Identification

Name
Tenofovir disoproxil
Accession Number
DB00300  (APRD01248, DB13426)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (a prodrug of tenofovir), marketed by Gilead Sciences under the trade name Viread®, belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTIs), which block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme crucial to viral production in HIV-infected people. [Wikipedia] In vivo tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is converted to tenofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Bis(POC)PMPA
  • Tenofovir bis(isopropyloxycarbonyloxymethyl) ester
External IDs
GS-4331
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarateOTT9J7900I202138-50-9VCMJCVGFSROFHV-WZGZYPNHSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Auro-tenofovirTablet300 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2017-07-26Not applicableCanada
Mylan-tenofovir DisoproxilTablet300 mgOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2017-07-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-tenofovirTablet300 mgOralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Teva-tenofovirTablet300 mgOralTeva2017-07-26Not applicableCanada
VireadTablet, coated300 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
VireadTablet, coated150 mg/1OralGilead Sciences2012-01-18Not applicableUs
VireadTablet, coated300 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2008-07-292017-04-14Us61958 0401 01 nlmimage10 b81ddc0e
VireadTablet, coated300 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2017-05-18Not applicableUs
VireadTablet, coated300 mg/1OralGilead Sciences2001-10-26Not applicableUs
VireadTablet, coated200 mg/1OralGilead Sciences2012-01-18Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-tenofovirTablet300 mgOralApotex Corporation2017-07-26Not applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovirTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) + Efavirenz (600 mg) + Emtricitabine (200 mg)TabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-emtricitabine-tenofovirTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) + Emtricitabine (200 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2017-07-26Not applicableCanada
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg/1) + Efavirenz (600 mg/1) + Emtricitabine (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2006-07-202017-09-16Us
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg/1) + Efavirenz (600 mg/1) + Emtricitabine (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralBristol Myers Squibb & Gilead Sciences, Llc2006-07-20Not applicableUs
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg/1) + Efavirenz (600 mg/1) + Emtricitabine (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralRemedy Repack2017-03-20Not applicableUs
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg/1) + Efavirenz (600 mg/1) + Emtricitabine (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralDoh Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg/1) + Efavirenz (600 mg/1) + Emtricitabine (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralA S Medication Solutions2006-07-202017-06-20Us
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg/1) + Efavirenz (600 mg/1) + Emtricitabine (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralA S Medication Solutions2006-07-202017-06-20Us
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg/1) + Efavirenz (600 mg/1) + Emtricitabine (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-06Not applicableUs
AtriplaTenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) + Efavirenz (600 mg) + Emtricitabine (200 mg)TabletOralBristol Myers Squibb & Gilead Sciences, Llc2007-10-23Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
F4YU4LON7I
CAS number
201341-05-1
Weight
Average: 519.448
Monoisotopic: 519.173029184
Chemical Formula
C19H30N5O10P
InChI Key
JFVZFKDSXNQEJW-CQSZACIVSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H30N5O10P/c1-12(2)33-18(25)28-9-31-35(27,32-10-29-19(26)34-13(3)4)11-30-14(5)6-24-8-23-15-16(20)21-7-22-17(15)24/h7-8,12-14H,6,9-11H2,1-5H3,(H2,20,21,22)/t14-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
bis({[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]oxy}methyl) {[(2R)-1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)propan-2-yl]oxy}methanephosphonate
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@](C)(CN1C=NC2=C(N)N=CN=C12)OCP(=O)(OCOC(=O)OC(C)C)OCOC(=O)OC(C)C

Pharmacology

Indication

Tenofovir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older. It is also indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Tenofovir belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), which block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme crucial to viral production in HIV-infected people. Tenofovir is currently in late-stage clinical trials for the treatment of hepatitis B. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate diester analog of adenosine monophosphate. Tenofovir requires initial diester hydrolysis for conversion to tenofovir and subsequent phosphorylations by cellular enzymes to form tenofovir diphosphate. Tenofovir diphosphate is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases α, β, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.

Mechanism of action

Tenofovir inhibits the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase by competing with the natural substrate deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate and, after incorporation into DNA, by DNA chain termination. Specifically, the drugs are analogues of the naturally occurring deoxynucleotides needed to synthesize the viral DNA and they compete with the natural deoxynucleotides for incorporation into the growing viral DNA chain. However, unlike the natural deoxynucleotides substrates, NRTIs and NTRTIs (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors) lack a 3'-hydroxyl group on the deoxyribose moiety. As a result, following incorporation of an NRTI or an NtRTI, the next incoming deoxynucleotide cannot form the next 5'-3' phosphodiester bond needed to extend the DNA chain. Thus, when an NRTI or NtRTI is incorporated, viral DNA synthesis is halted, a process known as chain termination. All NRTIs and NtRTIs are classified as competitive substrate inhibitors.

TargetActionsOrganism
AReverse transcriptase/RNaseH
inhibitor
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Absorption

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is the water soluble diester prodrug of the active ingredient tenofoir. The oral bioavailability in fasted patients is approximately 25%. When a single oral dose (300 mg) is given to HIV-1 infected subjects in the fasted state, the maximum serum concentration was achieved in 1.0 ± 0.4 hours (Tmax). Cmax and AUC values are 0.30 ± 0.09 µg/mL and 2.29 ± 0.69 µg∙hr/mL. Administration of food (high fat meal containing 40 to 50% fat) increases the oral bioavailability, with an increase in the AUC of approximately 40%. Cmax is lower in the oral powder, compared to the tablet formulation. However, the mean AUC is similar between the two formulations.

Volume of distribution
  • 1.3 ± 0.6 L/kg [tenofovir 1.0 mg/kg IV]
  • 1.2 ± 0.4 L/kg [tenofovir 3.0 mg/kg IV]
Protein binding

Very low: < 0.7% to human plasma proteins and < 7.2% to serum proteins

Metabolism

The cytochrome P450 enzyme system is not involved with the metabolism of tenofovir disoproxil or tenofovir.

Route of elimination

When tenofovir is given IV, 70-80% of the dose is recovered in the urine as unchanged drug within 72 hours of administration. Tenofovir is eliminated by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. There may be competition for elimination with other compounds that are also renally eliminated.

Half life

When a single oral dose is given, the terminal elimination half-life is approximately 17 hours.

Clearance

The following are renal clearance (CL renal) parameters for subjects with varying degrees of renal function: * 243.5 ± 33.3 mL/min [baseline creatinine clearance >80 mL/min] * 168.6 ± 27.5 mL/min [baseline creatinine clearance 50-80 mL/min] * 100.6 ± 27.5 mL/min [baseline creatinine clearance 30-49 mL/min] * 43.0 ± 31.2 mL/min [baseline creatinine clearance 12-29 mL/min] The following are clearance (CL/F) parameters for subjects with varying degrees of renal function: * 1043.7 ± 115.4 [baseline creatinine clearance >80 mL/min] * 807.7 ± 279.2 [baseline creatinine clearance 50-80 mL/min] * 444.4 ± 209.8 [baseline creatinine clearance 30-49 mL/min] * 177.0 ± 97.1 [baseline creatinine clearance 12-29 mL/min]

Toxicity

Limited clinical experience at doses higher than the therapeutic dose of tenofovir 300 mg is available. In Study 901 tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 600 mg was administered to 8 patients orally for 28 days. No severe adverse reactions were reported. The effects of higher doses are not known.

Affected organisms
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Tenofovir Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
AclarubicinThe serum concentration of Aclarubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adapalene is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Adefovir DipivoxilThe therapeutic efficacy of Tenofovir disoproxil can be decreased when used in combination with Adefovir Dipivoxil.Approved, Investigational
AgomelatineThe serum concentration of Agomelatine can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alclofenac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Withdrawn
AlminoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alminoprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
AlmotriptanThe metabolism of Almotriptan can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Withdrawn
AmikacinThe serum concentration of Amikacin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Withdrawn
AminophyllineThe metabolism of Aminophylline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Amiodarone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
AmrubicinThe serum concentration of Amrubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AnagrelideThe metabolism of Anagrelide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
AndrographolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Andrographolide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
AnisodamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anisodamine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
annamycinThe serum concentration of annamycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Antipyrine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ApixabanThe metabolism of Apixaban can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ApocyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apocynin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
ApramycinThe serum concentration of Apramycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental, Vet Approved
ApremilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe metabolism of Aprepitant can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
ArbekacinThe serum concentration of Arbekacin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AsenapineThe metabolism of Asenapine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Atazanavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AV650The metabolism of AV650 can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AxitinibThe metabolism of Axitinib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azapropazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
BekanamycinThe serum concentration of Bekanamycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
BendamustineThe metabolism of Bendamustine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
BendazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendazac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
BenorilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benorilate is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benoxaprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
BenzydamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzydamine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe metabolism of Benzyl alcohol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Betaxolol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
BevoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bevonium is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
BortezomibThe metabolism of Bortezomib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
BromazepamThe metabolism of Bromazepam can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Illicit
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromfenac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
BucillamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bucillamine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
BufexamacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bufexamac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
BumadizoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumadizone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
BupivacaineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
BupropionThe metabolism of Bupropion can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Carbamazepine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
Carbaspirin calciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbaspirin calcium is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental, Investigational
CarmustineThe metabolism of Carmustine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarvedilolThe metabolism of Carvedilol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Castanospermine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Celecoxib is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe metabolism of Chlorzoxazone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Choline magnesium trisalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Choline magnesium trisalicylate is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CidofovirCidofovir may decrease the excretion rate of Tenofovir disoproxil which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
CilostazolThe metabolism of Cilostazol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Cinacalcet can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ClenbuterolThe metabolism of Clenbuterol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClevidipineThe metabolism of Clevidipine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonixin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Clopidogrel can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClozapineThe metabolism of Clozapine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CobicistatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cobicistat is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Conjugated estrogensThe metabolism of Conjugated estrogens can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
CurcuminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Curcumin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
CyclobenzaprineThe metabolism of Cyclobenzaprine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
D-LimoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when D-Limonene is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
DacarbazineThe metabolism of Dacarbazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
DapagliflozinThe metabolism of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Darunavir can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DasatinibThe metabolism of Dasatinib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DeutetrabenazineThe metabolism of Deutetrabenazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
DexfenfluramineThe metabolism of Dexfenfluramine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DiazepamThe metabolism of Diazepam can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DibekacinThe serum concentration of Dibekacin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
DidanosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Didanosine can be decreased when used in combination with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DifenpiramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difenpiramide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diflunisal is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DihydrostreptomycinThe serum concentration of Dihydrostreptomycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational, Vet Approved
DinoprostoneThe metabolism of Dinoprostone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Diphenhydramine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DomperidoneThe metabolism of Domperidone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droxicam is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Duloxetine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
DuvelisibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Duvelisib is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
E-6201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when E-6201 is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
EltrombopagThe metabolism of Eltrombopag can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirizole is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
EpirubicinThe serum concentration of Epirubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ErgotamineThe metabolism of Ergotamine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ErlotinibThe metabolism of Erlotinib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
EstradiolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstroneThe metabolism of Estrone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe metabolism of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
EtanerceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etanercept is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
EthanolThe metabolism of Ethanol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
EthenzamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethenzamide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etodolac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etofenamate is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
EtoposideThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoricoxib is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
Evening primrose oilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
exisulindThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when exisulind is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
FelbinacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbinac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenbufen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
FentiazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentiazac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
FeprazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Feprazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
Ferulic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ferulic acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Withdrawn
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe metabolism of Flunitrazepam can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Illicit
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunixin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Vet Approved
FlunoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunoxaprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Fluorouracil can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurbiprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
FlutamideThe metabolism of Flutamide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Fluvoxamine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
FramycetinThe serum concentration of Framycetin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
FrovatriptanThe metabolism of Frovatriptan can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
GanciclovirThe serum concentration of Tenofovir disoproxil can be increased when it is combined with Ganciclovir.Approved, Investigational
GeneticinThe serum concentration of Geneticin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
GenisteinThe metabolism of Genistein can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
GentamicinThe serum concentration of Gentamicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AThe serum concentration of GENTAMICIN C1A can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
GPX-150The serum concentration of GPX-150 can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
GrepafloxacinThe metabolism of Grepafloxacin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational, Withdrawn
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guacetisal is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
GuanabenzThe metabolism of Guanabenz can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Haloperidol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
HesperetinThe metabolism of Hesperetin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
HigenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Higenamine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
Hygromycin BThe serum concentration of Hygromycin B can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Vet Approved
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuproxam is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
IcatibantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Icatibant is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
IcotinibThe metabolism of Icotinib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
IdarubicinThe serum concentration of Idarubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
IloperidoneThe metabolism of Iloperidone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Imatinib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Imidazole salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidazole salicylate is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ImiquimodThe metabolism of Imiquimod can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
IndobufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indobufen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
INNO-206The serum concentration of INNO-206 can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
IsepamicinThe serum concentration of Isepamicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxicam is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
IxazomibThe metabolism of Ixazomib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
KanamycinThe serum concentration of Kanamycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Kebuzone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketoprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Tenofovir disoproxil can be increased when it is combined with Ledipasvir.Approved
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Leflunomide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
LisofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisofylline is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
LomefloxacinThe metabolism of Lomefloxacin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
LonazolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lonazolac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
LopinavirLopinavir may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Lorcaserin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lornoxicam is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxoprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lumiracoxib is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium salicylate is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MalathionThe metabolism of Malathion can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe metabolism of Maprotiline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MasoprocolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Masoprocol is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclofenamic acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mefenamic acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MelatoninThe metabolism of Melatonin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meloxicam is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
MenadioneThe metabolism of Menadione can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Nutraceutical
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesalazine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MethadoneThe metabolism of Methadone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe metabolism of Methoxyflurane can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MetrizamideThe serum concentration of Metrizamide can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Mexiletine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MianserinThe metabolism of Mianserin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
MicronomicinThe serum concentration of Micronomicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
MirtazapineThe metabolism of Mirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
MizoribineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mizoribine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
MofebutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mofebutazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
muraglitazarThe metabolism of muraglitazar can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolate mofetil is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolic acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabumetone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NafamostatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nafamostat is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naproxen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
NeamineThe serum concentration of Neamine can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
NeomycinThe serum concentration of Neomycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nepafenac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NetilmicinThe serum concentration of Netilmicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NifedipineThe metabolism of Nifedipine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NifenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nifenazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niflumic Acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimesulide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Nitric OxideThe metabolism of Nitric Oxide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroaspirin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
OlanzapineThe metabolism of Olanzapine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olsalazine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Omeprazole can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe metabolism of Ondansetron can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
OrgoteinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orgotein is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Vet Approved
OxaliplatinThe metabolism of Oxaliplatin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxaprozin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
OxtriphyllineThe metabolism of Oxtriphylline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenbutazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Withdrawn
PalonosetronThe metabolism of Palonosetron can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Parecoxib is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ParomomycinThe serum concentration of Paromomycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
ParthenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Parthenolide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
PazopanibThe metabolism of Pazopanib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
PentamidineThe metabolism of Pentamidine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
PentoxifyllineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylbutazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PimozideThe metabolism of Pimozide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
PipotiazineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PirarubicinThe serum concentration of Pirarubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
PirfenidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirfenidone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piroxicam is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PirprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
PlazomicinThe serum concentration of Plazomicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
PlicamycinThe serum concentration of Plicamycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PomalidomideThe metabolism of Pomalidomide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
PranoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pranoprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental, Investigational
PraziquantelThe metabolism of Praziquantel can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Primaquine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
ProglumetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proglumetacin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
ProguanilThe metabolism of Proguanil can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Promazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propacetamol is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PropafenoneThe metabolism of Propafenone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
PropofolThe metabolism of Propofol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe metabolism of Propranolol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
PropyphenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propyphenazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
ProquazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proquazone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
PTC299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PTC299 is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
PuromycinThe serum concentration of Puromycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
PyrazinamideThe metabolism of Pyrazinamide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Quinine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
RamelteonThe metabolism of Ramelteon can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
RanitidineThe metabolism of Ranitidine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
RasagilineThe metabolism of Rasagiline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ResveratrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Resveratrol is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
RibostamycinThe serum concentration of Ribostamycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Rifabutin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
RiluzoleThe metabolism of Riluzole can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
RizatriptanThe metabolism of Rizatriptan can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational, Withdrawn
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Ropinirole can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
RotigotineThe metabolism of Rotigotine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
RucaparibThe metabolism of Rucaparib can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
SabarubicinThe serum concentration of Sabarubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylamide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylic acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salsalate is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SemapimodThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Semapimod is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
SeratrodastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Seratrodast is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
SerrapeptaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Serrapeptase is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
SertralineThe metabolism of Sertraline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
SisomicinThe serum concentration of Sisomicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
SP1049CThe serum concentration of SP1049C can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
SpectinomycinThe serum concentration of Spectinomycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SRT501The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when SRT501 is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
StiripentolThe metabolism of Stiripentol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
StreptomycinThe serum concentration of Streptomycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Streptozocin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulindac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Suprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Withdrawn
SuxibuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Suxibuzone is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
TacrineThe metabolism of Tacrine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational, Withdrawn
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TarenflurbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tarenflurbil is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Tenofovir disoproxil can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Telithromycin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TemafloxacinThe metabolism of Temafloxacin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
TenidapThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tenidap is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tenoxicam is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tepoxalin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Vet Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Terbinafine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TeriflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Teriflunomide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ThalidomideThe metabolism of Thalidomide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheobromineThe metabolism of Theobromine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ThiabendazoleThe metabolism of Thiabendazole can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Thioridazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe metabolism of Thiothixene can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiaprofenic acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TinoridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tinoridine is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Tipranavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TobramycinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolfenamic Acid is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolmetin is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ToremifeneThe metabolism of Toremifene can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TranilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranilast is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TriamtereneThe metabolism of Triamterene can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TribenosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tribenoside is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
TrifluoperazineThe metabolism of Trifluoperazine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
TriptolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triptolide is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
UlipristalThe metabolism of Ulipristal can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
VadimezanThe metabolism of Vadimezan can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
ValaciclovirValaciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Tenofovir disoproxil which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valdecoxib is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational, Withdrawn
ValganciclovirThe serum concentration of Tenofovir disoproxil can be increased when it is combined with Valganciclovir.Approved, Investigational
ValrubicinThe serum concentration of Valrubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
VoxilaprevirThe metabolism of Voxilaprevir can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaltoprofen is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
ZileutonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zileuton is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Ziprasidone can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ZolmitriptanThe metabolism of Zolmitriptan can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
ZolpidemThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zomepirac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Withdrawn
Zoptarelin doxorubicinThe serum concentration of Zoptarelin doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Investigational
ZorubicinThe serum concentration of Zorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Experimental
Food Interactions
  • When given with a high-fat meal, the oral bioavailability, AUC, and Cmax increased.

References

Synthesis Reference

Uma Maheswer Rao Vasireddy, Siva Rama Prasad Vellanki, Raja Babu Balusu, Naga Durga Rao Bandi, Pavan Kumar Jujjavarapu, Sambasiva Rao Ginjupalli, Rama Krishna Pilli, "Process for the preparation of Tenofovir." U.S. Patent US08049009, issued November 01, 2011.

US08049009
General References
  1. Gilden D: Tenofovir: Gilead applies for approval; expanded access liberalized. AIDS Treat News. 2001 May 11;(364):2-3, 1. [PubMed:11569959]
  2. Miller MD, Margot NA, Hertogs K, Larder B, Miller V: Antiviral activity of tenofovir (PMPA) against nucleoside-resistant clinical HIV samples. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001 Apr-Jul;20(4-7):1025-8. [PubMed:11562951]
  3. Thompson CA: Prodrug of tenofovir diphosphate approved for combination HIV therapy. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002 Jan 1;59(1):18. [PubMed:11813460]
  4. Gazzard BG: The potential place of tenofovir in antiretroviral treatment regimens. Int J Clin Pract. 2001 Dec;55(10):704-9. [PubMed:11777298]
  5. Lu C, Jia Y, Chen L, Ding Y, Yang J, Chen M, Song Y, Sun X, Wen A: Pharmacokinetics and food interaction of a novel prodrug of tenofovir, tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate, in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2013 Apr;38(2):136-40. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12023. Epub 2012 Dec 28. [PubMed:23278367]
  6. Maskew M, Westreich D, Firnhaber C, Sanne I: Tenofovir use and pregnancy among women initiating HAART. AIDS. 2012 Nov 28;26(18):2393-7. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328359a95c. [PubMed:22951630]
  7. Uglietti A, Zanaboni D, Gnarini M, Maserati R: Emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV infection: current PK/PD evaluation. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012 Oct;8(10):1305-14. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2012.714367. Epub 2012 Sep 4. [PubMed:22943210]
  8. Ransom CE, Huo Y, Patel K, Scott GB, Watts HD, Williams P, Siberry GK, Livingston EG: Infant growth outcomes after maternal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Dec 1;64(4):374-81. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182a7adb2. [PubMed:24169122]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14445
KEGG Drug
D06074
PubChem Compound
5481350
PubChem Substance
46508131
ChemSpider
4587262
ChEBI
63717
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1538
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001430
PharmGKB
PA10204
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Tenofovir_disoproxil
ATC Codes
J05AR12 — Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxilJ05AR03 — Tenofovir disoproxil and emtricitabineJ05AR06 — Emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil and efavirenzJ05AR09 — Emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil, elvitegravir and cobicistatJ05AF07 — Tenofovir disoproxilJ05AR08 — Emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil and rilpivirineJ05AR11 — Lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil and efavirenz
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.08.20 — Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
FDA label
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MSDS
Download (57.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
0CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
0RecruitingOtherContraception / HIV / AIDS1
1Active Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1Active Not RecruitingScreeningHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
1CompletedNot AvailableHIV Prevention1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedNot AvailablePharmacodynamics of 1% Tenofovir Gel Following Coitus / Pharmacokinetics of 1% Tenofovir Gel Following Coitus1
1CompletedNot AvailableRectal Microbicides1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHIV Prevention / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedBasic ScienceTuberculosis1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedOtherHIV-DDI1
1CompletedPrevention18-30 Years of Age / High Risk MSM / HIV Negative1
1CompletedPreventionHealthy Adult Females1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection2
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
1CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
1CompletedTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHIV Prevention1
1RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
1RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection / Viral Hepatitis B1
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceAtazanavir1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic1
1, 2CompletedOtherPrEP Adherence Monitoring1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute HIV Infection1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionViral Hepatitis B1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAicardi Goutières Syndrome1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
1, 2WithdrawnPreventionMalignant Lymphomas1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute HIV Infection / HIV CNS Involvement1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection4
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentContraception / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis D1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2CompletedPreventionAmphetamine-Related Disorders / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
2CompletedPreventionHIV Seroconversion / Stimulant Abuse1
2CompletedPreventionHIV Seropositivity1
2CompletedPreventionHepatitis B,Chronic / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections8
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pregnancy1
2CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection4
2CompletedTreatmentContraception / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections15
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies / Metabolic Diseases / Nutrition Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lymphoma, AIDS Related1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Viral Hepatitis B1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)2
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I5
2CompletedTreatmentInfectious Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentLipodystrophies1
2CompletedTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
2TerminatedTreatmentHIV / AIDS / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis D / Viral Hepatitis B1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
2TerminatedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2TerminatedTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
2Unknown StatusPreventionHIV Transmission / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Unknown StatusPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Unknown StatusPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Viral Hepatitis B1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
2WithdrawnPreventionHIV-1-infection1
2WithdrawnPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcute HIV Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Viral Hepatitis B1
2, 3RecruitingOtherHIV-1-infection1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HBV Coinfection / Hepatitis B Reactivation1
2, 3WithdrawnPreventionHIV Seronegativity / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionHepatitis B Chronic Infection / Pregnancy1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic HBV Infections / Chronic Infection With HIV / HBV1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic HBV Infections / HBV3
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection2
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B e Antigen Negative / Chronic Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis D, Chronic1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 Infection1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I6
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Kaposi s Sarcoma (KS)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPre-Exposure Prophylaxis of HIV-1 Infection1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
3CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3CompletedPreventionHIV Prevention1
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection3
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis B Virus (HBV)2
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic2
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections22
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
3CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I6
3CompletedTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / STI1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection2
3RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I2
3RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Tuberculosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Non-Hodgkins / Viral Hepatitis B1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma1
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)1
3Unknown StatusPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Infection NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute HIV Infection1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic HBV With Severe Exacerbation1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3WithdrawnPreventionBreastfeeding / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherViral Hepatitis B1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Infection With HIV1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Viral Hepatitis B Without Delta-agent2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I2
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Proteinuria1
4CompletedNot AvailablePharmacokinetic Study in Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedDiagnosticCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedPreventionAdolescent Behaviors / Gender / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedPreventionCentral Nervous System Diseases / Dementias / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedPreventionHBV / Pregnancy1
4CompletedPreventionHIV Prevention1
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)5
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
4CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute HIV Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute on Chronic Liver Failure / Viral Hepatitis B1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection6
4CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) / Neurocognitive Decline1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV, Combination Therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis B Coinfection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex Type II1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)8
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections20
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Viral Hepatitis B2
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)4
4CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I4
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionHIV / AIDS1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAntiviral Treatment / Chronic Hepatitis B Infection1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBone destruction / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Menopause1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
4RecruitingOtherHIV / AIDS1
4RecruitingOtherPre-Exposure Prophylaxis / Transgender Persons1
4RecruitingPreventionBone Demineralization1
4RecruitingPreventionHepatitis B Chronic Infection / Pregnancy1
4RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4RecruitingPreventionNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Burkitt's1
4RecruitingPreventionPrEP Adherence Monitoring1
4RecruitingSupportive CareHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAntiretroviral Therapy Intolerance / Patients Compliance1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection5
4RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis, Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Osteopenia1
4TerminatedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentMetabolic Complications / Mitochondrial Toxicity1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection3
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCirrhosis Due to Hepatitis B1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4WithdrawnTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
4WithdrawnTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableHIV Seropositivity / Pregnancy, High-Risk1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableViral Hepatitis B1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHIV-infected Thai Children1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableThis Study is Designed to Collect Treatment Data of Thai Children on Third Line ARV Therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMicrobicide Applicator1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAntiretroviral Treatment Outcomes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Heptitis B1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hypercholesterolaemia / Hyperlipidemias / Hypertriglyceridemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections6
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpontaneous Reactivation of Hepatitis B1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableThe Safety of Anti-viral Drugs Used in Late Pregnancy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHBV1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis B Infection2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableChronic Renal Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHIV Chemoprophylaxis / HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHIV Prevention1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Illicit Drug User1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionHIV / AIDS1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute on Chronic Liver Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B,Chronic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis B Infection / Viral Hepatitis B1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableViral Hepatitis B1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Tuberculosis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHepatitis B,Chronic / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHBV Coinfection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableHIV Infected1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis B Infection1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Infertilities1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Gilead sciences inc
  • Gilead Sciences, Inc.
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral
PowderOral40 mg/g
TabletOral300 mg
Tablet, coatedOral150 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral250 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral300 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Viread 300 mg tablet33.95USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2298059No2008-12-302018-07-23Canada
CA2261619No2006-05-232017-07-25Canada
US5914331Yes1998-01-022018-01-02Us
US6043230Yes1998-01-252018-01-25Us
US5814639Yes1997-03-292017-03-29Us
US6939964Yes1998-07-202018-07-20Us
US6639071Yes1998-08-142018-08-14Us
US6642245Yes2001-05-042021-05-04Us
US6703396Yes2001-09-092021-09-09Us
US5922695Yes1998-01-252018-01-25Us
US5935946Yes1998-01-252018-01-25Us
US5977089Yes1998-01-252018-01-25Us
US8592397No2004-01-132024-01-13Us
US8716264No2004-01-132024-01-13Us
US9018192No2006-06-132026-06-13Us
US8598185No2008-05-012028-05-01Us
US7125879No2002-08-092022-08-09Us
US6838464No2001-02-262021-02-26Us
US8080551No2003-04-112023-04-11Us
US8101629No2002-08-092022-08-09Us
US7067522No1999-12-202019-12-20Us
US8148374No2009-09-032029-09-03Us
US7635704No2006-10-262026-10-26Us
US7176220No2003-11-202023-11-20Us
US8981103No2006-10-262026-10-26Us
US8633219No2010-04-242030-04-24Us
US8841310No2005-12-092025-12-09Us
US9545414No2006-06-132026-06-13Us
US9457036No2004-01-132024-01-13Us
US9744181No2004-01-132024-01-13Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)276-280 °CNot Available
water solubility13.4 mg/mL in distilled water at 25 °C (disoproxil fumarate salt)FDA label
logP1.25FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.712 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.02ALOGPS
logP2.65ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.13ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area185.44 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count17ChemAxon
Refractivity118.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability49.18 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5998
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9194
Caco-2 permeable-0.617
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7203
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8706
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.948
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8985
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8609
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6458
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7177
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7873
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8271
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7634
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8353
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.85
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.511
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7811
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9914
Rat acute toxicity2.4903 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8936
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7957
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. These are purines that carry an amino group at position 6. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazopyrimidines
Sub Class
Purines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent
6-aminopurines
Alternative Parents
Dialkyl alkylphosphonates / Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Phosphonic acid esters / N-substituted imidazoles / Imidolactams / Carbonic acid diesters / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
6-aminopurine / Aminopyrimidine / Dialkyl alkylphosphonate / Phosphonic acid diester / Carbonic acid diester / Imidolactam / Pyrimidine / N-substituted imidazole / Phosphonic acid ester / Azole
show 17 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organic phosphonate (CHEBI:63717)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna-dna hybrid ribonuclease activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pol
Uniprot ID
Q72547
Uniprot Name
Reverse transcriptase/RNaseH
Molecular Weight
65223.615 Da
References
  1. Fung HB, Stone EA, Piacenti FJ: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection. Clin Ther. 2002 Oct;24(10):1515-48. [PubMed:12462284]
  2. DeChristoforo R, Penzak SR: Tenofovir: a nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor for treatment of HIV infection. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004 Jan 1;61(1):86-98; quiz 99-100. [PubMed:14725126]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atp binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. Plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis and in adenine nucleotide metabolism. Adenylate kinase ...
Gene Name
AK2
Uniprot ID
P54819
Uniprot Name
Adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
26477.44 Da
References
  1. Antoniou T, Park-Wyllie LY, Tseng AL: Tenofovir: a nucleotide analog for the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Jan;23(1):29-43. [PubMed:12523458]
  2. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Nucleoside triphosphate adenylate kinase activity
Specific Function
Involved in maintaining the homeostasis of cellular nucleotides by catalyzing the interconversion of nucleoside phosphates. Efficiently phosphorylates AMP and dAMP using ATP as phosphate donor, but...
Gene Name
AK4
Uniprot ID
P27144
Uniprot Name
Adenylate kinase 4, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
25267.83 Da
References
  1. Antoniou T, Park-Wyllie LY, Tseng AL: Tenofovir: a nucleotide analog for the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Jan;23(1):29-43. [PubMed:12523458]
  2. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Ribosomal small subunit binding
Specific Function
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-sit...
Gene Name
NME1
Uniprot ID
P15531
Uniprot Name
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A
Molecular Weight
17148.635 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transcription factor activity, sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Negatively regulates Rho activity by interacting with AKAP13/LBC. Acts as a transcriptional activator of the MYC gene; binds ...
Gene Name
NME2
Uniprot ID
P22392
Uniprot Name
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B
Molecular Weight
17297.935 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Cihlar T, Ho ES, Lin DC, Mulato AS: Human renal organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) and its role in the nephrotoxicity of antiviral nucleotide analogs. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001 Apr-Jul;20(4-7):641-8. [PubMed:11563082]
  2. Uwai Y, Ida H, Tsuji Y, Katsura T, Inui K: Renal transport of adefovir, cidofovir, and tenofovir by SLC22A family members (hOAT1, hOAT3, and hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2007 Apr;24(4):811-5. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [PubMed:17372702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Uwai Y, Ida H, Tsuji Y, Katsura T, Inui K: Renal transport of adefovir, cidofovir, and tenofovir by SLC22A family members (hOAT1, hOAT3, and hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2007 Apr;24(4):811-5. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [PubMed:17372702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name
ABCC10
Uniprot ID
Q5T3U5
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7
Molecular Weight
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Pushpakom SP, Liptrott NJ, Rodriguez-Novoa S, Labarga P, Soriano V, Albalater M, Hopper-Borge E, Bonora S, Di Perri G, Back DJ, Khoo S, Pirmohamed M, Owen A: Genetic variants of ABCC10, a novel tenofovir transporter, are associated with kidney tubular dysfunction. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jul 1;204(1):145-53. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir215. [PubMed:21628669]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Imaoka T, Kusuhara H, Adachi M, Schuetz JD, Takeuchi K, Sugiyama Y: Functional involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) in the renal elimination of the antiviral drugs adefovir and tenofovir. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;71(2):619-27. Epub 2006 Nov 16. [PubMed:17110501]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Izzedine H, Hulot JS, Villard E, Goyenvalle C, Dominguez S, Ghosn J, Valantin MA, Lechat P, Deray AG: Association between ABCC2 gene haplotypes and tenofovir-induced proximal tubulopathy. J Infect Dis. 2006 Dec 1;194(11):1481-91. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17083032]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:33