Identification

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Name
L-Arginine
Accession Number
DB00125  (NUTR00014)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-amino-5-(carbamimidamido)pentanoic acid
  • (2S)-2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
  • (S)-2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid
  • (S)-2-Amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid
  • Arg
  • Arginina
  • Arginine
  • L-(+)-Arginine
  • L-Arg
  • L-Arginin
  • R
External IDs
NSC-206269
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
L-Arginine HydrochlorideF7LTH1E20Y1119-34-2KWTQSFXGGICVPE-WCCKRBBISA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
L-arginine Hydrochloride InjectionLiquidIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1973-12-31Not applicableCanada
R-GeneInjection, solution10 g/100mLIntravenousPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1976-06-15Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseL-Arginine (290 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (260 mg) + Histidine (120 mg) + Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Leucine (182.5 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (140 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (145 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (100 mg) + Proline (170 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixL-Arginine (260 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (520 mg) + Histidine (110 mg) + Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (115 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (145 mg) + Proline (105 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixL-Arginine (260 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Glycine (520 mg) + Histidine (110 mg) + Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (195 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (115 mg) + Methionine (195 mg) + Proline (105 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexL-Arginine (290 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (260 mg) + Histidine (120 mg) + Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Alanine (520 mg) + L-Leucine (182.5 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (140 mg) + L-Threonine (105 mg) + L-Tryptophan (45 mg) + L-Valine (145 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (100 mg) + Proline (170 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexL-Arginine (316 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (283 mg) + Histidine (132 mg) + Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Leucine (201 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (154 mg) + L-Threonine (115.5 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (159.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (110 mg) + Proline (187 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixL-Arginine (285 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (570 mg) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Threonine (115 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (126 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (159 mg) + Proline (115 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixL-Arginine (285 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (215.5 mg) + Glycine (570 mg) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + L-Threonine (115 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (126 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (159 mg) + Proline (115 mg) + Sodium acetate (256 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.L-Arginine (316 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (283 mg) + Histidine (132 mg) + Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Alanine (570 mg) + L-Leucine (201 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (154 mg) + L-Threonine (115.5 mg) + L-Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + L-Valine (159.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (110 mg) + Proline (187 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium acetate (215 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
20% ProsolL-Arginine (1.96 g) + Aspartic acid (0.6 g) + D-Methionine (0.76 g) + Glutamic acid (1.02 g) + Glycine (2.06 g) + Histidine (1.18 g) + Isoleucine (1.08 g) + L-Alanine (2.76 g) + L-Leucine (1.08 g) + L-Lysine (1.35 g) + L-Phenylalanine (1 g) + L-Threonine (0.98 g) + L-Tryptophan (0.32 g) + L-Valine (1.44 g) + Methionine (0.76 g) + Proline (1.34 g) + Serine (1.02 g) + Tyrosine (0.05 g)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-10-09Not applicableCanada
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixL-Arginine (440 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (20 g) + Glycine (880 mg) + Histidine (186 mg) + Isoleucine (203 mg) + L-Alanine (880 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (263 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (246 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (263 mg) + L-Threonine (178 mg) + L-Tryptophan (76 mg) + L-Valine (195 mg) + Methionine (246 mg) + Proline (178 mg) + Tyrosine (17 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ClinimixL-Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (75.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + L-Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + L-Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + L-Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + L-Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + L-Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + L-Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + L-Valine (1.60 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-25Not applicableUs
ClinimixL-Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (100.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + L-Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + L-Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + L-Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + L-Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + L-Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + L-Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + L-Valine (1.60 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-25Not applicableUs
ClinimixL-Arginine (9.78 g/2L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.66 g/2L) + D-glucose monohydrate (300.00 g/2L) + Dipotassium phosphate (5.22 g/2L) + Glycine (8.76 g/2L) + Histidine (4.08 g/2L) + Isoleucine (5.10 g/2L) + L-Alanine (17.60 g/2L) + L-Leucine (6.20 g/2L) + L-Lysine (4.93 g/2L) + L-Phenylalanine (4.76 g/2L) + L-Threonine (3.57 g/2L) + L-Tryptophan (1.53 g/2L) + L-Valine (4.93 g/2L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (1.02 g/2L) + Methionine (3.40 g/2L) + Proline (5.78 g/2L) + Serine (4.25 g/2L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (5.94 g/2L) + Sodium chloride (1.54 g/2L) + Tyrosine (0.34 g/2L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-25Not applicableUs
Hypertenevide-12.5L-Arginine (60 mg/1) + Carvedilol (12.5 mg/1)KitOralPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
HypertenipineL-Arginine (90 mg/1) + Amlodipine besylate (2.5 mg/1)KitOralPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
HypertensololL-Arginine (90 mg/1) + Metoprolol tartrate (50 mg/1)KitOralPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
LytensoprilL-Arginine (60 mg/1) + Lisinopril dihydrate (20 mg/1)KitOralPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
Lytensopril-90L-Arginine (90 mg/1) + Lisinopril dihydrate (20 mg/1)KitOralPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
PrimeneL-Arginine (2.1 g/250mL) + Aspartic acid (1.5 g/250mL) + Glutamic acid (2.5 g/250mL) + Glycine (1 g/250mL) + Histidine (0.95 g/250mL) + Isoleucine (1.675 g/250mL) + L-Alanine (2 g/250mL) + L-Cysteine (0.47 g/250mL) + L-Leucine (2.5 g/250mL) + L-Lysine (2.75 g/250mL) + L-Phenylalanine (1.05 g/250mL) + L-Threonine (0.9 g/250mL) + L-Tryptophan (0.5 g/250mL) + L-Valine (1.9 g/250mL) + Methionine (0.6 g/250mL) + Ornithine hydrochloride (0.8 g/250mL) + Proline (0.75 g/250mL) + Serine (1 g/250mL) + Taurine (0.15 g/250mL) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/250mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-11-22Not applicableUs
RimantalistL-Arginine (60 mg/1) + Rimantadine hydrochloride (100 mg/1)KitOralPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
R-Gene 10 (Pharmacia Corp.)
Categories
UNII
94ZLA3W45F
CAS number
74-79-3
Weight
Average: 174.201
Monoisotopic: 174.111675712
Chemical Formula
C6H14N4O2
InChI Key
ODKSFYDXXFIFQN-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H14N4O2/c7-4(5(11)12)2-1-3-10-6(8)9/h4H,1-3,7H2,(H,11,12)(H4,8,9,10)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-5-carbamimidamidopentanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCCNC(N)=N)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Studies have shown that is has improved immune responses to bacteria, viruses and tumor cells; promotes wound healing and regeneration of the liver; causes the release of growth hormones; considered crucial for optimal muscle growth and tissue repair.

Mechanism of action

Many of supplemental L-arginine's activities, including its possible anti-atherogenic actions, may be accounted for by its role as the precursor to nitric oxide or NO. NO is produced by all tissues of the body and plays very important roles in the cardiovascular system, immune system and nervous system. NO is formed from L-arginine via the enzyme nitric oxide synthase or synthetase (NOS), and the effects of NO are mainly mediated by 3,'5' -cyclic guanylate or cyclic GMP. NO activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic GMP from guanosine triphosphate or GTP. Cyclic GMP is converted to guanylic acid via the enzyme cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. NOS is a heme-containing enzyme with some sequences similar to cytochrome P-450 reductase. Several isoforms of NOS exist, two of which are constitutive and one of which is inducible by immunological stimuli. The constitutive NOS found in the vascular endothelium is designated eNOS and that present in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system is designated nNOS. The form of NOS induced by immunological or inflammatory stimuli is known as iNOS. iNOS may be expressed constitutively in select tissues such as lung epithelium. All the nitric oxide synthases use NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and oxygen (O2) as cosubstrates, as well as the cofactors FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), FMN (flavin mononucleotide), tetrahydrobiopterin and heme. Interestingly, ascorbic acid appears to enhance NOS activity by increasing intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin. eNOS and nNOS synthesize NO in response to an increased concentration of calcium ions or in some cases in response to calcium-independent stimuli, such as shear stress. In vitro studies of NOS indicate that the Km of the enzyme for L-arginine is in the micromolar range. The concentration of L-arginine in endothelial cells, as well as in other cells, and in plasma is in the millimolar range. What this means is that, under physiological conditions, NOS is saturated with its L-arginine substrate. In other words, L-arginine would not be expected to be rate-limiting for the enzyme, and it would not appear that supraphysiological levels of L-arginine which could occur with oral supplementation of the amino acid^would make any difference with regard to NO production. The reaction would appear to have reached its maximum level. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated that, under certain conditions, e.g. hypercholesterolemia, supplemental L-arginine could enhance endothelial-dependent vasodilation and NO production.

TargetActionsOrganism
UNitric oxide synthase, endothelialNot AvailableHumans
UCationic amino acid transporter 3Not AvailableHumans
UArginine decarboxylaseNot AvailableHumans
UArgininosuccinate lyaseNot AvailableHumans
UNitric oxide synthase, inducibleNot AvailableHumans
UHigh affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1Not AvailableHumans
UArginase-2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UCationic amino acid transporter 4Not AvailableHumans
UArgininosuccinate synthaseNot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes. Absorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Some metabolism of L-arginine takes place in the enterocytes. L-arginine not metabolized in the enterocytes enters the portal circulation from whence it is transported to the liver, where again some portion of the amino acid is metabolized.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral supplementation with L-arginine at doses up to 15 grams daily are generally well tolerated. The most common adverse reactions of higher doses from 15 to 30 grams daily are nausea, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Some may experience these symptoms at lower doses.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDisease
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolic
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)Disease
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDisease
Hyperprolinemia Type IDisease
L-Arginine:Glycine Amidinotransferase DeficiencyDisease
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)Disease
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Hyperglycinemia, Non-KetoticDisease
Creatine Deficiency, Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Hyperornithinemia with Gyrate Atrophy (HOGA)Disease
3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Citrullinemia Type IDisease
Urea CycleMetabolic
Aspartate MetabolismMetabolic
Canavan DiseaseDisease
HypoacetylaspartiaDisease
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)Disease
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)Disease
Prolinemia Type IIDisease
Non-Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDisease
SarcosinemiaDisease
ArgininemiaDisease
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)Disease
Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]Disease
Nitric Oxide Signaling PathwaySignaling
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
No interactions found.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Kiyoshi Nakayama, Kazumi Araki, Hajime Yoshida, "Process for the production of L-arginine by fermentation." U.S. Patent US4086137, issued May, 1973.

US4086137
General References
  1. Morris SM Jr: Enzymes of arginine metabolism. J Nutr. 2004 Oct;134(10 Suppl):2743S-2747S; discussion 2765S-2767S. [PubMed:15465778]
  2. Schulman SP, Becker LC, Kass DA, Champion HC, Terrin ML, Forman S, Ernst KV, Kelemen MD, Townsend SN, Capriotti A, Hare JM, Gerstenblith G: L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the Vascular Interaction With Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006 Jan 4;295(1):58-64. [PubMed:16391217]
  3. Alba-Roth J, Muller OA, Schopohl J, von Werder K: Arginine stimulates growth hormone secretion by suppressing endogenous somatostatin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Dec;67(6):1186-9. [PubMed:2903866]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000517
KEGG Drug
D02982
KEGG Compound
C00062
PubChem Compound
6322
PubChem Substance
46507180
ChemSpider
6082
BindingDB
21959
ChEBI
16467
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1485
PharmGKB
PA448478
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
ARG
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Arginine
ATC Codes
B05XB01 — Arginine hydrochloride
AHFS Codes
  • 36:66.00 — Pituitary Function
MSDS
Download (72.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract1
0CompletedTreatmentEndothelial Dysfunction1
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
1CompletedNot AvailableBecker's Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) / Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) / Dystrophinopathies1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cardiovascular Risk Factors / Vasoconstriction1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentCutaneous Melanoma, Uveal Melanoma, Ovarian Carcinoma or Other Advanced Solid Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
1CompletedTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
1CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Precancerous Conditions / Small Intestine Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
1CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cardiovascular Risk Factors / Vasoconstriction1
1TerminatedTreatmentCardiac Transplant1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMalaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionAtherosclerosis1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionCancer, Breast / Leukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareProstate Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAML Subjects Who Have Failed Prior Systemic Therapy / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Inflammatory Reaction1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / Argininosuccinic Aciduria / Deficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle1
2CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2CompletedTreatmentBeta-Thalassemia1
2CompletedTreatmentClassic Galactosemia1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / One to five years postmenopausal1
2CompletedTreatmentMELAS Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentNHL Subjects Who Have Failed Prior Systemic Therapy / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2CompletedTreatmentPneumonia / Sickle Cell Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders / Skin Ulcers1
2CompletedTreatmentUnresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentVaso-occlusive Pain Episodes1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSchizo Affective Disorder / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2RecruitingPreventionHigh Risk Pregnancies1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
2RecruitingTreatmentAnemias1
2RecruitingTreatmentMedulloblastomas / Meningiomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders / Vaso-occlusive Pain Episodes1
2SuspendedTreatmentSevere Falciparum Malaria1
2TerminatedTreatmentEBV Lymphomas / Lympho-proliferative Diseases1
2TerminatedTreatmentLymphoid Malignancies / Lymphoproliferative Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDental Decay1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentMedulloblastomas / Meningiomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendrocrine Tumors1
2, 3CompletedPreventionNEC / Sepsis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCirculatory Perfusion Disorder / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Single-ventricle1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHeart Arrest1
2, 3SuspendedTreatmentPleural Effusions / Single-ventricle1
3CompletedDiagnosticDiagnosis of Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGDH)1
3CompletedEducational/Counseling/TrainingProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedPreventionEndothelial Dysfunction / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension in Pregnancy2
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1
3CompletedTreatmentParents2
3CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentSmear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMalignancies1
3RecruitingTreatmentDentin Sensitivity1
3RecruitingTreatmentDentine Hypersensitivity1
3RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Parenteral Feeding1
3RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Parenteral Nutrition1
3RecruitingTreatmentHCC3
3TerminatedPreventionIntra Uterine Growth Retardation1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAdipose Tissue, Brown / Glucose tolerance impaired / Nitric Oxide1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Starvation1
4CompletedPreventionMitochondrial Dysfunction / Severe Lower Limb Ischemia / Skeletal Muscle Ischemia1
4CompletedTreatmentCritically-ill Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Transplantation1
4CompletedTreatmentTooth Bleaching / Tooth Sensitivity1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCritical Illness1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentThalassaemic disorders1
4TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases1
4TerminatedSupportive CareCancer-related Malnutrition1
4TerminatedSupportive CareMuscular Fatigue1
4TerminatedSupportive CareParenteral Nutrition (No Primary Condition Studied)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareMalnutrition1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute iron intoxication / Beta-Thalassemia / Hematologic Diseases / Osteoporosis / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) / Thalassaemic disorders / Thalassemia Major (TM)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCitrulline / Gastro Intestinal Failure / Intra Abdominal Pressure / Organ Failure, Multiple1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPhysiology, Ocular / Regional Blood Flow1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionDental Decay1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAortic Valve Stenosis / Hypertension,Essential / Impaired Renal Function / Secondary Hypertension1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIntrauterine Growth Restriction Asymmetrical1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableHuman Growth Hormone Deficiency1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFemale Sexual Dysfunction (FSD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
Packagers
  • 21st Century Healthcare Inc.
  • Amend
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Key Co.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Professional Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
PowderNot applicable1 kg/1kg
Tablet, coatedOral
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
KitOral
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
LiquidHemodialysis
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 g/100mL
TabletOral
InjectionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Arginine 100% crystals0.51USD g
L-arginine mhc powder0.39USD g
Arginine-500 mg tablet0.12USD tablet
Arginine 500 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
L-arginine 1000 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
R-gene 10 vial0.04USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)244 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.82E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-4.20HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.24 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.28 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.41ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area125.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity53.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8289
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6882
Caco-2 permeable-0.7316
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9814
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8803
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7475
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7822
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6787
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8105
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8555
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7705
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8925
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9945
Ames testAMES toxic0.7182
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9229
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8394
Rat acute toxicity1.4851 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9533
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9683
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (2.96 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1910000000-0191c1a63652c493660b
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9810000000-eb6eb73302b678cf0a24
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9700000000-e47b41cff0e873f53932
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1920000000-8ae5af11398835d26bed
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1910000000-0191c1a63652c493660b
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9810000000-eb6eb73302b678cf0a24
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-9700000000-e47b41cff0e873f53932
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1920000000-8ae5af11398835d26bed
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-afc3ca93f8fbf54ec9f4
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-3900000000-8c82418f7b35a97fb9b3
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-19b62da79866318c52dd
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-64b046d21bdcbb8d5923
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-e07b937b6867d1f62293
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-87ab853583aab2973cfb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-28814246b728a51e761c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-cfe7e406be2172e94fba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0910000000-478a8345915bc15d85b5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-c930c47ecbe6975a00fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-fa6be0f9ce4ee4c30738
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-3425ee9829935182c0d5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fk9-0946231100-3d57d2304dcb33feab3f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-5b6dd6fb263ea09289fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-dfe35b3438d19320d8cb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-f666ab7e5354bce67a2e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03kd-0977452210-046c4b70bd0ec351c41d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-2f51e43e530976d63633
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-b9ebb7ebccee1a313888
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-5379b6fb6ea2313101f9
MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-02b2bc83599dc6944f2e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-7900000000-b7cd48e0aca6a6256968
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-7900000000-b7cd48e0aca6a6256968
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-7900000000-4e69a6ce7b97433937ee
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-835751d54af24bd337e7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2d2b5fd7617ccb227bb1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-dfe35b3438d19320d8cb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-f666ab7e5354bce67a2e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-b9ebb7ebccee1a313888
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-5379b6fb6ea2313101f9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-835751d54af24bd337e7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2d2b5fd7617ccb227bb1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-28814246b728a51e761c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-cfe7e406be2172e94fba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-c930c47ecbe6975a00fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-1a13d259ec80cfb4cae3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-3425ee9829935182c0d5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-7900000000-b7cd48e0aca6a6256968
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-7900000000-b7cd48e0aca6a6256968
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-7900000000-4e69a6ce7b97433937ee
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02k9-4900000000-2fa515c22a40d21b8e10
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
L-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Fatty acids and conjugates / Guanidines / Amino acids / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines
show 2 more
Substituents
L-alpha-amino acid / Fatty acid / Guanidine / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboximidamide / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Amine
show 11 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
proteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, arginine, glutamine family amino acid (CHEBI:16467) / Common amino acids (C00062)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induce...
Gene Name
NOS3
Uniprot ID
P29474
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial
Molecular Weight
133287.62 Da
References
  1. Akamine EH, Kawamoto EM, Scavone C, Nigro D, Carvalho MH, de Cassia A Tostes R, Britto LR, Fortes ZB: Correction of endothelial dysfunction in diabetic female rats by tetrahydrobiopterin and chronic insulin. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):309-20. Epub 2006 May 8. [PubMed:16682803]
  2. Gautier C, Mikula I, Nioche P, Martasek P, Raman CS, Slama-Schwok A: Dynamics of NO rebinding to the heme domain of NO synthase-like proteins from bacterial pathogens. Nitric Oxide. 2006 Dec;15(4):312-27. Epub 2006 Apr 5. [PubMed:16690332]
  3. Yang J, Ji R, Cheng Y, Sun JZ, Jennings LK, Zhang C: L-arginine chlorination results in the formation of a nonselective nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Sep;318(3):1044-9. Epub 2006 May 22. [PubMed:16717106]
  4. Ishikawa T, Harada T, Koi H, Kubota T, Azuma H, Aso T: Identification of arginase in human placental villi. Placenta. 2007 Feb-Mar;28(2-3):133-8. Epub 2006 May 23. [PubMed:16720041]
  5. Haruna Y, Morita Y, Komai N, Yada T, Sakuta T, Tomita N, Fox DA, Kashihara N: Endothelial dysfunction in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis: vascular superoxide production by NAD(P)H oxidase and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Jun;54(6):1847-55. [PubMed:16729278]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the uptake of the cationic amino acids arginine, lysine and ornithine in a sodium-independent manner.
Gene Name
SLC7A3
Uniprot ID
Q8WY07
Uniprot Name
Cationic amino acid transporter 3
Molecular Weight
67168.31 Da
References
  1. Rotmann A, Simon A, Martine U, Habermeier A, Closs EI: Activation of classical protein kinase C decreases transport via systems y+ and y+L. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):C2259-68. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329401]
  2. Huang Y, Kang BN, Tian J, Liu Y, Luo HR, Hester L, Snyder SH: The cationic amino acid transporters CAT1 and CAT3 mediate NMDA receptor activation-dependent changes in elaboration of neuronal processes via the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR pathway. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 17;27(3):449-58. [PubMed:17234578]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Putrescine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Antizyme inhibitor protein that positively regulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine uptake by counteracting the negative effect of antizymes OAZ1, OAZ2 and OAZ3 on ODC1 activi...
Gene Name
AZIN2
Uniprot ID
Q96A70
Uniprot Name
Antizyme inhibitor 2
Molecular Weight
49979.185 Da
References
  1. Kotil K, Kuscuoglu U, Kirali M, Uzun H, Akcetin M, Bilge T: Investigation of the dose-dependent neuroprotective effects of agmatine in experimental spinal cord injury: a prospective randomized and placebo-control trial. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 May;4(5):392-9. [PubMed:16703907]
  2. Regunathan S: Agmatine: biological role and therapeutic potentials in morphine analgesia and dependence. AAPS J. 2006 Jul 21;8(3):E479-84. [PubMed:17025265]
  3. Yang HQ, Gao HJ: [Physiological function of arginine and its metabolites in plants]. Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Feb;33(1):1-8. [PubMed:17287563]
  4. Wu N, Su RB, Li J: Agmatine and imidazoline receptors: their role in opioid analgesia, tolerance and dependence. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008 Aug;28(5):629-41. Epub 2007 Jul 25. [PubMed:17653850]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Argininosuccinate lyase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ASL
Uniprot ID
P04424
Uniprot Name
Argininosuccinate lyase
Molecular Weight
51657.505 Da
References
  1. Moradi H, Kwok V, Vaziri ND: Effect of chronic renal failure on arginase and argininosuccinate synthetase expression. Am J Nephrol. 2006;26(3):310-8. Epub 2006 Jun 29. [PubMed:16809898]
  2. Bizzoco E, Vannucchi MG, Faussone-Pellegrini MS: Transient ischemia increases neuronal nitric oxide synthase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase co-expression in rat striatal neurons. Exp Neurol. 2007 Mar;204(1):252-9. Epub 2007 Jan 2. [PubMed:17198704]
  3. Mages W, Heinrich O, Treuner G, Vlcek D, Daubnerova I, Slaninova M: Complementation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii arg7-8 (arg2) point mutation by recombination with a truncated nonfunctional ARG7 gene. Protist. 2007 Oct;158(4):435-46. Epub 2007 Jul 3. [PubMed:17611150]
  4. Tischner R, Galli M, Heimer YM, Bielefeld S, Okamoto M, Mack A, Crawford NM: Interference with the citrulline-based nitric oxide synthase assay by argininosuccinate lyase activity in Arabidopsis extracts. FEBS J. 2007 Aug;274(16):4238-45. Epub 2007 Jul 25. [PubMed:17651442]
  5. Mori M: Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and arginine recycling. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1616S-1620S. [PubMed:17513437]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity ...
Gene Name
NOS2
Uniprot ID
P35228
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible
Molecular Weight
131116.3 Da
References
  1. Cui YY, Tang CS, Geng B: [Restraint stress down-regulates L-Arg/NOS/NO pathway of platelet and aortic intima in rats]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Jun 18;38(3):231-5. [PubMed:16778961]
  2. Devan BD, Pistell PJ, Daffin LW Jr, Nelson CM, Duffy KB, Bowker JL, Bharati IS, Sierra-Mercado D, Spangler EL, Ingram DK: Sildenafil citrate attenuates a complex maze impairment induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of the NOS inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 1;563(1-3):134-40. Epub 2007 Feb 17. [PubMed:17362916]
  3. Rotoli BM, Dall'asta V, Barilli A, D'Ippolito R, Tipa A, Olivieri D, Gazzola GC, Bussolati O: Alveolar macrophages from normal subjects lack the NOS-related system y+ for arginine transport. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007 Jul;37(1):105-12. Epub 2007 Mar 15. [PubMed:17363779]
  4. Kagemann G, Sies H, Schnorr O: Limited availability of L-arginine increases DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB and contributes to regulation of iNOS expression. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 Jul;85(7):723-32. Epub 2007 Mar 6. [PubMed:17340133]
  5. Popovic PJ, Zeh HJ 3rd, Ochoa JB: Arginine and immunity. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1681S-1686S. [PubMed:17513447]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic tissues. May also function as an ecotropic retroviral leuk...
Gene Name
SLC7A1
Uniprot ID
P30825
Uniprot Name
High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
67637.62 Da
References
  1. Yang Z, Venardos K, Jones E, Morris BJ, Chin-Dusting J, Kaye DM: Identification of a novel polymorphism in the 3'UTR of the L-arginine transporter gene SLC7A1: contribution to hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 Mar 13;115(10):1269-74. Epub 2007 Feb 26. [PubMed:17325243]
  2. Rotmann A, Simon A, Martine U, Habermeier A, Closs EI: Activation of classical protein kinase C decreases transport via systems y+ and y+L. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):C2259-68. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329401]
  3. Vasquez R, Farias M, Vega JL, Martin RS, Vecchiola A, Casanello P, Sobrevia L: D-glucose stimulation of L-arginine transport and nitric oxide synthesis results from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p42/44 and Smad2 requiring functional type II TGF-beta receptors in human umbilical vein endothelium. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Sep;212(3):626-32. [PubMed:17427197]
  4. Cerec V, Piquet-Pellorce C, Aly HA, Touzalin AM, Jegou B, Bauche F: Multiple pathways for cationic amino acid transport in rat seminiferous tubule cells. Biol Reprod. 2007 Feb;76(2):241-9. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17065601]
  5. Rotoli BM, Dall'asta V, Barilli A, D'Ippolito R, Tipa A, Olivieri D, Gazzola GC, Bussolati O: Alveolar macrophages from normal subjects lack the NOS-related system y+ for arginine transport. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007 Jul;37(1):105-12. Epub 2007 Mar 15. [PubMed:17363779]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
May play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Extrahepatic arginase functions to regulate L-arginine bioavailabili...
Gene Name
ARG2
Uniprot ID
P78540
Uniprot Name
Arginase-2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
38577.515 Da
References
  1. Topal G, Brunet A, Walch L, Boucher JL, David-Dufilho M: Mitochondrial arginase II modulates nitric-oxide synthesis through nonfreely exchangeable L-arginine pools in human endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Sep;318(3):1368-74. Epub 2006 Jun 26. [PubMed:16801455]
  2. Hood HM, Spevak CC, Sachs MS: Evolutionary changes in the fungal carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase small subunit gene and its associated upstream open reading frame. Fungal Genet Biol. 2007 Feb;44(2):93-104. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16979358]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine).
Gene Name
SLC7A4
Uniprot ID
O43246
Uniprot Name
Cationic amino acid transporter 4
Molecular Weight
68267.17 Da
References
  1. Rotmann A, Simon A, Martine U, Habermeier A, Closs EI: Activation of classical protein kinase C decreases transport via systems y+ and y+L. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):C2259-68. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329401]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Is indirectly involved in the control of blood pressure.
Gene Name
ASS1
Uniprot ID
P00966
Uniprot Name
Argininosuccinate synthase
Molecular Weight
46530.055 Da
References
  1. Feun L, Savaraj N: Pegylated arginine deiminase: a novel anticancer enzyme agent. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Jul;15(7):815-22. [PubMed:16787144]
  2. Moradi H, Kwok V, Vaziri ND: Effect of chronic renal failure on arginase and argininosuccinate synthetase expression. Am J Nephrol. 2006;26(3):310-8. Epub 2006 Jun 29. [PubMed:16809898]
  3. Cheng PN, Lam TL, Lam WM, Tsui SM, Cheng AW, Lo WH, Leung YC: Pegylated recombinant human arginase (rhArg-peg5,000mw) inhibits the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma through arginine depletion. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 1;67(1):309-17. [PubMed:17210712]
  4. Szlosarek PW, Grimshaw MJ, Wilbanks GD, Hagemann T, Wilson JL, Burke F, Stamp G, Balkwill FR: Aberrant regulation of argininosuccinate synthetase by TNF-alpha in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007 Jul 1;121(1):6-11. [PubMed:17354225]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without...
Gene Name
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID
Q9H015
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 4
Molecular Weight
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 15, 2019 07:56