Identification

Name
Benzatropine
Accession Number
DB00245  (APRD00748)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Benzotropine is a centrally-acting, antimuscarinic agent used as an adjunct in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. It may also be used to treat extrapyramidal reactions, such as dystonia and Parkinsonism, caused by antipsychotics (e.g. phenothiazines). Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and extrapyramidal reactions arise from decreases in dopaminergic activity which creates an imbalance between dopaminergic and cholinergic activity. Anticholinergic therapy is thought to aid in restoring this balance leading to relief of symptoms. In addition to its anticholinergic effects, benztropine also inhibits the reuptake of dopamine at nerve terminals via the dopamine transporter. Benzotropine also produces antagonistic effects at the histamine H1 receptor.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3-alpha-(diphenylmethoxy)tropane
  • 3alpha-(Diphenylmethoxy)-1alphah,5alphah-tropane
  • 3alpha-(Diphenylmethoxy)tropane
  • 3alpha-Benzhydryloxy-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane
  • 3endo-benzhydryloxytropane
  • 3α-(diphenylmethoxy)-1αH,5αH-tropane
  • 3α-(diphenylmethoxy)tropane
  • 3α-benzhydryloxy-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane
  • Benzatropina
  • Benzatropinum
  • Benzhydryl 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ether
  • Benztropine
  • Tropine Benzohydryl Ether
External IDs
NK-02
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Benzatropine mesylateWMJ8TL7510132-17-2CPFJLLXFNPCTDW-BWSPSPBFSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bensylate Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralIcn Pharmaceuticals1978-12-312005-04-26Canada
Benztropine 2 Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1982-12-312009-07-23Canada
Benztropine Mesylate Injection, USPLiquid1 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSabex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Benztropine OmegaLiquid1 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousOmega Laboratories Ltd1999-05-28Not applicableCanada
CogentinInjection1 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousOak Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Subsidiary of Akorn, Inc.)1959-08-05Not applicableUs
CogentinInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousLundbeck Inc.1959-08-052011-12-22Us
Cogentin Inj 1mg/mlSolution1 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1959-12-312004-07-29Canada
Cogentin Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1954-12-312003-01-29Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BenztropineTablet1 mg/1OralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2017-04-13Not applicableUs
Benztropine MesylateTablet0.5 mg/1OralClinical Solutions Wholsesale2017-09-12Not applicableUs
Benztropine MesylateTablet0.5 mg/1OralAv Pak2015-03-25Not applicableUs
Benztropine MesylateTablet0.5 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals2002-08-132010-04-21Us
Benztropine MesylateTablet2 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2012-08-21Not applicableUs00832 1082 00 nlmimage10 3b399dac
Benztropine MesylateTablet0.5 mg/1OralPliva, Inc.1990-09-302017-02-28Us
Benztropine MesylateTablet0.5 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2017-05-15Not applicableUs
Benztropine MesylateTablet2 mg/1OralCamber Pharmaceuticals2013-08-01Not applicableUs
Benztropine MesylateTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2014-03-112015-03-11Us
Benztropine MesylateTablet2 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2018-04-04Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Benztropine MesylateBenzatropine mesylate (0.5 mg/1)TabletOralRemedy Repack2011-09-062011-10-20Us50111 0393 01 nlmimage10 61233089
International/Other Brands
Apo-Benztropine (Apotex) / Cogentinol (Astra (Germany, discontinued)) / PMS Benztropine (Pharmascience)
Categories
UNII
1NHL2J4X8K
CAS number
86-13-5
Weight
Average: 307.4293
Monoisotopic: 307.193614427
Chemical Formula
C21H25NO
InChI Key
GIJXKZJWITVLHI-PMOLBWCYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H25NO/c1-22-18-12-13-19(22)15-20(14-18)23-21(16-8-4-2-5-9-16)17-10-6-3-7-11-17/h2-11,18-21H,12-15H2,1H3/t18-,19+,20+
IUPAC Name
(1R,3R,5S)-3-(diphenylmethoxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane
SMILES
[H][C@]12CC[C@]([H])(C[C@@]([H])(C1)OC(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1)N2C

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as an adjunct in the therapy of all forms of parkinsonism and also for use in the control of extrapyramidal disorders due to neuroleptic drugs.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Benztropine is an anticholinergic used in the symptomatic treatment of all etiologic groups of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions (except tardive dyskinesia). Benztropine possesses both anticholinergic and antihistaminic effects, although only the former has been established as therapeutically significant in the management of parkinsonism. Benztropine's anticholinergic activity is about equal to that of atropine. Benztropine also inhibits dopamine reuptake via the dopamine transporter at nerve terminals.

Mechanism of action

Benztropine is a selective M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. It is able to discriminate between the M1 (cortical or neuronal) and the peripheral muscarinic subtypes (cardiac and glandular). Benztropine partially blocks cholinergic activity in the CNS, which is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is also thought to increase the availability of dopamine, a brain chemical that is critical in the initiation and smooth control of voluntary muscle movement.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Human
UHistamine H1 receptor
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Onset of action is 1-2 hours following oral administration. The onset of action is within minutes when administered by IM or IV injection.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

~95% to serum proteins

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Signs of overdose include confusion, nervousness, listlessness, hallucinations, dizziness; muscle weakness, ataxia, dry mouth, mydriasis, blurred vision, palpitations, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, dysuria, numbness of fingers, headache, delirium, coma, shock, convulsions, respiratory arrest, anhidrosis, hyperthermia, glaucoma, and constipation.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with (2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodide.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzatropine can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Benzatropine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Benzatropine.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Benzatropine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Benzatropine.
AbexinostatThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Abexinostat.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Aceprometazine.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Aclidinium.
AcrivastineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Acrivastine is combined with Benzatropine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

References

Synthesis Reference

Phillips, R.F.; US. Patent 2,595,405; May 6, 1952; assigned to Merck & Co., Inc.

General References
  1. Wszola BA, Newell KM, Sprague RL: Risk factors for tardive dyskinesia in a large population of youths and adults. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Aug;9(3):285-96. [PubMed:11534539]
  2. van Harten PN, Hoek HW, Matroos GE, Koeter M, Kahn RS: Intermittent neuroleptic treatment and risk for tardive dyskinesia: Curacao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study III. Am J Psychiatry. 1998 Apr;155(4):565-7. [PubMed:9546009]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014390
KEGG Compound
C06846
PubChem Compound
1201549
PubChem Substance
46505349
ChemSpider
16736541
BindingDB
50366775
ChEBI
3048
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201203
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001460
PharmGKB
PA448591
HET
CXQ
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Benztropine
ATC Codes
N04AC01 — Benzatropine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:36.08 — Anticholinergic Agents
PDB Entries
6f6s
MSDS
Download (73.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Sciatica1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Peripheral Nervous System Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDelusional Disorder / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Hikma farmaceutica (portugal) sa
  • Nexus pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pharmaforce inc
  • Lundbeck inc
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Corepharma llc
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lannett holdings inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Merck and co inc
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Goldline Laboratories Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hikma Pharmaceuticals
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Lundbeck Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Merck & Co.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Nexus Pharmaceuticals
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • Pharmaceutical Packaging Center
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Schein Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • USL Pharma Inc.
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
TabletOral0.5 mg/1
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral2 mg/1
InjectionParenteral1 mg/1mL
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg
TabletOral2 mg
SolutionOral2 mg
TabletOral1 mg
TabletOral0.5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cogentin 2 mg/2 ml ampule70.09USD ml
Benztropine 2 mg/2 ml ampule37.5USD ml
Benztropine 2 mg/2 ml vial33.0USD ml
Benztropine mesylate powder26.38USD g
Benztropine mes 2 mg tablet0.41USD tablet
Benztropine mes 1 mg tablet0.38USD tablet
Benztropine mes 0.5 mg tablet0.34USD tablet
Benztropine Mesylate 0.5 mg tablet0.27USD tablet
Benztropine Mesylate 1 mg tablet0.27USD tablet
Benztropine Mesylate 2 mg tablet0.26USD tablet
Apo-Benztropine 2 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Pms-Benztropine 2 mg Tablet0.05USD tablet
Pms-Benztropine 1 mg Tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)138-140Phillips, R.F.; US. Patent 2,595,405; May 6, 1952; assigned to Merck & Co., Inc.
water solubilityVery solubleNot Available
logP4.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00121 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.47ALOGPS
logP4.19ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.47 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity94.24 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9766
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9929
Caco-2 permeable+0.7912
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5145
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8428
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9561
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.8218
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7188
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.669
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9383
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9072
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7739
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.871
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9627
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8925
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5994
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9729
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8768
Rat acute toxicity2.5708 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6077
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.534
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Diphenylmethanes
Direct Parent
Diphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Tropane alkaloids / Benzylethers / Piperidines / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Trialkylamines / Dialkyl ethers / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Diphenylmethane / Benzylether / Tropane alkaloid / Piperidine / N-alkylpyrrolidine / Pyrrolidine / Tertiary amine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Dialkyl ether / Ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound (CHEBI:3048)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Katz JL, Agoston GE, Alling KL, Kline RH, Forster MJ, Woolverton WL, Kopajtic TA, Newman AH: Dopamine transporter binding without cocaine-like behavioral effects: synthesis and evaluation of benztropine analogs alone and in combination with cocaine in rodents. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Apr;154(4):362-74. [PubMed:11349389]
  2. Kulkarni SS, Kopajtic TA, Katz JL, Newman AH: Comparative structure-activity relationships of benztropine analogues at the dopamine transporter and histamine H(1) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Jun 1;14(11):3625-34. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [PubMed:16460947]
  3. Reith ME, Berfield JL, Wang LC, Ferrer JV, Javitch JA: The uptake inhibitors cocaine and benztropine differentially alter the conformation of the human dopamine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 3;276(31):29012-8. Epub 2001 Jun 6. [PubMed:11395483]
  4. Simoni D, Roberti M, Rondanin R, Baruchello R, Rossi M, Invidiata FP, Merighi S, Varani K, Gessi S, Borea PA, Marino S, Cavallini S, Bianchi C, Siniscalchi A: Effects of two-carbon bridge region methoxylation of benztropine: discovery of novel chiral ligands for the dopamine transporter. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Mar 26;11(6):823-7. [PubMed:11277529]
  5. Todd CL, Grace AA: Interaction of benztropine and haloperidol actions on rat substantia nigra dopamine cell electrophysiological activity in vivo. Brain Res Bull. 1999 Jan 15;48(2):219-22. [PubMed:10230713]
  6. Zou MF, Kopajtic T, Katz JL, Wirtz S, Justice JB Jr, Newman AH: Novel tropane-based irreversible ligands for the dopamine transporter. J Med Chem. 2001 Dec 6;44(25):4453-61. [PubMed:11728190]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
HRH1
Uniprot ID
P35367
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Kulkarni SS, Kopajtic TA, Katz JL, Newman AH: Comparative structure-activity relationships of benztropine analogues at the dopamine transporter and histamine H(1) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Jun 1;14(11):3625-34. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [PubMed:16460947]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 23, 2018 19:37