Accession NumberDB00125  (NUTR00014)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical

An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.

(2S)-2-amino-5-(carbamimidamido)pentanoic acid
(2S)-2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
(S)-2-Amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid
External IDs NSC-206269
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
L-Arginine HydrochlorideF7LTH1E20Y 1119-34-2KWTQSFXGGICVPE-WCCKRBBISA-NDetails
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
L-arginine Hydrochloride InjectionLiquid250 mgIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1973-12-31Not applicableCanada
R-geneInjection, solution10 g/100mLIntravenousPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1976-06-15Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
R-Gene 10Pharmacia Corp.
Brand mixtures
AminosynHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10% W ElectrolytesAbbott
Aminosyn 3.5% MAbbott
Aminosyn 5%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 7%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 8.5%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 8.5% Injection With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn IIHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 15%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 5% InjAbbott
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn RFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn RF InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira, Inc.
ClinimixBaxter Laboratories
Clinimix EBaxter Laboratories
ClinisolBaxter Laboratories
Freamine HbcB. Braun Medical Inc.
Freamine IIIB. Braun Medical Inc.
HepatamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Hypertenevide-12.5Physician Therapeutics Llc
HypertenipinePhysician Therapeutics Llc
HypertensololPhysician Therapeutics Llc
LytensoprilPhysician Therapeutics Llc
Lytensopril-90Physician Therapeutics Llc
NovamineHospira, Inc.
PlenamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Baxter Laboratories
Primene 10%Baxter Laboratories
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
ProsolBaxter Laboratories
Renamin (amino Acids) InjectionBaxter Laboratories
RimantalistPhysician Therapeutics Llc
TravasolBaxter Laboratories
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 5.5%Baxter Laboratories
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 8.5%Baxter Laboratories
Travasol EBaxter Laboratories
Travasol Inj Without Electrolytes 5.5%Baxter Laboratories
TrophamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
CAS number74-79-3
WeightAverage: 174.201
Monoisotopic: 174.111675712
Chemical FormulaC6H14N4O2
(2S)-2-amino-5-carbamimidamidopentanoic acid

Used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.

Structured Indications

Studies have shown that is has improved immune responses to bacteria, viruses and tumor cells; promotes wound healing and regeneration of the liver; causes the release of growth hormones; considered crucial for optimal muscle growth and tissue repair.

Mechanism of action

Many of supplemental L-arginine's activities, including its possible anti-atherogenic actions, may be accounted for by its role as the precursor to nitric oxide or NO. NO is produced by all tissues of the body and plays very important roles in the cardiovascular system, immune system and nervous system. NO is formed from L-arginine via the enzyme nitric oxide synthase or synthetase (NOS), and the effects of NO are mainly mediated by 3,'5' -cyclic guanylate or cyclic GMP. NO activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic GMP from guanosine triphosphate or GTP. Cyclic GMP is converted to guanylic acid via the enzyme cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. NOS is a heme-containing enzyme with some sequences similar to cytochrome P-450 reductase. Several isoforms of NOS exist, two of which are constitutive and one of which is inducible by immunological stimuli. The constitutive NOS found in the vascular endothelium is designated eNOS and that present in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system is designated nNOS. The form of NOS induced by immunological or inflammatory stimuli is known as iNOS. iNOS may be expressed constitutively in select tissues such as lung epithelium. All the nitric oxide synthases use NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and oxygen (O2) as cosubstrates, as well as the cofactors FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), FMN (flavin mononucleotide), tetrahydrobiopterin and heme. Interestingly, ascorbic acid appears to enhance NOS activity by increasing intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin. eNOS and nNOS synthesize NO in response to an increased concentration of calcium ions or in some cases in response to calcium-independent stimuli, such as shear stress. In vitro studies of NOS indicate that the Km of the enzyme for L-arginine is in the micromolar range. The concentration of L-arginine in endothelial cells, as well as in other cells, and in plasma is in the millimolar range. What this means is that, under physiological conditions, NOS is saturated with its L-arginine substrate. In other words, L-arginine would not be expected to be rate-limiting for the enzyme, and it would not appear that supraphysiological levels of L-arginine which could occur with oral supplementation of the amino acidwould make any difference with regard to NO production. The reaction would appear to have reached its maximum level. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated that, under certain conditions, e.g. hypercholesterolemia, supplemental L-arginine could enhance endothelial-dependent vasodilation and NO production.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Cationic amino acid transporter 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8WY07 details
Antizyme inhibitor 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ96A70 details
Argininosuccinate lyaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP04424 details
Nitric oxide synthase, inducibleProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP35228 details
High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP30825 details
Arginase-2, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP78540 details
Cationic amino acid transporter 4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO43246 details
Argininosuccinate synthaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00966 details
Nitric oxide synthase, endothelialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP29474 details
Related Articles

Absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes. Absorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism.

Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available

Some metabolism of L-arginine takes place in the enterocytes. L-arginine not metabolized in the enterocytes enters the portal circulation from whence it is transported to the liver, where again some portion of the amino acid is metabolized.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available

Oral supplementation with L-arginine at doses up to 15 grams daily are generally well tolerated. The most common adverse reactions of higher doses from 15 to 30 grams daily are nausea, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Some may experience these symptoms at lower doses.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00484
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00003
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)DiseaseSMP00207
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticDiseaseSMP00485
Citrullinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00001
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00002
Aspartate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00067
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00363
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00721
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00004
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Urea CycleMetabolicSMP00059
Canavan DiseaseDiseaseSMP00175
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)DiseaseSMP00179
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00205
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00242
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Drug Interactions No interactions found.
Food InteractionsNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Kiyoshi Nakayama, Kazumi Araki, Hajime Yoshida, “Process for the production of L-arginine by fermentation.” U.S. Patent US4086137, issued May, 1973.

General References
  1. Morris SM Jr: Enzymes of arginine metabolism. J Nutr. 2004 Oct;134(10 Suppl):2743S-2747S; discussion 2765S-2767S. [PubMed:15465778 ]
  2. Schulman SP, Becker LC, Kass DA, Champion HC, Terrin ML, Forman S, Ernst KV, Kelemen MD, Townsend SN, Capriotti A, Hare JM, Gerstenblith G: L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the Vascular Interaction With Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006 Jan 4;295(1):58-64. [PubMed:16391217 ]
  3. Alba-Roth J, Muller OA, Schopohl J, von Werder K: Arginine stimulates growth hormone secretion by suppressing endogenous somatostatin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Dec;67(6):1186-9. [PubMed:2903866 ]
External Links
ATC CodesB05XB01
AHFS Codes
  • 36:66.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.8 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
0CompletedTreatmentEndothelial Dysfunction1
0CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Malaria1
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
1Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM) / Plasma Cell Neoplasms1
1CompletedNot AvailableBecker's Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) / Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) / Dystrophinopathies1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableTo Determine Bioequivalence Under Fasting Conditions1
1CompletedNot AvailableTo Determine Bioequivalence Under Fed Conditions1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAmphetamine-Related Disorders / Moods Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
1CompletedBasic SciencePatients With Chemotherapy Induced Anemia (CIA)1
1CompletedTreatmentCentral nervous system neoplasms malignant NEC / Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Insufficiency1
1CompletedTreatmentJuvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia Lymphoblastic / Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, T-Cell / Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / T-cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma1
1CompletedTreatmentLeukaemia, Acute / Lymphoma, Hodgkins / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
1CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Refractory Solid Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Anemia1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D)1
1RecruitingTreatmentClear Cell Carcinoma / Gastrointestinal Tumors / Germ Cell Tumors / Hepatic Tumors / Lymphoma NOS / Melanoma / Neuroblastomas / Non-rhabdomyosarcoma / Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) / Rhabdoid Tumors / Rhabdomyosarcomas / Sarcoma, Ewing's / Wilms Tumor1
1RecruitingTreatmentHigh-risk Tumor / Lymphoma NOS / Neuroblastomas1
1TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Ovarian / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
1TerminatedTreatmentHeart Transplant1
1WithdrawnTreatmentCervical Cancers1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas (GBM)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHIV-1 Infections / Pf Subclinical Parasitemia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentSickle Cells Disease1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPeriodontitis1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)1
2Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHormone Refractory Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Metastatic1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareAcute Myeloid Leukaemias (AML) / Hodgkins Disease (HD) / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Myeloproliferative Disorders / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) / Alpha Mannosidosis / Aspartylglucosaminuria / Fucosidosis / Hunter Syndrome / Hurler's Syndrome / Krabbe's Disease / Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome / Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) / Mucopolysaccharidosis / Peroxisomal Disorders / Sly Syndrome / Sphingolipidoses1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAsthma / Inflammatory processes1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Arrest1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDesmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) / Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue / Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor / Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
2CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
2CompletedBasic ScienceCervical Ripening / Induction of Labour1
2CompletedPreventionBloodloss / Surgical Procedures, Operative1
2CompletedPreventionOral Mucositis1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Lymphoma, Lymphoblastic1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukaemias (AML)1
2CompletedTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / Argininosuccinic Aciduria / Disorders of urea cycle metabolism1
2CompletedTreatmentB-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia CLL1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast2
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Ovarian / Cervical Cancers / Endometrial Cancers / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Sarcomas / Thromboembolism / Vaginal Cancers / Vulvar Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Ovarian / Leukemias / Lymphoma NOS / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Osteoporosis1
2CompletedTreatmentCarcinoma of the Prostate / Prostatic Adenocarcinoma / Prostatic Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentCervical Ripening / Induction of Labour1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentFollicular Lymphoma (FL)1
2CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
2CompletedTreatmentHIV-1 Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C2
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia / Post-Menopausal1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia, Plasma Cell / Multiple Myeloma (MM)1
2CompletedTreatmentLymphoma NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentMELAS Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Melanoma1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPersistent Atrial Fibrillation1
2CompletedTreatmentPharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics / Tolerability / Tuberculous Meningitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPhiladelphia Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2CompletedTreatmentPneumonia / Sickle Cell Anemia1
2CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Anemia1
2CompletedTreatmentSmall Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)1
2CompletedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2CompletedTreatmentVaso-occlusive Pain Episodes1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHigh Risk Pregnancies1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMedulloblastomas / Meningiomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendrocrine Tumors1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCarcinoma of the Prostate1
2RecruitingTreatmentEpidermolysis Bullosa1
2RecruitingTreatmentHematological Malignancy1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias / Lymphoma NOS1
2RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent B-Cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood B-Lymphoblastic Lymphoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cells Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cells Disease / Vaso-occlusive Pain Episodes1
2RecruitingTreatmentStage II Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage III Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma1
2SuspendedTreatmentSevere Falciparum Malaria1
2TerminatedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
2TerminatedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Acute Myelocytic Leukemia / Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia / Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Sarcoma, Myeloid1
2TerminatedTreatmentCarcinoma of the Prostate / Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) / Prostatic Neoplasms1
2TerminatedTreatmentHead and Neck Cancers1
2TerminatedTreatmentHistiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell1
2TerminatedTreatmentLeukemias / Lymphoma NOS1
2TerminatedTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndromes1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative Pain1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCervical Dystonia1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentContraception1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDental Caries1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentShock, Septic1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionNEC / Sepsis 1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHIV Disease1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypertension, Essential1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMultiple Sclerosis (MS) / Optic Neuritis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCirculatory Perfusion Disorder / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Single-ventricle1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHIV Disease / Pediatric AIDS1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHairy Cell Leukemia (HCL)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPleural Effusions / Single-ventricle1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentBladder Cancers1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic / Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3Unknown StatusBasic ScienceSDF-1 is an Important Cytokine for Neovascularization. Cleavage of SDF-1 is Reduced by DPPIV Inhibitors1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Kidney Failure,Chronic1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade / Obesity, Morbid1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionAcute Otitis Media1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHCV Infections / HIV-1 Infections1
3CompletedEducational/Counseling/TrainingToxemia of pregnancy1
3CompletedPreventionAortic Aneurism / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedPreventionCerebral Infarctions1
3CompletedPreventionEndothelial Dysfunction / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Malaria in Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
3CompletedTreatmentCervical Ripening / Induction of Labour1
3CompletedTreatmentCervical Ripening / Induction of Labour / Reducing Time to Vaginal Delivery1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentHIV-1 Infections2
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Labialis1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension in Pregnancy2
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis 1
3CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, Large-Cell, Diffuse1
3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
3CompletedTreatmentSickle Cells Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentSmear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis1
3CompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Bleeding / Chronic Arthritis / Ischemic Heart Diseases / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3RecruitingTreatmentDentin Sensitivity1
3RecruitingTreatmentFollicular Lymphoma (FL)1
3RecruitingTreatmentFollicular Lymphoma (FL) / Immunocytomas / Lymphocytic Lymphomas / Mantle-Cell Lymphomas / Marginal Zone Lymphomas / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3RecruitingTreatmentInsertion of Intrauterine Contraception1
3RecruitingTreatmentOver Active Bladder1
3RecruitingTreatmentSevere Seborrheic Dermatitis1
3TerminatedTreatmentNon Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC)1
3TerminatedTreatmentOtitis Externa1
3TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAdipose Tissue, Brown / Glucose tolerance impaired / Nitric Oxide1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAids / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatitis C / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Dyspnea1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHiv-positive / Malnourished1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTooth Bleaching / Tooth Sensitivity1
4CompletedPreventionBariatric Surgeries1
4CompletedPreventionMitochondrial Dysfunction / Severe Lower Limb Ischemia / Skeletal Muscle Ischemia1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety-comorbidity to Schizophrenia / Schizophrenia1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic HIV Infections / HCV Coinfection1
4CompletedTreatmentCritically Ill1
4CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
4CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections6
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipoatrophy1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperparathyroidism, Primary / Osteopenia / Osteoporosis1
4CompletedTreatmentLeukemia, Lymphocytic / Lymphoma NOS / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelomas / Myeloproliferative Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceInsulin Secretion1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHepatocellular Carcinomas1
4RecruitingPreventionHIV/AIDS and Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus1
4RecruitingTreatmentHIV Disease1
4TerminatedTreatmentHypertensive / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D)1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareBrain Dead Organ Donors1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression/Anxiety / HIV-1 Infections / Impaired Cognition / Poor Quality Sleep / Quality of Life1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMalaria1
4WithdrawnTreatmentModerate, refractory Atopic dermatitis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute iron intoxication / Anemia, Cooley's / Beta-Thalassemia / Hematologic Diseases / Osteoporosis / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) / Thalassemias1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHeart Rate Variability / Hypertensive / Tachycardia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIschemia, Brain / Ischemic Attack1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMyelodysplastic Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHIV Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGraft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) / Mucositis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKeratoconjunctivitis Sicca1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction (MI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPhysiology, Ocular / Regional Blood Flow1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSchizophrenia2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHypertensive Diseases / Renal Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAortic Stenosis / Primary Hypertension / Renal Insufficiency / Secondary Hypertension1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticGliomas1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableCystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Exacerbation1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAIDS/HIV PROBLEM1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHeart Failure (HF) / Hypogonadism1
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
Dosage forms
Injection, solutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous250 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 g/100mL
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Arginine 100% crystals0.51USD g
L-arginine mhc powder0.39USD g
Arginine-500 mg tablet0.12USD tablet
Arginine 500 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
L-arginine 1000 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
R-gene 10 vial0.04USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)244 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.82E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-4.20HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.24 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility2.28 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.41ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area125.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity53.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8289
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6882
Caco-2 permeable-0.7316
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9814
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8803
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7475
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7822
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6787
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8105
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8555
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7705
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8925
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9945
Ames testAMES toxic0.7182
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8394
Rat acute toxicity1.4851 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9533
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9683
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (2.96 KB)
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1910000000-0191c1a63652c493660bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9810000000-eb6eb73302b678cf0a24View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9700000000-e47b41cff0e873f53932View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-8ae5af11398835d26bedView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-3900000000-8c82418f7b35a97fb9b3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-19b62da79866318c52ddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-64b046d21bdcbb8d5923View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-e07b937b6867d1f62293View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-87ab853583aab2973cfbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-28814246b728a51e761cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-cfe7e406be2172e94fbaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0910000000-478a8345915bc15d85b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-c930c47ecbe6975a00fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-fa6be0f9ce4ee4c30738View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-3425ee9829935182c0d5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0fk9-0946231100-3d57d2304dcb33feab3fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-5b6dd6fb263ea09289fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-dfe35b3438d19320d8cbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-f666ab7e5354bce67a2eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03kd-0977452210-046c4b70bd0ec351c41dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-2f51e43e530976d63633View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-b9ebb7ebccee1a313888View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-5379b6fb6ea2313101f9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-02b2bc83599dc6944f2eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00fr-7900000000-b7cd48e0aca6a6256968View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-00fr-7900000000-b7cd48e0aca6a6256968View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00fr-7900000000-4e69a6ce7b97433937eeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-835751d54af24bd337e7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-2d2b5fd7617ccb227bb1View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Guanidine
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboximidamide
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors


Pharmacological action
General Function:
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the uptake of the cationic amino acids arginine, lysine and ornithine in a sodium-independent manner.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
67168.31 Da
  1. Rotmann A, Simon A, Martine U, Habermeier A, Closs EI: Activation of classical protein kinase C decreases transport via systems y+ and y+L. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):C2259-68. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329401 ]
  2. Huang Y, Kang BN, Tian J, Liu Y, Luo HR, Hester L, Snyder SH: The cationic amino acid transporters CAT1 and CAT3 mediate NMDA receptor activation-dependent changes in elaboration of neuronal processes via the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR pathway. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 17;27(3):449-58. [PubMed:17234578 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Putrescine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Antizyme inhibitor protein that positively regulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine uptake by counteracting the negative effect of antizymes OAZ1, OAZ2 and OAZ3 on ODC1 activity (PubMed:17900240). Inhibits antizyme-dependent ODC1 degradation by binding to antizymes. Releases ODC1 from its inactive complex with antizymes, leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
49979.185 Da
  1. Kotil K, Kuscuoglu U, Kirali M, Uzun H, Akcetin M, Bilge T: Investigation of the dose-dependent neuroprotective effects of agmatine in experimental spinal cord injury: a prospective randomized and placebo-control trial. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 May;4(5):392-9. [PubMed:16703907 ]
  2. Regunathan S: Agmatine: biological role and therapeutic potentials in morphine analgesia and dependence. AAPS J. 2006 Jul 21;8(3):E479-84. [PubMed:17025265 ]
  3. Yang HQ, Gao HJ: [Physiological function of arginine and its metabolites in plants]. Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Feb;33(1):1-8. [PubMed:17287563 ]
  4. Wu N, Su RB, Li J: Agmatine and imidazoline receptors: their role in opioid analgesia, tolerance and dependence. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008 Aug;28(5):629-41. Epub 2007 Jul 25. [PubMed:17653850 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Argininosuccinate lyase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
51657.505 Da
  1. Moradi H, Kwok V, Vaziri ND: Effect of chronic renal failure on arginase and argininosuccinate synthetase expression. Am J Nephrol. 2006;26(3):310-8. Epub 2006 Jun 29. [PubMed:16809898 ]
  2. Bizzoco E, Vannucchi MG, Faussone-Pellegrini MS: Transient ischemia increases neuronal nitric oxide synthase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase co-expression in rat striatal neurons. Exp Neurol. 2007 Mar;204(1):252-9. Epub 2007 Jan 2. [PubMed:17198704 ]
  3. Mages W, Heinrich O, Treuner G, Vlcek D, Daubnerova I, Slaninova M: Complementation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii arg7-8 (arg2) point mutation by recombination with a truncated nonfunctional ARG7 gene. Protist. 2007 Oct;158(4):435-46. Epub 2007 Jul 3. [PubMed:17611150 ]
  4. Tischner R, Galli M, Heimer YM, Bielefeld S, Okamoto M, Mack A, Crawford NM: Interference with the citrulline-based nitric oxide synthase assay by argininosuccinate lyase activity in Arabidopsis extracts. FEBS J. 2007 Aug;274(16):4238-45. Epub 2007 Jul 25. [PubMed:17651442 ]
  5. Mori M: Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and arginine recycling. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1616S-1620S. [PubMed:17513437 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2. As component of the iNOS-S100A8/9 transnitrosylase complex involved in the selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-n...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
131116.3 Da
  1. Cui YY, Tang CS, Geng B: [Restraint stress down-regulates L-Arg/NOS/NO pathway of platelet and aortic intima in rats]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Jun 18;38(3):231-5. [PubMed:16778961 ]
  2. Devan BD, Pistell PJ, Daffin LW Jr, Nelson CM, Duffy KB, Bowker JL, Bharati IS, Sierra-Mercado D, Spangler EL, Ingram DK: Sildenafil citrate attenuates a complex maze impairment induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of the NOS inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 1;563(1-3):134-40. Epub 2007 Feb 17. [PubMed:17362916 ]
  3. Rotoli BM, Dall'asta V, Barilli A, D'Ippolito R, Tipa A, Olivieri D, Gazzola GC, Bussolati O: Alveolar macrophages from normal subjects lack the NOS-related system y+ for arginine transport. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007 Jul;37(1):105-12. Epub 2007 Mar 15. [PubMed:17363779 ]
  4. Kagemann G, Sies H, Schnorr O: Limited availability of L-arginine increases DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB and contributes to regulation of iNOS expression. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 Jul;85(7):723-32. Epub 2007 Mar 6. [PubMed:17340133 ]
  5. Popovic PJ, Zeh HJ 3rd, Ochoa JB: Arginine and immunity. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1681S-1686S. [PubMed:17513447 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic tissues. May also function as an ecotropic retroviral leukemia receptor.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
67637.62 Da
  1. Yang Z, Venardos K, Jones E, Morris BJ, Chin-Dusting J, Kaye DM: Identification of a novel polymorphism in the 3'UTR of the L-arginine transporter gene SLC7A1: contribution to hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 Mar 13;115(10):1269-74. Epub 2007 Feb 26. [PubMed:17325243 ]
  2. Rotmann A, Simon A, Martine U, Habermeier A, Closs EI: Activation of classical protein kinase C decreases transport via systems y+ and y+L. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):C2259-68. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329401 ]
  3. Vasquez R, Farias M, Vega JL, Martin RS, Vecchiola A, Casanello P, Sobrevia L: D-glucose stimulation of L-arginine transport and nitric oxide synthesis results from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p42/44 and Smad2 requiring functional type II TGF-beta receptors in human umbilical vein endothelium. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Sep;212(3):626-32. [PubMed:17427197 ]
  4. Cerec V, Piquet-Pellorce C, Aly HA, Touzalin AM, Jegou B, Bauche F: Multiple pathways for cationic amino acid transport in rat seminiferous tubule cells. Biol Reprod. 2007 Feb;76(2):241-9. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17065601 ]
  5. Rotoli BM, Dall'asta V, Barilli A, D'Ippolito R, Tipa A, Olivieri D, Gazzola GC, Bussolati O: Alveolar macrophages from normal subjects lack the NOS-related system y+ for arginine transport. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007 Jul;37(1):105-12. Epub 2007 Mar 15. [PubMed:17363779 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
May play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Extrahepatic arginase functions to regulate L-arginine bioavailability to NO synthase. Since NO synthase is found in the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, the clitoral corpus cavernosum and the vagina, arginase II plays a role in both male and female sexual arou...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
38577.515 Da
  1. Topal G, Brunet A, Walch L, Boucher JL, David-Dufilho M: Mitochondrial arginase II modulates nitric-oxide synthesis through nonfreely exchangeable L-arginine pools in human endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Sep;318(3):1368-74. Epub 2006 Jun 26. [PubMed:16801455 ]
  2. Hood HM, Spevak CC, Sachs MS: Evolutionary changes in the fungal carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase small subunit gene and its associated upstream open reading frame. Fungal Genet Biol. 2007 Feb;44(2):93-104. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16979358 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
68267.17 Da
  1. Rotmann A, Simon A, Martine U, Habermeier A, Closs EI: Activation of classical protein kinase C decreases transport via systems y+ and y+L. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):C2259-68. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329401 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Is indirectly involved in the control of blood pressure.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
46530.055 Da
  1. Feun L, Savaraj N: Pegylated arginine deiminase: a novel anticancer enzyme agent. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Jul;15(7):815-22. [PubMed:16787144 ]
  2. Moradi H, Kwok V, Vaziri ND: Effect of chronic renal failure on arginase and argininosuccinate synthetase expression. Am J Nephrol. 2006;26(3):310-8. Epub 2006 Jun 29. [PubMed:16809898 ]
  3. Cheng PN, Lam TL, Lam WM, Tsui SM, Cheng AW, Lo WH, Leung YC: Pegylated recombinant human arginase (rhArg-peg5,000mw) inhibits the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma through arginine depletion. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 1;67(1):309-17. [PubMed:17210712 ]
  4. Szlosarek PW, Grimshaw MJ, Wilbanks GD, Hagemann T, Wilson JL, Burke F, Stamp G, Balkwill FR: Aberrant regulation of argininosuccinate synthetase by TNF-alpha in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007 Jul 1;121(1):6-11. [PubMed:17354225 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in coronary vessels and promotes blood clotting through the activation of platelets.Isoform eNOS13C: Lacks eNOS activity, dominant-negative form that may down-regulate eNOS activity by ...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
133287.62 Da
  1. Akamine EH, Kawamoto EM, Scavone C, Nigro D, Carvalho MH, de Cassia A Tostes R, Britto LR, Fortes ZB: Correction of endothelial dysfunction in diabetic female rats by tetrahydrobiopterin and chronic insulin. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):309-20. Epub 2006 May 8. [PubMed:16682803 ]
  2. Gautier C, Mikula I, Nioche P, Martasek P, Raman CS, Slama-Schwok A: Dynamics of NO rebinding to the heme domain of NO synthase-like proteins from bacterial pathogens. Nitric Oxide. 2006 Dec;15(4):312-27. Epub 2006 Apr 5. [PubMed:16690332 ]
  3. Yang J, Ji R, Cheng Y, Sun JZ, Jennings LK, Zhang C: L-arginine chlorination results in the formation of a nonselective nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Sep;318(3):1044-9. Epub 2006 May 22. [PubMed:16717106 ]
  4. Ishikawa T, Harada T, Koi H, Kubota T, Azuma H, Aso T: Identification of arginase in human placental villi. Placenta. 2007 Feb-Mar;28(2-3):133-8. Epub 2006 May 23. [PubMed:16720041 ]
  5. Haruna Y, Morita Y, Komai N, Yada T, Sakuta T, Tomita N, Fox DA, Kashihara N: Endothelial dysfunction in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis: vascular superoxide production by NAD(P)H oxidase and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Jun;54(6):1847-55. [PubMed:16729278 ]


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 19, 2017 16:22