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Identification
NameL-Alanine
Accession NumberDB00160  (NUTR00013)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
DescriptionA non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2S)-2-Aminopropanoic acid
(S)-2-Aminopropanoic acid
(S)-Alanine
ALA
Alanine
L-2-Aminopropionic acid
L-alpha-Alanine
L-α-alanine
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
AminosynHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10% W ElectrolytesAbbott
Aminosyn 3.5% MAbbott
Aminosyn 5%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 7%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 8.5%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 8.5% Injection With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn IIHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 15%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 5% InjAbbott
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira, Inc.
ClinimixBaxter Laboratories
Clinimix EBaxter Laboratories
ClinisolBaxter Laboratories
Freamine HbcB. Braun Medical Inc.
Freamine IIIB. Braun Medical Inc.
HepatamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
NovamineHospira, Inc.
PlenamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Baxter Laboratories
Primene 10%Baxter Laboratories
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
ProsolBaxter Laboratories
Renamin (amino Acids) InjectionBaxter Laboratories
TravasolBaxter Laboratories
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 5.5%Baxter Laboratories
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 8.5%Baxter Laboratories
Travasol EBaxter Laboratories
Travasol Inj Without Electrolytes 5.5%Baxter Laboratories
TrophamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
Categories
UNIINot Available
CAS number56-41-7
WeightAverage: 89.0932
Monoisotopic: 89.047678473
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
InChI KeyQNAYBMKLOCPYGJ-RUOZJJLTNA-N
InChI
InChI=1/C3H7NO2/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2H,4H2,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/s2
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
SMILES
C[[email protected]](N)C(O)=O
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for protein synthesis.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsIs an important source of energy for muscle tissue, the brain and central nervous system; strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies; helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids.
Mechanism of actionL-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP21549 details
Alanine aminotransferase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP24298 details
Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9Y697 details
Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ7Z2H8 details
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9UHI5 details
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9BYV1 details
Alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmicProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP49588 details
Neutral amino acid transporter AProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP43007 details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP80404 details
KynureninaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ16719 details
Alanine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ5JTZ9 details
5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8IUZ5 details
Alanine aminotransferase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8TD30 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Tryptophan MetabolismMetabolicSMP00063
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00248
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00250
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00251
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00255
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00256
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00262
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type IDiseaseSMP00352
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00484
Paromomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00714
Rolitetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00726
Chloramphenicol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00729
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00003
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)DiseaseSMP00136
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00243
Amikacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00253
Spectinomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00258
Glutathione Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00337
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDiseaseSMP00339
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticDiseaseSMP00485
5-oxoprolinase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00500
Glutaminolysis and CancerDiseaseSMP02298
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolicSMP00015
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00183
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00249
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00254
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00257
Doxycycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00291
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions Not Available
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Daniel T. Belmont, Valerie Hendrickson, Mark J. Hoekman, “Process for the preparation of an L-alanine compound.” U.S. Patent US5268483, issued October, 1953.

US5268483
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (71.9 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
0TerminatedDiagnosticNon-Melanomatous Skin Cancer1
1CompletedDiagnosticTumor, Brain1
1TerminatedTreatmentAdult Anaplastic Astrocytoma / Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma / Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma / Adult Glioblastoma / Adult Gliosarcoma / Adult Mixed Glioma / Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor1
1WithdrawnDiagnosticLung Cancer in Normal and Malignant Tumors1
2CompletedNot AvailableActinic Keratosis (AK)2
2CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
2CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)3
2RecruitingDiagnosticBrain Cancer1
2RecruitingPreventionMuscle Atrophy / Quality of Life1
2RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2RecruitingTreatmentCervical Intraepithelial Neoplasias / Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions / Papillomavirus Infections1
2TerminatedDiagnosticAdult Giant Cell Glioblastoma / Adult Glioblastoma / Adult Gliosarcoma / Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor1
2TerminatedTreatmentAstrocytomas / Glioblastoma Multiforme / Glioblastomas / Gliomas / Malignant Gliomas1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentGliomas2
3CompletedNot AvailableActinic Keratosis (AK)1
3CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Autonomic Neuropathy1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis 1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
3RecruitingTreatmentGliomas1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
4CompletedBasic SciencePreDiabetes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D)1
4RecruitingTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentBasal Cell Nevus Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes / Hypertensive1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAntioxidants / Blastocyst / Culture Media / Embryo / Humans1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAntioxidants / Blastocyst / Culture Media / Embryo / Humans / Oxygen1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDermatitis, Seborrheic1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHyperglycemias / Infant, Low Birth Weight1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-alanine powder2.35USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point300 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.64E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.85SANGSTER (1994)
pKa2.34 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility447.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS0.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity20.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET featuresNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (6.76 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-014i-0900000000-c7f6dbace291e8305a4eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014i-0900000000-381ddf4d9ea77be0b8a5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-01b9-6900000000-6a7c1bb2915e5dd0791fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014i-1900000000-84b389f82562c29a8148View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-96b54b269c91ab21be08View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-a8008305399aa1097e1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-7253c912562200edc231View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-00kf-9000000000-72694f3a1a5de3b49790View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-55d0139f513946f76461View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-5b0dff13a98daf782205View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-37db595fcf7364600bc9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-5129e160acf979ac549eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-11c20eba8c5ad41d806cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-df7c7d6a6ae2d6bccefeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-32477244247613182214View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-000f-9002000000-4873ce0cdcac54d68186View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-8193842b36c819ca3ec6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alanine and derivatives. These are compounds containing alanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of alanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alanine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGXT
Uniprot ID:
P21549
Molecular Weight:
43009.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Salido EC, Li XM, Lu Y, Wang X, Santana A, Roy-Chowdhury N, Torres A, Shapiro LJ, Roy-Chowdhury J: Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-deficient mice, a model for primary hyperoxaluria that responds to adenoviral gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 28;103(48):18249-54. Epub 2006 Nov 16. [PubMed:17110443 ]
  4. Amoroso A, Pirulli D, Florian F, Puzzer D, Boniotto M, Crovella S, Zezlina S, Spano A, Mazzola G, Savoldi S, Ferrettini C, Berutti S, Petrarulo M, Marangella M: AGXT gene mutations and their influence on clinical heterogeneity of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Oct;12(10):2072-9. [PubMed:11562405 ]
  5. Pirulli D, Puzzer D, Ferri L, Crovella S, Amoroso A, Ferrettini C, Marangella M, Mazzola G, Florian F: Molecular analysis of hyperoxaluria type 1 in Italian patients reveals eight new mutations in the alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase gene. Hum Genet. 1999 Jun;104(6):523-5. [PubMed:10453743 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPT
Uniprot ID:
P24298
Molecular Weight:
54636.415 Da
References
  1. Miyashita Y, Dolferus R, Ismond KP, Good AG: Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(6):1108-21. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17319845 ]
  2. Gray S, Wang B, Orihuela Y, Hong EG, Fisch S, Haldar S, Cline GW, Kim JK, Peroni OD, Kahn BB, Jain MK: Regulation of gluconeogenesis by Kruppel-like factor 15. Cell Metab. 2007 Apr;5(4):305-12. [PubMed:17403374 ]
  3. Taracha E, Habrat B, Chrapusta SJ, Lehner M, Wislowska A, Woronowicz BT, Bogulas M, Charewicz J, Markuszewski C, Plaznik A: Combining markers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity for improved monitoring and detection of chronic alcohol abuse. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(12):1446-52. [PubMed:17163821 ]
  4. Chen CH, Lee RP, Wu WT, Liao KW, Hsu N, Hsu BG: Fluvastatin ameliorates endotoxin induced multiple organ failure in conscious rats. Resuscitation. 2007 Jul;74(1):166-74. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [PubMed:17353078 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the removal of elemental sulfur from cysteine to produce alanine. It supplies the inorganic sulfur for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. May be involved in the biosynthesis of molybdenum cofactor.
Gene Name:
NFS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y697
Molecular Weight:
50195.21 Da
References
  1. You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z: A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):6126-33. Epub 2007 May 1. [PubMed:17469805 ]
  2. Zeng J, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, Xia L, Liu J, Qiu G: Expression, purification and characterization of a cysteine desulfurase, IscS, from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biotechnol Lett. 2007 Dec;29(12):1983-90. Epub 2007 Jul 28. [PubMed:17660944 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular Weight:
53075.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Miyauchi S, Abbot EL, Zhuang L, Subramanian R, Ganapathy V, Thwaites DT: Isolation and function of the amino acid transporter PAT1 (slc36a1) from rabbit and discrimination between transport via PAT1 and system IMINO in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Mol Membr Biol. 2005 Nov-Dec;22(6):549-59. [PubMed:16373326 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine. L-alanine is transported at physiological conc...
Gene Name:
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHI5
Molecular Weight:
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Broer S, Broer A, Hansen JT, Bubb WA, Balcar VJ, Nasrallah FA, Garner B, Rae C: Alanine metabolism, transport, and cycling in the brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Sep;102(6):1758-70. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17504263 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and this activity provides mechanism through which the kidney regulates blood pressure.
Gene Name:
AGXT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYV1
Molecular Weight:
57155.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Okuno E, Ishikawa T, Kawai J, Kido R: Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities in liver of Suncus murinus (insectivora). Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1988;90(4):773-8. [PubMed:2907870 ]
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. [PubMed:6703688 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain.
Gene Name:
AARS
Uniprot ID:
P49588
Molecular Weight:
106809.525 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [PubMed:10871402 ]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [PubMed:8601277 ]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [PubMed:7742303 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transporter for alanine, serine, cysteine, and threonine. Exhibits sodium dependence.
Gene Name:
SLC1A4
Uniprot ID:
P43007
Molecular Weight:
55722.455 Da
References
  1. Zhang Z, Papageorgiou G, Corrie JE, Grewer C: Pre-steady-state currents in neutral amino acid transporters induced by photolysis of a new caged alanine derivative. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 27;46(12):3872-80. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17311416 ]
  2. Takasaki C, Miura E, Watanabe M: Segmental and complementary expression of L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 in the mouse kidney. Biomed Res. 2007 Apr;28(2):61-9. [PubMed:17510490 ]
  3. Zhang Z, Grewer C: The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates. Biophys J. 2007 Apr 1;92(7):2621-32. Epub 2007 Jan 19. [PubMed:17237199 ]
  4. Pinho MJ, Pinto V, Serrao MP, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Underexpression of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 in the spontaneously hypertensive rat kidney. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):R538-47. Epub 2007 May 2. [PubMed:17475673 ]
  5. Wu Y, Shen D, Chen Z, Clayton S, Vadgama JV: Taxol induced apoptosis regulates amino acid transport in breast cancer cells. Apoptosis. 2007 Mar;12(3):593-612. Epub 2006 Dec 29. [PubMed:17195090 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular Weight:
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Amadasi A, Bertoldi M, Contestabile R, Bettati S, Cellini B, di Salvo ML, Borri-Voltattorni C, Bossa F, Mozzarelli A: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes as targets for therapeutic agents. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(12):1291-324. [PubMed:17504214 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity.
Gene Name:
KYNU
Uniprot ID:
Q16719
Molecular Weight:
52351.14 Da
References
  1. Christensen M, Duno M, Lund AM, Skovby F, Christensen E: Xanthurenic aciduria due to a mutation in KYNU encoding kynureninase. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Apr;30(2):248-55. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [PubMed:17334708 ]
  2. Lima S, Khristoforov R, Momany C, Phillips RS: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2735-44. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [PubMed:17300176 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain.
Gene Name:
AARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q5JTZ9
Molecular Weight:
107339.48 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [PubMed:10871402 ]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [PubMed:8601277 ]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [PubMed:7742303 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent breakdown of 5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine, converting it to ammonia, inorganic phosphate and 2-aminoadipate semialdehyde.
Gene Name:
PHYKPL
Uniprot ID:
Q8IUZ5
Molecular Weight:
49710.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.
Gene Name:
GPT2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TD30
Molecular Weight:
57903.11 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. Genomics. 2002 Mar;79(3):445-50. [PubMed:11863375 ]
  4. Jadhao SB, Yang RZ, Lin Q, Hu H, Anania FA, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: Murine alanine aminotransferase: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and differential gene regulation in mouse fatty liver. Hepatology. 2004 May;39(5):1297-302. [PubMed:15122758 ]
  5. Rajamohan F, Nelms L, Joslin DL, Lu B, Reagan WJ, Lawton M: cDNA cloning, expression, purification, distribution, and characterization of biologically active canine alanine aminotransferase-1. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Jul;48(1):81-9. Epub 2006 Jan 30. [PubMed:16495081 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23