Identification

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Name
L-Alanine
Accession Number
DB00160  (NUTR00013)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
  • (S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
  • (S)-alanine
  • Alanina
  • Alanine
  • L-2-Aminopropionic acid
  • L-Alanin
  • L-alpha-Alanine
  • L-α-alanine
External IDs
NSC-206315
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseL-Alanine (520 mg) + Arginine (290 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (260 mg) + Histidine (120 mg) + Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Leucine (182.5 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (140 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (145 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (100 mg) + Proline (170 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixL-Alanine (520 mg) + Arginine (260 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (520 mg) + Histidine (110 mg) + Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (115 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (145 mg) + Proline (105 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixL-Alanine (520 mg) + Arginine (260 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Glycine (520 mg) + Histidine (110 mg) + Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (195 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (115 mg) + Methionine (195 mg) + Proline (105 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexL-Alanine (520 mg) + Arginine (290 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (260 mg) + Histidine (120 mg) + Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Leucine (182.5 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (140 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (145 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (100 mg) + Proline (170 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexL-Alanine (570 mg) + Arginine (316 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (283 mg) + Histidine (132 mg) + Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Leucine (201 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (154 mg) + L-Threonine (115.5 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (159.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (110 mg) + Proline (187 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixL-Alanine (570 mg) + Arginine (285 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (570 mg) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Threonine (115 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (126 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (159 mg) + Proline (115 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixL-Alanine (570 mg) + Arginine (285 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (215.5 mg) + Glycine (570 mg) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Threonine (115 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (126 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (159 mg) + Proline (115 mg) + Sodium acetate (256 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.L-Alanine (570 mg) + Arginine (316 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (283 mg) + Histidine (132 mg) + Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Leucine (201 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (154 mg) + L-Threonine (115.5 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (159.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (110 mg) + Proline (187 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium acetate (215 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
20% ProsolL-Alanine (2.76 g) + Arginine (1.96 g) + Aspartic acid (0.6 g) + D-Methionine (0.76 g) + Glutamic acid (1.02 g) + Glycine (2.06 g) + Histidine (1.18 g) + Isoleucine (1.08 g) + L-Leucine (1.08 g) + L-Lysine (1.35 g) + L-Phenylalanine (1 g) + L-Threonine (0.98 g) + L-Tryptophan (0.32 g) + L-Valine (1.44 g) + Methionine (0.76 g) + Proline (1.34 g) + Serine (1.02 g) + Tyrosine (0.05 g)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-10-09Not applicableCanada
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixL-Alanine (880 mg) + Arginine (440 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (20 g) + Glycine (880 mg) + Histidine (186 mg) + Isoleucine (203 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (263 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (246 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (263 mg) + L-Threonine (178 mg) + L-Tryptophan (76 mg) + L-Valine (195 mg) + Methionine (246 mg) + Proline (178 mg) + Tyrosine (17 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ClinimixL-Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (75.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + L-Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + L-Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + L-Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + L-Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + L-Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + L-Valine (1.60 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30Us
ClinimixL-Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (100.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + L-Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + L-Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + L-Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + L-Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + L-Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + L-Valine (1.60 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30Us
ClinimixL-Alanine (17.60 g/2L) + Arginine (9.78 g/2L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.66 g/2L) + D-glucose monohydrate (300.00 g/2L) + Dipotassium phosphate (5.22 g/2L) + Glycine (8.76 g/2L) + Histidine (4.08 g/2L) + Isoleucine (5.10 g/2L) + L-Leucine (6.20 g/2L) + L-Lysine (4.93 g/2L) + L-Phenylalanine (4.76 g/2L) + L-Threonine (3.57 g/2L) + L-Tryptophan (1.53 g/2L) + L-Valine (4.93 g/2L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (1.02 g/2L) + Methionine (3.40 g/2L) + Proline (5.78 g/2L) + Serine (4.25 g/2L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (5.94 g/2L) + Sodium chloride (1.54 g/2L) + Tyrosine (0.34 g/2L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30Us
PrimeneL-Alanine (2 g/250mL) + Arginine (2.1 g/250mL) + Aspartic acid (1.5 g/250mL) + Glutamic acid (2.5 g/250mL) + Glycine (1 g/250mL) + Histidine (0.95 g/250mL) + Isoleucine (1.675 g/250mL) + L-Cysteine (0.47 g/250mL) + L-Leucine (2.5 g/250mL) + L-Lysine (2.75 g/250mL) + L-Phenylalanine (1.05 g/250mL) + L-Threonine (0.9 g/250mL) + L-Tryptophan (0.5 g/250mL) + L-Valine (1.9 g/250mL) + Methionine (0.6 g/250mL) + Ornithine hydrochloride (0.8 g/250mL) + Proline (0.75 g/250mL) + Serine (1 g/250mL) + Taurine (0.15 g/250mL) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/250mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-11-22Not applicableUs
SynthaminL-Alanine (20.70 g/1000mL) + Arginine (11.50 g/1000mL) + Glycine (10.30 g/1000mL) + Histidine (4.80 g/1000mL) + Isoleucine (6 g/1000mL) + L-Leucine (7.30 g/1000mL) + L-Lysine (5.80 g/1000mL) + L-Phenylalanine (5.60 g/1000mL) + L-Threonine (4.20 g/1000mL) + L-Tryptophan (1.80 g/1000mL) + L-Valine (5.80 g/1000mL) + Methionine (4 g/1000mL) + Proline (6.80 g/1000mL) + Serine (5 g/1000mL) + Tyrosine (400 mg/1000mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-11-03Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
OF5P57N2ZX
CAS number
56-41-7
Weight
Average: 89.0932
Monoisotopic: 89.047678473
Chemical Formula
C3H7NO2
InChI Key
QNAYBMKLOCPYGJ-REOHCLBHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2H,4H2,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
SMILES
C[C@H](N)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for protein synthesis.

Pharmacodynamics

Is an important source of energy for muscle tissue, the brain and central nervous system; strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies; helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids.

Mechanism of action

L-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

TargetActionsOrganism
USerine--pyruvate aminotransferaseNot AvailableHumans
U4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Humans
UKynureninaseNot AvailableHumans
UAlanine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
U5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyaseNot AvailableHumans
UAlanine aminotransferase 2Not AvailableHumans
UAlanine aminotransferase 1Not AvailableHumans
UCysteine desulfurase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1Not AvailableHumans
ULarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2Not AvailableHumans
UAlanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UAlanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmicNot AvailableHumans
UNeutral amino acid transporter ANot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDisease
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Selenoamino Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolic
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug action
Oxytetracycline Action PathwayDrug action
Tetracycline Action PathwayDrug action
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDisease
gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase DeficiencyDisease
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug action
Troleandomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Josamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Glutaminolysis and CancerDisease
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolic
Alanine MetabolismMetabolic
Tryptophan MetabolismMetabolic
5-OxoprolinuriaDisease
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)Disease
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug action
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Daniel T. Belmont, Valerie Hendrickson, Mark J. Hoekman, "Process for the preparation of an L-alanine compound." U.S. Patent US5268483, issued October, 1953.

US5268483
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000161
KEGG Drug
D00012
KEGG Compound
C00041
PubChem Compound
5950
PubChem Substance
46504866
ChemSpider
5735
BindingDB
50000099
ChEBI
16977
ChEMBL
CHEMBL279597
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000805
PharmGKB
PA448055
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
ALA
MSDS
Download (71.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
0RecruitingTreatmentAgnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia / Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient / Primary Myelofibrosis / Secondary Myelofibrosis1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Burkitt Lymphoma / Adult Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Burkitt's Lymphoma / CD20-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present / Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Indolent Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) / Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentAccelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia (ABL) / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Recurrent / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Acute myeloid leukaemia (in remission) / Acute, recurrent Myeloid Leukemia / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Chronic, recurrent Lymphocytic Leukemia / DS Stage II Plasma Cell Myeloma / DS Stage III Plasma Cell Myeloma / High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma With MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 Rearrangements / ISS Stage II Plasma Cell Myeloma / ISS Stage III Plasma Cell Myeloma / Leukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma / Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Secondary AML, sAML) / Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Acute myeloid leukaemia (in remission) / Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Minimal Residual Disease / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Secondary AML, sAML)1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcute myeloid leukaemia (in remission) / Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission / Aplastic Anemia / Blasts Under 10 Percent of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells / Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Chronic, recurrent Lymphocytic Leukemia / Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient / Leukemias / Minimal Residual Disease / Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Plasma Cell Myeloma / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
1RecruitingTreatmentAllogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient / Blasts 15 Percent or Less of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells / Blasts 5 Percent or Less of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells / Secondary Myelofibrosis1
1RecruitingTreatmentHLA-A*0201 Positive Cells Present / HLA-DP4 Positive Cells Present / Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Carcinoma / Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma / Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma / Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma / Refractory Fallopian Tube Carcinoma / Refractory Ovarian Carcinoma / Refractory Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Malignant Neoplasms Stated as Primary Lymphoid Haematopoietic / Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma / Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Myelofibrosis / Secondary Myelofibrosis1
1WithdrawnSupportive CareAcute myeloid leukaemia (in remission) / Primary Myelofibrosis / Primary Myelofibrosis, Prefibrotic Stage / Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Secondary AML, sAML) / Secondary Myelofibrosis1
1WithdrawnTreatmentHLA-A*0201 Positive Cells Present / NY-ESO-1 Positive Tumor Cells Present / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma / Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma / B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Cutaneous B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue / Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma / Intraocular Lymphoma / Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas / Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma / Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL) / Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia / Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Small Intestine Lymphoma / Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma / T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia / Testicular Lymphoma / Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM)1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Chronic, recurrent Lymphocytic Leukemia / Leukemia, Prolymphocytic / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma / Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia / T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDS Stage I Plasma Cell Myeloma / DS Stage II Plasma Cell Myeloma / DS Stage III Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAdult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma / Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, ALK-Negative / Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma / Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue / Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas / Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL) / Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Recurrent Mature T- and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Recurrent Transformed Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage III Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM)1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAllogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient / Donor / Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Cell Neoplasm1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCD19 Positive / Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) / Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma / Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma / Refractory Follicular Lymphoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAccelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Acute myeloid leukaemia (in remission) / Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Gene Mutations / Acute, recurrent Myeloid Leukemia / Blast Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive in Remission / De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Leukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Myeloproliferative Disorders / Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma / Adult Mixed Glioma / Adult Oligodendroglioma / Oligoastrocytoma / Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient / Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma / Refractory Follicular Lymphoma / Refractory Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Refractory Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma / Refractory Transformed Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Plasmablastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentAdult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor / Adult Embryonal Tumor With Multilayered Rosettes, C19MC-Altered / Adult Ependymoblastoma / Adult Medulloblastoma / Adult Pineoblastoma / Adult Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified / Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor / Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor / Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor / Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor / Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor / Childhood Embryonal Tumor With Multilayered Rosettes, C19MC-Altered / Childhood Ependymoblastoma / Germ Cell Tumors / Medulloepithelioma / Ototoxicity / Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm / Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Neoplasm / Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma / Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma / Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified / Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentPlasma Cell Leukemia in Remission / Plasma Cell Myeloma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAccelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia (ABL) / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Chemotherapy-Related Leukemia / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) / Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer / Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Leukemia, Acute / Lymphoma, Hodgkins / Minimal Residual Disease / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (SLL) / Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas / Follicular Lymphoma (FL) / Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRefractory Plasma Cell Myeloma1
2CompletedTreatmentB-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Chronic, recurrent Lymphocytic Leukemia / Hypodiploidy / Leukemia, Plasma Cell / Loss of Chromosome 17p / Progression of Multiple Myeloma or Plasma Cell Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / T(14;16) / T(4;14) / T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia / Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM)1
2CompletedTreatmentCD20 Positive / Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Cell Neoplasm / Lymphocytic Neoplasm / Malignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Rheumatic Heart Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentJuvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia1
2RecruitingPreventionMuscle Wasting / Quality of Life1
2RecruitingTreatmentAccelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia (ABL) / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes / Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Variant MLL Translocations / Acute, recurrent Myeloid Leukemia / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Chemotherapy-Related Leukemia / Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma With MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 Rearrangements / ISS Stage II Plasma Cell Myeloma / ISS Stage III Plasma Cell Myeloma / Leukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts / Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Gene Mutation / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Myeloproliferative Disorders / Plasma Cell Myeloma / Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Secondary AML, sAML) / Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipient / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / CD22 Positive / Lymphocytic Neoplasm / Malignant Lymphomas1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutoimmune Diseases / Autoimmune Disorders / Autologous Transplant Autoimmune / CIDP Transplant / HCT for Neurologic Autoimmune Disorders / MS Stem Cell Transplant / Multiple Sclerosis Stem Cell Transplant / Multiple Sclerosis Transplant / Myasthenia Gravis Transplant / Neurologic Autoimmune Disease / Stiff Person Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentB-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas / Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) / Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma / Refractory Follicular Lymphoma / Refractory Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute, recurrent Myeloid Leukemia / Blasts 10 Percent or More of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells / Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia-2 / High Grade Malignant Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts-2 / Myeloid Neoplasm / Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentGanglioneuroblastoma / High-Risk Neuroblastoma / NMYC Gene Amplification1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia, Plasma Cell / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Plasmacytoma / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia, Plasma Cell / Plasma Cell Myeloma1
2RecruitingTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma / Secondary amyloidosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Myelofibrosis / Secondary Myelofibrosis1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDS Stage I Plasma Cell Myeloma / DS Stage II Plasma Cell Myeloma / DS Stage III Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Multiple Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma / Stage I Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Multiple Myeloma / Stage III Multiple Myeloma1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDS Stage I Plasma Cell Myeloma / DS Stage II Plasma Cell Myeloma / DS Stage III Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma / Smoldering Plasma Cell Myeloma1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma / Stage I Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Multiple Myeloma / Stage III Multiple Myeloma1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1
3CompletedTreatmentLocalized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3CompletedTreatmentParents2
3RecruitingTreatmentActivated B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient / B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma / Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Activated B-Cell Type / Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified / High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified / Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Activated B-Cell Type / Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma / Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma / Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Activated B-Cell Type1
3RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Ganglioneuroblastoma / Childhood Neuroblastoma / Ganglioneuroblastoma / INRG Stage L2 / INRG Stage M / INRG Stage MS / Neuroblastomas / NMYC Gene Amplification / Recurrent Neuroblastoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Parenteral Feeding1
3RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Parenteral Nutrition1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Starvation1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCritical Illness1
4TerminatedSupportive CareCancer-related Malnutrition1
4TerminatedSupportive CareParenteral Nutrition (No Primary Condition Studied)1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareMalnutrition1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentUnilateral Retinoblastoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAortic Valve Stenois1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHyperglycemia / Infant, Low Birth Weight1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
LiquidHemodialysis
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-alanine powder2.35USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)300 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.64E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.85SANGSTER (1994)
pKa2.34 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility447.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS0.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity20.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (6.76 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-c7f6dbace291e8305a4e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-381ddf4d9ea77be0b8a5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-01b9-6900000000-6a7c1bb2915e5dd0791f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-84b389f82562c29a8148
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-b2f7507be509a85d821b
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-941672891ab94cf5015d
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0f79-0910000000-47bd3e3aa274a653a64e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-c7f6dbace291e8305a4e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-381ddf4d9ea77be0b8a5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1940000000-5def9f7c902aaf1ef607
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-01b9-6900000000-6a7c1bb2915e5dd0791f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-84b389f82562c29a8148
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-96b54b269c91ab21be08
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a8008305399aa1097e1a
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-7253c912562200edc231
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-72694f3a1a5de3b49790
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-55d0139f513946f76461
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5b0dff13a98daf782205
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-37db595fcf7364600bc9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-5129e160acf979ac549e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-11c20eba8c5ad41d806c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-df7c7d6a6ae2d6bccefe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-32477244247613182214
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000f-9002000000-4873ce0cdcac54d68186
MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-8193842b36c819ca3ec6
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-55d0139f513946f76461
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5b0dff13a98daf782205
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-37db595fcf7364600bc9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fefc31c264a2f0fcf6d0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-ba42bcd60aa9182a780e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-df7c7d6a6ae2d6bccefe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-32477244247613182214
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000f-9002000000-4873ce0cdcac54d68186
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alanine and derivatives. These are compounds containing alanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of alanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
L-alpha-amino acids / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Alanine or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / L-alpha-amino acid / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Primary amine / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
proteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, alanine, pyruvate family amino acid (CHEBI:16977) / Common amino acids (C00041)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transaminase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
AGXT
Uniprot ID
P21549
Uniprot Name
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase
Molecular Weight
43009.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Salido EC, Li XM, Lu Y, Wang X, Santana A, Roy-Chowdhury N, Torres A, Shapiro LJ, Roy-Chowdhury J: Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-deficient mice, a model for primary hyperoxaluria that responds to adenoviral gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 28;103(48):18249-54. Epub 2006 Nov 16. [PubMed:17110443]
  4. Amoroso A, Pirulli D, Florian F, Puzzer D, Boniotto M, Crovella S, Zezlina S, Spano A, Mazzola G, Savoldi S, Ferrettini C, Berutti S, Petrarulo M, Marangella M: AGXT gene mutations and their influence on clinical heterogeneity of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Oct;12(10):2072-9. [PubMed:11562405]
  5. Pirulli D, Puzzer D, Ferri L, Crovella S, Amoroso A, Ferrettini C, Marangella M, Mazzola G, Florian F: Molecular analysis of hyperoxaluria type 1 in Italian patients reveals eight new mutations in the alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase gene. Hum Genet. 1999 Jun;104(6):523-5. [PubMed:10453743]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-al...
Gene Name
ABAT
Uniprot ID
P80404
Uniprot Name
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Amadasi A, Bertoldi M, Contestabile R, Bettati S, Cellini B, di Salvo ML, Borri-Voltattorni C, Bossa F, Mozzarelli A: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes as targets for therapeutic agents. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(12):1291-324. [PubMed:17504214]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hyd...
Gene Name
KYNU
Uniprot ID
Q16719
Uniprot Name
Kynureninase
Molecular Weight
52351.14 Da
References
  1. Christensen M, Duno M, Lund AM, Skovby F, Christensen E: Xanthurenic aciduria due to a mutation in KYNU encoding kynureninase. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Apr;30(2):248-55. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [PubMed:17334708]
  2. Lima S, Khristoforov R, Momany C, Phillips RS: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2735-44. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [PubMed:17300176]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrec...
Gene Name
AARS2
Uniprot ID
Q5JTZ9
Uniprot Name
Alanine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
107339.48 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [PubMed:10871402]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [PubMed:8601277]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [PubMed:7742303]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transaminase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent breakdown of 5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine, converting it to ammonia, inorganic phosphate and 2-aminoadipate semialdehyde.
Gene Name
PHYKPL
Uniprot ID
Q8IUZ5
Uniprot Name
5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyase
Molecular Weight
49710.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.
Gene Name
GPT2
Uniprot ID
Q8TD30
Uniprot Name
Alanine aminotransferase 2
Molecular Weight
57903.11 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. Genomics. 2002 Mar;79(3):445-50. [PubMed:11863375]
  4. Jadhao SB, Yang RZ, Lin Q, Hu H, Anania FA, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: Murine alanine aminotransferase: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and differential gene regulation in mouse fatty liver. Hepatology. 2004 May;39(5):1297-302. [PubMed:15122758]
  5. Rajamohan F, Nelms L, Joslin DL, Lu B, Reagan WJ, Lawton M: cDNA cloning, expression, purification, distribution, and characterization of biologically active canine alanine aminotransferase-1. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Jul;48(1):81-9. Epub 2006 Jan 30. [PubMed:16495081]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting wi...
Gene Name
GPT
Uniprot ID
P24298
Uniprot Name
Alanine aminotransferase 1
Molecular Weight
54636.415 Da
References
  1. Miyashita Y, Dolferus R, Ismond KP, Good AG: Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(6):1108-21. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17319845]
  2. Gray S, Wang B, Orihuela Y, Hong EG, Fisch S, Haldar S, Cline GW, Kim JK, Peroni OD, Kahn BB, Jain MK: Regulation of gluconeogenesis by Kruppel-like factor 15. Cell Metab. 2007 Apr;5(4):305-12. [PubMed:17403374]
  3. Taracha E, Habrat B, Chrapusta SJ, Lehner M, Wislowska A, Woronowicz BT, Bogulas M, Charewicz J, Markuszewski C, Plaznik A: Combining markers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity for improved monitoring and detection of chronic alcohol abuse. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(12):1446-52. [PubMed:17163821]
  4. Chen CH, Lee RP, Wu WT, Liao KW, Hsu N, Hsu BG: Fluvastatin ameliorates endotoxin induced multiple organ failure in conscious rats. Resuscitation. 2007 Jul;74(1):166-74. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [PubMed:17353078]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the removal of elemental sulfur from cysteine to produce alanine. It supplies the inorganic sulfur for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. May be involved in the biosynthesis of molybdenum cofac...
Gene Name
NFS1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y697
Uniprot Name
Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
50195.21 Da
References
  1. You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z: A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):6126-33. Epub 2007 May 1. [PubMed:17469805]
  2. Zeng J, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, Xia L, Liu J, Qiu G: Expression, purification and characterization of a cysteine desulfurase, IscS, from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biotechnol Lett. 2007 Dec;29(12):1983-90. Epub 2007 Jul 28. [PubMed:17660944]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recog...
Gene Name
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID
Q7Z2H8
Uniprot Name
Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53075.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Miyauchi S, Abbot EL, Zhuang L, Subramanian R, Ganapathy V, Thwaites DT: Isolation and function of the amino acid transporter PAT1 (slc36a1) from rabbit and discrimination between transport via PAT1 and system IMINO in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Mol Membr Biol. 2005 Nov-Dec;22(6):549-59. [PubMed:16373326]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when asso...
Gene Name
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI5
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2
Molecular Weight
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Broer S, Broer A, Hansen JT, Bubb WA, Balcar VJ, Nasrallah FA, Garner B, Rae C: Alanine metabolism, transport, and cycling in the brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Sep;102(6):1758-70. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17504263]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and th...
Gene Name
AGXT2
Uniprot ID
Q9BYV1
Uniprot Name
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57155.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Okuno E, Ishikawa T, Kawai J, Kido R: Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities in liver of Suncus murinus (insectivora). Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1988;90(4):773-8. [PubMed:2907870]
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. [PubMed:6703688]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrec...
Gene Name
AARS
Uniprot ID
P49588
Uniprot Name
Alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
106809.525 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [PubMed:10871402]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [PubMed:8601277]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [PubMed:7742303]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Transporter for alanine, serine, cysteine, and threonine. Exhibits sodium dependence.
Gene Name
SLC1A4
Uniprot ID
P43007
Uniprot Name
Neutral amino acid transporter A
Molecular Weight
55722.455 Da
References
  1. Zhang Z, Papageorgiou G, Corrie JE, Grewer C: Pre-steady-state currents in neutral amino acid transporters induced by photolysis of a new caged alanine derivative. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 27;46(12):3872-80. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17311416]
  2. Takasaki C, Miura E, Watanabe M: Segmental and complementary expression of L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 in the mouse kidney. Biomed Res. 2007 Apr;28(2):61-9. [PubMed:17510490]
  3. Zhang Z, Grewer C: The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates. Biophys J. 2007 Apr 1;92(7):2621-32. Epub 2007 Jan 19. [PubMed:17237199]
  4. Pinho MJ, Pinto V, Serrao MP, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Underexpression of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 in the spontaneously hypertensive rat kidney. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):R538-47. Epub 2007 May 2. [PubMed:17475673]
  5. Wu Y, Shen D, Chen Z, Clayton S, Vadgama JV: Taxol induced apoptosis regulates amino acid transport in breast cancer cells. Apoptosis. 2007 Mar;12(3):593-612. Epub 2006 Dec 29. [PubMed:17195090]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2019 00:18