Identification

Name
Glycine
Accession Number
DB00145  (NUTR00028)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
Description

A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aminoacetic acid
  • Aminoessigsäure
  • Aminoethanoic acid
  • Gly
  • Glycin
  • Glycocoll
  • Glykokoll
  • Glyzin
  • Leimzucker
External IDs
FEMA NO. 3287
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
GlycineIrrigant1.5 g/100mLIrrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.2013-12-04Not applicableUs
GlycineSolution1.5 g/100mLIrrigationBaxter Laboratories1980-05-30Not applicableUs
GlycineIrrigant1.5 g/100mLIrrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.1978-02-06Not applicableUs
GlycineIrrigant1.5 g/100mLIrrigationHospira, Inc.1980-02-22Not applicableUs
Glycine 1.5% Irrigation USP SolLiquid1.5 gIrrigationBaxter Laboratories1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Glycine Irrigation 1.5% USPLiquid1.5 %IrrigationB. Braun Medical Inc.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Glycine Irrigation USPSolution15 mgIrrigationIcu Medical Canada Inc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Gyn-Hydralin
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseGlycine (260 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glucose (10 g) + Histidine (120 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Arginine (290 mg) + L-Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Leucine (182.5 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + L-Methionine (100 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (140 mg) + L-Proline (170 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Tyrosine (10 mg) + L-Valine (145 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium Chloride (29.3 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixGlycine (520 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glucose (10 g) + Histidine (110 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Arginine (260 mg) + L-Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg) + L-Methionine (145 mg) + L-Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Proline (105 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Tyrosine (10 mg) + L-Valine (115 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Sodium Chloride (29.3 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixGlycine (520 mg) + Glucose (10 g) + Histidine (110 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Arginine (260 mg) + L-Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (195 mg) + L-Methionine (195 mg) + L-Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Proline (105 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Tyrosine (10 mg) + L-Valine (115 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexGlycine (260 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glucose (25 g) + Histidine (120 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Arginine (290 mg) + L-Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Leucine (182.5 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + L-Methionine (100 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (140 mg) + L-Proline (170 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Tyrosine (10 mg) + L-Valine (145 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium Chloride (29.3 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexGlycine (283 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glucose (25 g) + Histidine (132 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Arginine (316 mg) + L-Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Leucine (201 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + L-Methionine (110 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (154 mg) + L-Proline (187 mg) + L-Threonine (115.5 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Tyrosine (11 mg) + L-Valine (159.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium Chloride (112 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixGlycine (570 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glucose (25 g) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Arginine (285 mg) + L-Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + L-Methionine (159 mg) + L-Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Proline (115 mg) + L-Threonine (115 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Tyrosine (11 mg) + L-Valine (126 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Sodium Chloride (112 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixGlycine (570 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (215.5 mg) + Glucose (5 g) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Arginine (285 mg) + L-Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + L-Methionine (159 mg) + L-Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Proline (115 mg) + L-Threonine (115 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Tyrosine (11 mg) + L-Valine (126 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Sodium Chloride (112 mg) + Sodium acetate (256 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.Glycine (283 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glucose (5 g) + Histidine (132 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Arginine (316 mg) + L-Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Leucine (201 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + L-Methionine (110 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (154 mg) + L-Proline (187 mg) + L-Threonine (115.5 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Tyrosine (11 mg) + L-Valine (159.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium Chloride (112 mg) + Sodium acetate (215 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixGlycine (880 mg) + Glucose (20 g) + Histidine (186 mg) + L-Alanine (880 mg) + L-Arginine (440 mg) + L-Isoleucine (203 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (263 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (246 mg) + L-Methionine (246 mg) + L-Phenylalanine hydrochloride (263 mg) + L-Proline (178 mg) + L-Threonine (178 mg) + L-Tryptophan (76 mg) + L-Tyrosine (17 mg) + L-Valine (195 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseGlycine (438 mg) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glucose (10 g) + Histidine (204 mg) + L-Alanine (880 mg) + L-Arginine (489 mg) + L-Isoleucine (255 mg) + L-Leucine (310 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (246.5 mg) + L-Methionine (170 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (238 mg) + L-Proline (289 mg) + L-Threonine (178.5 mg) + L-Tryptophan (76.5 mg) + L-Tyrosine (17 mg) + L-Valine (246.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Serine (212.5 mg) + Sodium Chloride (77 mg) + Sodium acetate (297 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
Categories
UNII
TE7660XO1C
CAS number
56-40-6
Weight
Average: 75.0666
Monoisotopic: 75.032028409
Chemical Formula
C2H5NO2
InChI Key
DHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5)
IUPAC Name
2-aminoacetic acid
SMILES
NCC(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Supplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.

Mechanism of action

In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.

TargetActionsOrganism
UGlutathione synthetaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1Not AvailableHuman
USerine--pyruvate aminotransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine receptor subunit betaNot AvailableHuman
USerine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolicNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-3Not AvailableHuman
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-2Not AvailableHuman
UGlycine N-methyltransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3BNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
USodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
U2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
U5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
U5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine cleavage system H protein, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine--tRNA ligaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
antagonist
Human
UBile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UN-arachidonyl glycine receptorNot AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2CNot AvailableHuman
USerine hydroxymethyltransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine N-acyltransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
USerine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1Not AvailableHuman
UAlanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UVesicular inhibitory amino acid transporterNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisomal sarcosine oxidaseNot AvailableHuman
USodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

ORL-RAT LD50 7930 mg/kg, SCU-RAT LD50 5200 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD50 2600 mg/kg, ORL-MUS LD50 4920 mg/kg; Doses of 1 gram daily are very well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequently noted. In one study doses of 90 grams daily were also well tole.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Methionine MetabolismMetabolic
Purine MetabolismMetabolic
Alanine MetabolismMetabolic
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolic
5-OxoprolinuriaDisease
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyDisease
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)Disease
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Lactic AcidemiaDisease
HypermethioninemiaDisease
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)Disease
HomocarnosinosisDisease
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDisease
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDisease
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDisease
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencyDisease
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDisease
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)Disease
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)Disease
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type IDisease
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolic
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)Disease
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDisease
Sarcosine Oncometabolite Pathway Disease
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolic
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolic
Porphyrin MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Koichi Niimura, Takako Kawabe, Takao Ando, Kenichi Saito, "Phenylalanine-glycine compounds having anti-tumor activity, process for preparation thereof, and pharmaceutical composition containing said compounds." U.S. Patent US5411964, issued August, 1908.

US5411964
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00123
KEGG Drug
D00011
KEGG Compound
C00037
PubChem Compound
750
PubChem Substance
46508219
ChemSpider
730
BindingDB
18133
ChEBI
15428
ChEMBL
CHEMBL773
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000288
PharmGKB
PA449789
IUPHAR
727
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
GLY
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Glycine
ATC Codes
B05CX03 — Glycine
AHFS Codes
  • 40:36.00 — Irrigating Solutions
MSDS
Download (72.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizo-Affective Disorder1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentPsychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffecitve Disorder / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHypertensive1
2TerminatedPreventionHerpes Labialis / Herpes Simplex Virus1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenia Prodrome1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiarrheal Disorder1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDiarrhea, Malnutrition1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDiarrhea, Malnutrition / Other Nutritional Deficiencies1
3WithdrawnTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Dependent1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • B braun medical inc
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PowderTopical
Injection, solutionIntravenous
TabletOral
IrrigantIrrigation1.5 g/100mL
SolutionIrrigation1.5 g/100mL
LiquidIrrigation1.5 g
LiquidIrrigation1.5 %
SolutionIrrigation15 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Diluent for flolan vial0.31USD ml
Amino acetic acid powder0.03USD g
Glycine powder0.03USD g
Glycine 1.5% irrigation0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)262 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility2.49E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.21HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.37 (at 20 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility552.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS0.87ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.31ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity16 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability6.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5728
Caco-2 permeable-0.7533
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7821
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9841
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9794
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9436
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8833
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8526
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8432
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9628
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9738
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.975
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.973
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9405
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9871
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6261
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9289
Rat acute toxicity1.0076 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9611
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9556
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (6.91 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00dj-2900000000-0ef96bcf06ce475afcdd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-00dj-1900000000-1d289099ac79cfb8bb19
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-7910000000-6c972a683dfb75b69331
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-ef69e38ee6cebc2ece00
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-2910000000-3215b9e40f20c7b306cd
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-719b7f248956f13a312d
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-99b4fc43740b21edc786
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00di-1910000000-4cff4d14c73acff9442f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dj-2900000000-0ef96bcf06ce475afcdd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dj-1900000000-1d289099ac79cfb8bb19
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQGC-MSsplash10-0002-4960000000-2c6fa028e985c6019854
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-7910000000-6c972a683dfb75b69331
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-2910000000-3215b9e40f20c7b306cd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-ef69e38ee6cebc2ece00
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00ds-2900000000-ffffed9c78c16a884e4a
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-004r-3900000000-f288b50b7b6890429811
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-c76140c31c1f120e4b9d
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-222d6c3a1ba6afcd7ea9
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-003r-9000000000-725357e461c898a7451e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-9f3930e66b117ad91dca
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-b3336097dddbb5e22871
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-719b7f248956f13a312d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-6001578fc511ba3fefef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-79b2a0a9d93de6a62358
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-9290dbe208c4744f4431
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-342ab462db0835abb3d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ar1-9010000000-9daadc1d169a8530926d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-07y0-9220000000-8c7785f1f3aa8052679f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ula-9110000000-43ada06fe1b56b4e9fcc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-017i-9000000000-fbd78fbb48f082235f42
MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-c38d0fb28793438083a9
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-9000000000-c6b1ebc1dba89b6a6184
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-851aa6a0263541a8b249
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-053r-9000000000-d3b5624412082bb2cf60
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-89b2c043a5afe3ebc6f6
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-b4046e208ee8adb87021
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-05fr-9000000000-36521e440c602bd2ca5a
MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-Q-Exactive Plus , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-6001578fc511ba3fefef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-79b2a0a9d93de6a62358
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-9290dbe208c4744f4431
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-605b44ac311a9af4bb7a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-342ab462db0835abb3d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ar1-9010000000-9daadc1d169a8530926d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-07y0-9220000000-8c7785f1f3aa8052679f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ula-9110000000-43ada06fe1b56b4e9fcc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-017i-9000000000-fbd78fbb48f082235f42
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary amine / Organooxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
alpha-amino acid, proteinogenic amino acid, serine family amino acid (CHEBI:15428) / Common amino acids, Amino acids (C00037)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GSS
Uniprot ID
P48637
Uniprot Name
Glutathione synthetase
Molecular Weight
52384.325 Da
References
  1. Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J: Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 8;282(23):17157-65. Epub 2007 Apr 22. [PubMed:17452339]
  2. Ducruix C, Junot C, Fievet JB, Villiers F, Ezan E, Bourguignon J: New insights into the regulation of phytochelatin biosynthesis in A. thaliana cells from metabolite profiling analyses. Biochimie. 2006 Nov;88(11):1733-42. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16996193]
  3. Ristoff E, Larsson A: Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathione. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Mar 30;2:16. [PubMed:17397529]
  4. Pai CH, Chiang BY, Ko TP, Chou CC, Chong CM, Yen FJ, Chen S, Coward JK, Wang AH, Lin CH: Dual binding sites for translocation catalysis by Escherichia coli glutathionylspermidine synthetase. EMBO J. 2006 Dec 13;25(24):5970-82. Epub 2006 Nov 23. [PubMed:17124497]
  5. Janaky R, Dohovics R, Saransaari P, Oja SS: Modulation of [3H]dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug;32(8):1357-64. Epub 2007 Mar 31. [PubMed:17401648]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Heinze L, Harvey RJ, Haverkamp S, Wassle H: Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: localization of the alpha4 subunit. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Feb 1;500(4):693-707. [PubMed:17154252]
  2. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. [PubMed:16884688]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transaminase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
AGXT
Uniprot ID
P21549
Uniprot Name
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase
Molecular Weight
43009.535 Da
References
  1. Ricoult C, Echeverria LO, Cliquet JB, Limami AM: Characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) multigene family and hypoxic response in young seedlings of the model legume Medicago truncatula. J Exp Bot. 2006;57(12):3079-89. Epub 2006 Aug 9. [PubMed:16899523]
  2. Han Q, Robinson H, Gao YG, Vogelaar N, Wilson SR, Rizzi M, Li J: Crystal structures of Aedes aegypti alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 1;281(48):37175-82. Epub 2006 Sep 21. [PubMed:16990263]
  3. Lu TC, Ko YZ, Huang HW, Hung YC, Lin YC, Peng WH: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract from Glycine tomentella root in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Aug 15;113(1):142-8. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17616291]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glycine binding
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRB
Uniprot ID
P48167
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit beta
Molecular Weight
56121.62 Da
References
  1. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. [PubMed:16884688]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine binding
Specific Function
Interconversion of serine and glycine.
Gene Name
SHMT1
Uniprot ID
P34896
Uniprot Name
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic
Molecular Weight
53082.18 Da
References
  1. Vatsyayan R, Roy U: Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Leishmania donovani serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Apr;52(2):433-40. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17142057]
  2. Rajinikanth M, Harding SA, Tsai CJ: The glycine decarboxylase complex multienzyme family in Populus. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(7):1761-70. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17355947]
  3. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin: characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Nov;35(11):2127-37. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664250]
  4. Nijhout HF, Reed MC, Lam SL, Shane B, Gregory JF 3rd, Ulrich CM: In silico experimentation with a model of hepatic mitochondrial folate metabolism. Theor Biol Med Model. 2006 Dec 6;3:40. [PubMed:17150100]
  5. Gagnon D, Foucher A, Girard I, Ouellette M: Stage specific gene expression and cellular localization of two isoforms of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov;150(1):63-71. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16876889]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA3
Uniprot ID
O75311
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
53799.775 Da
References
  1. Heinze L, Harvey RJ, Haverkamp S, Wassle H: Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: localization of the alpha4 subunit. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Feb 1;500(4):693-707. [PubMed:17154252]
  2. Majumdar S, Heinze L, Haverkamp S, Ivanova E, Wassle H: Glycine receptors of A-type ganglion cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):471-87. Epub 2007 May 29. [PubMed:17550639]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA2
Uniprot ID
P23416
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
52001.585 Da
References
  1. Young-Pearse TL, Ivic L, Kriegstein AR, Cepko CL: Characterization of mice with targeted deletion of glycine receptor alpha 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Aug;26(15):5728-34. [PubMed:16847326]
  2. Qi Z, Stephens NR, Spalding EP: Calcium entry mediated by GLR3.3, an Arabidopsis glutamate receptor with a broad agonist profile. Plant Physiol. 2006 Nov;142(3):963-71. Epub 2006 Sep 29. [PubMed:17012403]
  3. Majumdar S, Heinze L, Haverkamp S, Ivanova E, Wassle H: Glycine receptors of A-type ganglion cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):471-87. Epub 2007 May 29. [PubMed:17550639]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glycine n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial ...
Gene Name
GNMT
Uniprot ID
Q14749
Uniprot Name
Glycine N-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
32742.0 Da
References
  1. Soriano A, Castillo R, Christov C, Andres J, Moliner V, Tunon I: Catalysis in glycine N-methyltransferase: testing the electrostatic stabilization and compression hypothesis. Biochemistry. 2006 Dec 19;45(50):14917-25. [PubMed:17154529]
  2. Luka Z, Pakhomova S, Loukachevitch LV, Egli M, Newcomer ME, Wagner C: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is bound in intersubunit areas of rat liver folate-binding protein glycine N-methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9;282(6):4069-75. Epub 2006 Dec 7. [PubMed:17158459]
  3. Velichkova P, Himo F: Methyl transfer in glycine N-methyltransferase. A theoretical study. J Phys Chem B. 2005 Apr 28;109(16):8216-9. [PubMed:16851960]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glycine amidinotransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central ner...
Gene Name
GATM
Uniprot ID
P50440
Uniprot Name
Glycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
48455.01 Da
References
  1. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546]
  2. Dutta U, Cohenford MA, Guha M, Dain JA: Non-enzymatic interactions of glyoxylate with lysine, arginine, and glucosamine: a study of advanced non-enzymatic glycation like compounds. Bioorg Chem. 2007 Feb;35(1):11-24. Epub 2006 Sep 12. [PubMed:16970975]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID
O60391
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B
Molecular Weight
112990.98 Da
References
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17502428]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lyase activity
Specific Function
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein (GLDC) binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the rem...
Gene Name
GLDC
Uniprot ID
P23378
Uniprot Name
Glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
112728.805 Da
References
  1. Mukherjee M, Brown MT, McArthur AG, Johnson PJ: Proteins of the glycine decarboxylase complex in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Dec;5(12):2062-71. [PubMed:17158739]
  2. Kanno J, Hutchin T, Kamada F, Narisawa A, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Kure S: Genomic deletion within GLDC is a major cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia. J Med Genet. 2007 Mar;44(3):e69. [PubMed:17361008]
  3. Engel N, van den Daele K, Kolukisaoglu U, Morgenthal K, Weckwerth W, Parnik T, Keerberg O, Bauwe H: Deletion of glycine decarboxylase in Arabidopsis is lethal under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Plant Physiol. 2007 Jul;144(3):1328-35. Epub 2007 May 11. [PubMed:17496108]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Terminates the action of glycine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals. May play a role in regulation of glycine levels in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission.
Gene Name
SLC6A9
Uniprot ID
P48067
Uniprot Name
Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1
Molecular Weight
78259.625 Da
References
  1. Wiles AL, Pearlman RJ, Rosvall M, Aubrey KR, Vandenberg RJ: N-Arachidonyl-glycine inhibits the glycine transporter, GLYT2a. J Neurochem. 2006 Nov;99(3):781-6. Epub 2006 Aug 8. [PubMed:16899062]
  2. Lindsley CW, Wolkenberg SE, Kinney GG: Progress in the preparation and testing of glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT1) inhibitors. Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(17):1883-96. [PubMed:17017963]
  3. Igartua I, Solis JM, Bustamante J: Glycine-induced long-term synaptic potentiation is mediated by the glycine transporter GLYT1. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1586-95. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17462677]
  4. Sur C, Kinney GG: Glycine transporter 1 inhibitors and modulation of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory neurotransmission. Curr Drug Targets. 2007 May;8(5):643-9. [PubMed:17504107]
  5. Raiteri L, Stigliani S, Usai C, Diaspro A, Paluzzi S, Milanese M, Raiteri M, Bonanno G: Functional expression of release-regulating glycine transporters GLYT1 on GABAergic neurons and GLYT2 on astrocytes in mouse spinal cord. Neurochem Int. 2008 Jan;52(1-2):103-12. Epub 2007 May 16. [PubMed:17597258]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GCAT
Uniprot ID
O75600
Uniprot Name
2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
45284.6 Da
References
  1. Bashir Q, Rashid N, Akhtar M: Mechanism and substrate stereochemistry of 2-amino-3-oxobutyrate CoA ligase: implications for 5-aminolevulinate synthase and related enzymes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2006 Dec 28;(48):5065-7. Epub 2006 Oct 13. [PubMed:17146529]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALAS1
Uniprot ID
P13196
Uniprot Name
5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
70580.325 Da
References
  1. Turbeville TD, Zhang J, Hunter GA, Ferreira GC: Histidine 282 in 5-aminolevulinate synthase affects substrate binding and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):5972-81. Epub 2007 May 1. [PubMed:17469798]
  2. He XM, Zhou J, Cheng Y, Fan J: [Purification and production of the extracellular 5-aminolevulinate from recombiniant Escherichia coli expressing yeast ALAS]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2007 May;23(3):520-4. [PubMed:17578005]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALAS2
Uniprot ID
P22557
Uniprot Name
5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
64632.86 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hungerer C, Troup B, Romling U, Jahn D: Regulation of the hemA gene during 5-aminolevulinic acid formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 1995 Mar;177(6):1435-43. [PubMed:7883699]
  4. Shoolingin-Jordan PM, Al-Daihan S, Alexeev D, Baxter RL, Bottomley SS, Kahari ID, Roy I, Sarwar M, Sawyer L, Wang SF: 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):361-6. [PubMed:12686158]
  5. Munakata H, Yamagami T, Nagai T, Yamamoto M, Hayashi N: Purification and structure of rat erythroid-specific delta-aminolevulinate synthase. J Biochem. 1993 Jul;114(1):103-11. [PubMed:8407861]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Aminomethyltransferase activity
Specific Function
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The H protein (GCSH) shuttles the methylamine group of glycine from the P protein (GLDC) to the T protein (GCST).
Gene Name
GCSH
Uniprot ID
P23434
Uniprot Name
Glycine cleavage system H protein, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
18884.37 Da
References
  1. Kanno J, Hutchin T, Kamada F, Narisawa A, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Kure S: Genomic deletion within GLDC is a major cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia. J Med Genet. 2007 Mar;44(3):e69. [PubMed:17361008]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein dimerization activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of glycine to tRNA(Gly). Is also able produce diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a universal pleiotropic signaling molecule needed for cell regulation pathways, by direct c...
Gene Name
GARS
Uniprot ID
P41250
Uniprot Name
Glycine--tRNA ligase
Molecular Weight
83164.83 Da
References
  1. Okamoto K, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Recognition sites of glycine tRNA for glycyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2005;(49):299-300. [PubMed:17150752]
  2. Tsang SW, Vinters HV, Cummings JL, Wong PT, Chen CP, Lai MK: Alterations in NMDA receptor subunit densities and ligand binding to glycine recognition sites are associated with chronic anxiety in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2008 Oct;29(10):1524-32. Epub 2007 Apr 11. [PubMed:17433503]
  3. Scherer SS: Inherited neuropathies: new genes don't fit old models. Neuron. 2006 Sep 21;51(6):672-4. [PubMed:16982409]
  4. Cader MZ, Ren J, James PA, Bird LE, Talbot K, Stammers DK: Crystal structure of human wildtype and S581L-mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase, an enzyme underlying distal spinal muscular atrophy. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2959-64. Epub 2007 May 29. [PubMed:17544401]
  5. Antonellis A, Lee-Lin SQ, Wasterlain A, Leo P, Quezado M, Goldfarb LG, Myung K, Burgess S, Fischbeck KH, Green ED: Functional analyses of glycyl-tRNA synthetase mutations suggest a key role for tRNA-charging enzymes in peripheral axons. J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 11;26(41):10397-406. [PubMed:17035524]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of sub...
Gene Name
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID
Q12879
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
Molecular Weight
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Liu Y, Wong TP, Aarts M, Rooyakkers A, Liu L, Lai TW, Wu DC, Lu J, Tymianski M, Craig AM, Wang YT: NMDA receptor subunits have differential roles in mediating excitotoxic neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Mar 14;27(11):2846-57. [PubMed:17360906]
  2. Domingues A, Almeida S, da Cruz e Silva EF, Oliveira CR, Rego AC: Toxicity of beta-amyloid in HEK293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A or NR1/NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits. Neurochem Int. 2007 May;50(6):872-80. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17403555]
  3. Brosnan RJ, Yang L, Milutinovic PS, Zhao J, Laster MJ, Eger EI 2nd, Sonner JM: Ammonia has anesthetic properties. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun;104(6):1430-3, table of contents. [PubMed:17513636]
  4. Milutinovic PS, Yang L, Cantor RS, Eger EI 2nd, Sonner JM: Anesthetic-like modulation of a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, strychnine-sensitive glycine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by coreleased neurotransmitters. Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug;105(2):386-92. [PubMed:17646495]
  5. Gabra BH, Kessler FK, Ritter JK, Dewey WL, Smith FL: Decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor-NR2B subunit levels by intrathecal short-hairpin RNA blocks group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated hyperalgesia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jul;322(1):186-94. Epub 2007 Apr 3. [PubMed:17405869]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Very long chain acyl-coa hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The...
Gene Name
BAAT
Uniprot ID
Q14032
Uniprot Name
Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase
Molecular Weight
46298.865 Da
References
  1. Styles NA, Falany JL, Barnes S, Falany CN: Quantification and regulation of the subcellular distribution of bile acid coenzyme A:amino acid N-acyltransferase activity in rat liver. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1305-15. Epub 2007 Mar 22. [PubMed:17379925]
  2. Visser WF, van Roermund CW, Ijlst L, Waterham HR, Wanders RJ: Demonstration of bile acid transport across the mammalian peroxisomal membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jun 1;357(2):335-40. Epub 2007 Mar 26. [PubMed:17416343]
  3. Pellicoro A, van den Heuvel FA, Geuken M, Moshage H, Jansen PL, Faber KN: Human and rat bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase are liver-specific peroxisomal enzymes: implications for intracellular bile salt transport. Hepatology. 2007 Feb;45(2):340-8. [PubMed:17256745]
  4. Nakamura K, Morrison SF: Central efferent pathways mediating skin cooling-evoked sympathetic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jan;292(1):R127-36. Epub 2006 Aug 24. [PubMed:16931649]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for N-arachidonyl glycine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. May contribute to regulation of the immune system.
Gene Name
GPR18
Uniprot ID
Q14330
Uniprot Name
N-arachidonyl glycine receptor
Molecular Weight
38133.27 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name
GRIN2C
Uniprot ID
Q14957
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C
Molecular Weight
134207.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Widdowson PS, Gyte AJ, Upton R, Wyatt I: Failure of glycine site NMDA receptor antagonists to protect against L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity highlights the uniqueness of cerebellar NMDA receptors. Brain Res. 1996 Nov 4;738(2):236-42. [PubMed:8955518]
  4. Al-Ghoul WM, Meeker RB, Greenwood RS: Differential expression of five N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit mRNAs in vasopressin and oxytocin neuroendocrine cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997 Mar;44(2):262-72. [PubMed:9073168]
  5. Malayev A, Gibbs TT, Farb DH: Inhibition of the NMDA response by pregnenolone sulphate reveals subtype selective modulation of NMDA receptors by sulphated steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Feb;135(4):901-9. [PubMed:11861317]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Interconversion of serine and glycine.
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q53ET4
Uniprot Name
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase
Molecular Weight
55973.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Bouwman RA, Musters RJ, van Beek-Harmsen BJ, de Lange JJ, Lamberts RR, Loer SA, Boer C: Sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection depends on PKC-alpha activation via production of reactive oxygen species. Br J Anaesth. 2007 Nov;99(5):639-45. Epub 2007 Sep 27. [PubMed:17905752]
  4. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin: characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Nov;35(11):2127-37. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664250]
  5. Kon K, Ikejima K, Okumura K, Aoyama T, Arai K, Takei Y, Lemasters JJ, Sato N: Role of apoptosis in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jun;22 Suppl 1:S49-52. [PubMed:17567465]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acyl...
Gene Name
GLYAT
Uniprot ID
Q6IB77
Uniprot Name
Glycine N-acyltransferase
Molecular Weight
33923.995 Da
References
  1. Narasipura SD, Ren P, Dyavaiah M, Auger I, Chaturvedi V, Chaturvedi S: An efficient method for homologous gene reconstitution in Cryptococcus gattii using URA5 auxotrophic marker. Mycopathologia. 2006 Dec;162(6):401-9. [PubMed:17146584]
  2. Zhou CX, Gao Y: Frequent genetic alterations and reduced expression of the Axin1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma: involvement in tumor progression and metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2007 Jan;17(1):73-9. [PubMed:17143481]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recog...
Gene Name
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID
Q7Z2H8
Uniprot Name
Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53075.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Bermingham JR Jr, Pennington J: Organization and expression of the SLC36 cluster of amino acid transporter genes. Mamm Genome. 2004 Feb;15(2):114-25. [PubMed:15058382]
  4. Broer A, Cavanaugh JA, Rasko JE, Broer S: The molecular basis of neutral aminoacidurias. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Jan;451(4):511-7. Epub 2005 Jul 29. [PubMed:16052352]
  5. Metzner L, Kalbitz J, Brandsch M: Transport of pharmacologically active proline derivatives by the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter hPAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Apr;309(1):28-35. Epub 2004 Jan 12. [PubMed:14718599]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Interconversion of serine and glycine. Associates with mitochondrial DNA.
Gene Name
SHMT2
Uniprot ID
P34897
Uniprot Name
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
55992.385 Da
References
  1. Vatsyayan R, Roy U: Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of Leishmania donovani serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Apr;52(2):433-40. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17142057]
  2. Rajinikanth M, Harding SA, Tsai CJ: The glycine decarboxylase complex multienzyme family in Populus. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(7):1761-70. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17355947]
  3. Gagnon D, Foucher A, Girard I, Ouellette M: Stage specific gene expression and cellular localization of two isoforms of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov;150(1):63-71. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16876889]
  4. Mukherjee M, Sievers SA, Brown MT, Johnson PJ: Identification and biochemical characterization of serine hydroxymethyl transferase in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Dec;5(12):2072-8. Epub 2006 Sep 15. [PubMed:16980404]
  5. Chang WN, Tsai JN, Chen BH, Huang HS, Fu TF: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms are differentially inhibited by leucovorin: characterization and comparison of recombinant zebrafish serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Nov;35(11):2127-37. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664250]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glycine n-acyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ran...
Gene Name
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID
Q8WU03
Uniprot Name
Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
34277.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glycine n-acyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID
Q969I3
Uniprot Name
Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1
Molecular Weight
35100.895 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and th...
Gene Name
AGXT2
Uniprot ID
Q9BYV1
Uniprot Name
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57155.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Baker PR, Cramer SD, Kennedy M, Assimos DG, Holmes RP: Glycolate and glyoxylate metabolism in HepG2 cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Nov;287(5):C1359-65. Epub 2004 Jul 7. [PubMed:15240345]
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. [PubMed:6703688]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glycine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the uptake of GABA and glycine into the synaptic vesicles.
Gene Name
SLC32A1
Uniprot ID
Q9H598
Uniprot Name
Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter
Molecular Weight
57414.58 Da
References
  1. Fujii M, Arata A, Kanbara-Kume N, Saito K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K: Respiratory activity in brainstem of fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 and vesicular GABA transporter. Neuroscience. 2007 May 25;146(3):1044-52. Epub 2007 Apr 5. [PubMed:17418495]
  2. Aubrey KR, Rossi FM, Ruivo R, Alboni S, Bellenchi GC, Le Goff A, Gasnier B, Supplisson S: The transporters GlyT2 and VIAAT cooperate to determine the vesicular glycinergic phenotype. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 6;27(23):6273-81. [PubMed:17554001]
  3. Uchigashima M, Fukaya M, Watanabe M, Kamiya H: Evidence against GABA release from glutamatergic mossy fiber terminals in the developing hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 25;27(30):8088-100. [PubMed:17652600]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sarcosine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes sarcosine, L-pipecolic acid and L-proline.
Gene Name
PIPOX
Uniprot ID
Q9P0Z9
Uniprot Name
Peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase
Molecular Weight
44065.515 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Terminates the action of glycine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals. May be responsible for the termination of neurotransmission at strychnine-sensitive glyci...
Gene Name
SLC6A5
Uniprot ID
Q9Y345
Uniprot Name
Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2
Molecular Weight
87433.13 Da
References
  1. Eulenburg V, Becker K, Gomeza J, Schmitt B, Becker CM, Betz H: Mutations within the human GLYT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 22;348(2):400-5. Epub 2006 Jul 26. [PubMed:16884688]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34