 Feb 26;286(3):829-50. [PubMed:10024454 ]
  4. Katsura Y, Shirouzu M, Yamaguchi H, Ishitani R, Nureki O, Kuramitsu S, Hayashi H, Yokoyama S: Crystal structure of a putative aspartate aminotransferase belonging to subgroup IV. Proteins. 2004 May 15;55(3):487-92. [PubMed:15103612 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID
P53985
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 01, 2017 10:24