Identification

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Name
Atenolol
Accession Number
DB00335  (APRD00172)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Atenolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker used in a variety of cardiovascular conditions.

Sir James Black, a scottish pharmacologist, pioneered the use of beta-blockers for the management of angina pectoris in 1958 for which he received the Nobel Prize.19 Beta-blockers quickly became popular in clinical use and where subsequently investigated for use in myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and hypertension during the 1960s. Later they continued to be investigated for use in heart failure throughout the 1970-1980s. Atenolol itself was developed early on in this history by Alvogen Malta under the trade name Tenormin and received FDA approval in September, 1981.Label

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-p-Carbamoylmethylphenoxy-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol
  • 2-(p-(2-Hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)propoxy)phenyl)acetamide
  • 4-(2-Hydroxy-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)propoxy)benzeneacetamide
  • Atenolol
  • Atenololum
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act AtenololTabletOralActavis Pharma Company2004-08-13Not applicableCanada
Act AtenololTabletOralActavis Pharma Company2004-08-13Not applicableCanada
AtenololTablet25 mgOralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2003-04-212017-11-10Canada
AtenololTablet50 mgOralSanis Health Inc2017-10-20Not applicableCanada
AtenololTablet50 mgOralIvax Pharmaceuticals IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
AtenololTablet50 mg/1OralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2007-07-10Not applicableUs
AtenololTablet100 mgOralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc1999-03-09Not applicableCanada
AtenololTablet100 mgOralMeliapharm Inc2011-04-082014-06-25Canada
AtenololTablet25 mg/1OralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2007-07-10Not applicableUs
AtenololTablet50 mgOralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc1999-09-03Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ag-atenololTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.2018-07-18Not applicableCanada
Ag-atenololTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.2018-07-18Not applicableCanada
Ag-atenololTabletOralAngita Pharma Inc.2018-07-18Not applicableCanada
Apo-atenol Tab 100mgTabletOralApotex Corporation1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-atenol Tab 50mgTabletOralApotex Corporation1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
AtenololTablet100 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2007-12-04Not applicableUs
AtenololTablet25 mg/1OralPack Pharmaceuticals LLC2010-06-10Not applicableUs
AtenololTablet50 mg/1OralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2014-01-06Not applicableUs
AtenololTablet100 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2007-12-04Not applicableUs
AtenololTablet50 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2010-05-24Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-atenidoneAtenolol (100 mg) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2004-08-12Not applicableCanada
Apo-atenidoneAtenolol (50 mg) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2004-08-12Not applicableCanada
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (100 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2013-05-09Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (100 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralClinical Solutions Wholsesale1992-08-012017-06-15Us
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (50 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralbryant ranch prepack1992-08-012016-11-30Us
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (100 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralREMEDYREPACK INC.2019-04-29Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (100 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralMutual Pharmaceutical1993-04-29Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (100 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralCadila Healthcare Limited2019-03-12Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (100 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-05Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneAtenolol (100 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (25 mg/1)TabletOralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc1992-08-012016-06-01Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Atenolol ScopolamineAtenolol (50 mg/50.5mg) + Scopolamine (.5 mg/50.5mg)TabletOralTPS2014-10-01Not applicableUs
Atenolol ScopolamineAtenolol (25 mg/25.25mg) + Scopolamine (.25 mg/25.25mg)TabletBuccal; Oral; Sublingual; TransmucosalTPS2014-10-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Myocord (Ivax) / Normiten (Teva)
Categories
UNII
50VV3VW0TI
CAS number
29122-68-7
Weight
Average: 266.3361
Monoisotopic: 266.16304258
Chemical Formula
C14H22N2O3
InChI Key
METKIMKYRPQLGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H22N2O3/c1-10(2)16-8-12(17)9-19-13-5-3-11(4-6-13)7-14(15)18/h3-6,10,12,16-17H,7-9H2,1-2H3,(H2,15,18)
IUPAC Name
2-(4-{2-hydroxy-3-[(propan-2-yl)amino]propoxy}phenyl)acetamide
SMILES
CC(C)NCC(O)COC1=CC=C(CC(N)=O)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for:Label

1) Management of hypertension alone and in combination with other antihypertensives.

2) Management of angina pectoris associated with coronary atherosclerosis.

3) Management of acute myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable patients with a heart rate greater than 50 beats per minutes and a systolic blood pressure above 100 mmHg.

Off-label uses include:

1) Secondary prevention of myocardial infarction.4

2) Management of heart failure.3

3) Management of atrial fibrillation.1

4) Management of supraventricular tachycardia.5

5) Management of ventricular arrythmias such as congenital long-QT and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.6

6) Management of symptomatic thyrotoxicosis in combination with methimazole.2

7) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches.7

8) Management of alcohol withdrawal.8,9

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Atenolol is a cardio-selective beta-blocker and as such exerts most of its effects on the heart.Label It acts as an antagonist to sympathetic innervation and prevents increases in heart rate, electrical conductivity, and contractility in the heart due to increased release of norepinephrine from the peripheral nervous system.Label,20,14 Together the decreases in contractility and rate produce a reduction in cardiac output resulting in a compensatory increase in peripheral vascular resistance in the short-term. This response later declines to baseline with long-term use of atenolol. More importantly, this reduction in the work demanded of the myocardium also reduces oxygen demand which provides therapeutic benefit by reducing the mismatch of oxygen supply and demand in settings where coronary blood flow is limited, such as in coronary atherosclerosis. Reducing oxygen demand, particularly due to exercise, can reduce the frequency of angina pectoris symptoms and potentially improve survival of the remaining myocardium after myocardial infarction. The decrease in rate of sinoatrial node potentials, electrical conduction, slowing of potentials traveling through the atrioventricular node, and reduced frequency of ectopic potentials due to blockade of adrenergic beta receptors has led to benefit in arrhythmic conditions such as atrial fibrillation by controlling the rate of action potential generation and allowing for more effective coordinated contractions. Since a degree of sympathetic activity is necessary to maintain cardiac function, the reduced contractility induced by atenolol may precipitate or worsen heart failure, especially during volume overload.Label

The effects of atenolol on blood pressure have been established, although it is less effective than alternative beta-blockers, but the mechanism has not yet been characterized.Label,20 As a β1 selective drug, it does not act via the vasodilation produced by non-selective agents.20 Despite this there is a sustained reduction in peripheral vascular resistance, and consequently blood pressure, alongside a decrease in cardiac output. It is thought that atenolol's antihypertensive activity may be related to action on the central nervous system (CNS) or it's inhibition of the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system rather than direct effects on the vasculature.Label

Atenolol produces CNS effects similar to other beta-blockers, but does so to a lesser extent due to reduces ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.20 It has the potential to produce fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbances such as nightmares or insomnia.Label,20 The exact mechanisms behind these have not been characterized but their occurrence must be considered as they represent clinically relevant adverse effects.

Atenolol exerts some effects on the respiratory system although to a much lesser extent than non-selective beta-blockers.Label Interaction with β2 receptors in the airways can produce bronchoconstriction by blocking the relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle mediated by the sympathetic nervous system.20 The same action can interfere with β-agonist therapies used in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Label,14,20

Unlike some other beta-blocker drugs, atenolol does not have intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilizing activity nor does it produce changes in glycemic control.Label

Mechanism of action

Atenolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker, called such because it selectively binds to the β1-adrenergic receptor as an antagonist up to a reported 26 fold more than β2 receptors.15 Selective activity at the β1 receptor produces cardioselectivity due to the higher population of this receptor in cardiac tissue. Some binding to β2 and possibly β3 receptors can still occur at therapeutic dosages but the effects mediated by antagonizing these are significantly reduced from those of non-selective agents. β1 and β2 receptors are Gs coupled therefore antagonism of their activation reduces activity of adenylyl cyclase and its downstream signalling via cyclic adenosime monophosphate and protein kinase A (PKA).

In cardiomyocytes PKA is thought to mediate activation of L-type calcium channels and ryanodine receptors through their phosphorylation.16 L-type calcium channels can then provide an initial rise in intracellular calcium and trigger the ryanodine receptors to release calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and increased contractility. PKA also plays a role in the cessation of contraction by phosphorylating phospholamban which in turn increases the affinity of SR Ca2+ ATPase to increase reuptake of calcium into the SR. It also phophorylates troponin I to reduce affinity of the protein for calcium. Both of these events lead to a reduction in contraction which, when coupled with the initial increase in contraction, allows for faster cycling and consequently higher heart rate with increased contractility. L-type calcium channels are also a major contributor to cardiac depolarization and their activation can increase frequency of action potentials and possibly the incidence of ectopic potentials.17

Similar inihibitory events occur in the bronchial smooth muscle to mediate relaxation including phosphorylation of myosin light-chain kinase, reducing its affinity for calcium.18 PKA also inhibits the excitatory Gq coupled pathway by phosphorylating the inositol trisphosphate receptor and phospholipase C resulting in inhibition of intracellular calcium release. Antagonism of this activity by beta-blocker agents like atenolol can thus cause increased bronchoconstriction.

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-1 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
UBeta-2 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Contraindications

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Absorption

Approximately 50% of an oral dose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with the remainder being excreted unchanged in the feces.Label Administering atenolol with food can decrease the AUC by about 20%.10 While atenolol can cross the blood-brain barrier, it does so slowly and to a small extent.

Volume of distribution

Total Vd of 63.8-112.5 L. Atenolol distributes into a central volume of 12.8-17.5 L along with two peripheral compartments with a combined volume of 51-95 L.10 Distribution takes about 3 hrs for the central compartment, 4 hrs for the shallower peripheral compartment, and 5-6 hrs for the deeper peripheral compartment.

Protein binding

6-16% bound in plasma.Label Atenolol binds to two sites on human serum albumin.12

Metabolism

Minimal metabolism in the liver.Label The sole non-conjugated metabolite is the product of a hydroxylation reaction at the carbon between the amide and benzene groups.11 The only other metabolite to be confirmed is a glucuronide conjugate. These metabolites make up 5-8% and 2% of the renally excreted dose with 87-90% appearing as unchanged drug. The hydroxylated metabolite is exerts 1/10th the beta-blocking activity of atenolol.

Route of elimination

85% is eliminated by the kidneys following IV administration with 10% appearing in the feces.Label,10

Half life

6-7 hrs.Label

Clearance

Total clearance is estimated at 97.3-176.3 mL/min with a renal clearance of 95-168 mL/min.10

Toxicity

LD50 Values

Mouse: 2 g/kg (Oral), 57 mg/kg (IV), 134 mg/kg (IP), 400 mg/kg (SC)22

Rat: 2 g/kg (Oral), 77 mg/kg (IV), 600 mg/kg (SC)22

Rabbit: 50 mg/kg (IV)22

Carcinogenicity & Mutagenicity

Studies in rats and mice at doses of 300 mg/kg/day, equivalent to 150 times maximum recommended human dose, for durations of 18 and 24 months showed no carcinogenicity.Label One study in rats at doses of 500-1500 mg/kg/day, 250-750 times maximum human dose, resulted in increases benign adrenal medullary tumors in both sexes and increase mammary fibroadenomas in females.

Atenolol showed no mutagenicity in the Ames test using S. typhinarium, dominant lethal test in mice, or in vivo cytogenetics test in chinese hamster ovary cells.Label

Reproductive Toxicity

No adverse effects on fertility were observed in either male or female mice after receiving doses of 200 mg/kg/day, equivalent to 200 times the maximum human dose. In humans, atenolol is known to cross the placenta and fetuses exposed to the drug have been reported to be smaller than expected considering gestational age. Embryo-fetal resorption has been observed in rats at doses of 50mg/kg/day, 50 times the max human dose, but not in rabbits at doses of 25mg/kg/day.Label

Lactation

Atenolol appears in breast milk at a ratio of 1.5-6.8 to plasma concentrations.Label It has been estimated that infant exposure occurs at 5.7-19.2% maternal weight-adjusted dosage.21 Effects in infants include bradycardia, hypothermia, and lethargy.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Atenolol Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor---(C;C) / (C;G)G > CEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have a greater reduction in blood pressure with atenolol.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidineThe metabolism of Atenolol can be decreased when combined with 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.
1-benzylimidazole1-benzylimidazole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may increase the bradycardic activities of Atenolol.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be increased when used in combination with Atenolol.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atenolol can be decreased when used in combination with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atenolol can be decreased when used in combination with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
25-desacetylrifapentineThe metabolism of Atenolol can be increased when combined with 25-desacetylrifapentine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atenolol can be decreased when used in combination with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
Additional Data Available
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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Consult your doctor before taking large amounts of Vitamin K (Green leafy vegetables).
  • Take 30-60 minutes before meals, take at the same time each day.

References

Synthesis Reference

Barrett, A.M., Carter, J., Hull, R., Le Count, D.J. and Squire, C.J.; U.S. Patent 3,663,607; May 16, 1972; assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, England. Barrett, A.M., Carter, J., Hull, R., Le Count, D.J. and Squire, C.J.; U.S. Patent 3,836,671; September 17, 1974; assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, England.

US3663607
General References
  1. January CT, Wann LS, Calkins H, Field ME, Chen LY, Furie KL, Cigarroa JE, Heidenreich PA, Cleveland JC Jr, Murray KT, Ellinor PT, Shea JB, Ezekowitz MD, Tracy CM, Yancy CW: 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS Focused Update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Heart Rhythm. 2019 Jan 28. pii: S1547-5271(19)30037-2. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.01.024. [PubMed:30703530]
  2. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, Greenlee MC, Laurberg P, Maia AL, Rivkees SA, Samuels M, Sosa JA, Stan MN, Walter MA: 2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-1421. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0229. [PubMed:27521067]
  3. Ezekowitz JA, O'Meara E, McDonald MA, Abrams H, Chan M, Ducharme A, Giannetti N, Grzeslo A, Hamilton PG, Heckman GA, Howlett JG, Koshman SL, Lepage S, McKelvie RS, Moe GW, Rajda M, Swiggum E, Virani SA, Zieroth S, Al-Hesayen A, Cohen-Solal A, D'Astous M, De S, Estrella-Holder E, Fremes S, Green L, Haddad H, Harkness K, Hernandez AF, Kouz S, LeBlanc MH, Masoudi FA, Ross HJ, Roussin A, Sussex B: 2017 Comprehensive Update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Heart Failure. Can J Cardiol. 2017 Nov;33(11):1342-1433. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2017.08.022. Epub 2017 Sep 6. [PubMed:29111106]
  4. Mancini GB, Gosselin G, Chow B, Kostuk W, Stone J, Yvorchuk KJ, Abramson BL, Cartier R, Huckell V, Tardif JC, Connelly K, Ducas J, Farkouh ME, Gupta M, Juneau M, O'Neill B, Raggi P, Teo K, Verma S, Zimmermann R: Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and management of stable ischemic heart disease. Can J Cardiol. 2014 Aug;30(8):837-49. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2014.05.013. Epub 2014 May 28. [PubMed:25064578]
  5. Page RL, Joglar JA, Caldwell MA, Calkins H, Conti JB, Deal BJ, Estes NAM 3rd, Field ME, Goldberger ZD, Hammill SC, Indik JH, Lindsay BD, Olshansky B, Russo AM, Shen WK, Tracy CM, Al-Khatib SM: 2015 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Management of Adult Patients With Supraventricular Tachycardia: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Apr 5;67(13):e27-e115. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.856. Epub 2015 Sep 24. [PubMed:26409259]
  6. Al-Khatib SM, Stevenson WG, Ackerman MJ, Bryant WJ, Callans DJ, Curtis AB, Deal BJ, Dickfeld T, Field ME, Fonarow GC, Gillis AM, Granger CB, Hammill SC, Hlatky MA, Joglar JA, Kay GN, Matlock DD, Myerburg RJ, Page RL: 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death. Circulation. 2018 Sep 25;138(13):e272-e391. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000549. [PubMed:29084731]
  7. Jackson JL, Cogbill E, Santana-Davila R, Eldredge C, Collier W, Gradall A, Sehgal N, Kuester J: A Comparative Effectiveness Meta-Analysis of Drugs for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 14;10(7):e0130733. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130733. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26172390]
  8. Horwitz RI, Gottlieb LD, Kraus ML: The efficacy of atenolol in the outpatient management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Results of a randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 1989 May;149(5):1089-93. [PubMed:2719503]
  9. Kraus ML, Gottlieb LD, Horwitz RI, Anscher M: Randomized clinical trial of atenolol in patients with alcohol withdrawal. N Engl J Med. 1985 Oct 10;313(15):905-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198510103131501. [PubMed:2863754]
  10. Kirch W, Gorg KG: Clinical pharmacokinetics of atenolol--a review. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1982;7(2):81-91. doi: 10.1007/BF03188723. [PubMed:6749509]
  11. Reeves PR, McAinsh J, McIntosh DA, Winrow MJ: Metabolism of atenolol in man. Xenobiotica. 1978 May;8(5):313-20. doi: 10.3109/00498257809060956. [PubMed:27019]
  12. Niaei N, Hasanzadeh M, Shadjou N: Molecular interaction of some cardiovascular drugs with human serum albumin at physiological-like conditions: A new approach. J Mol Recognit. 2018 Aug;31(8):e2715. doi: 10.1002/jmr.2715. Epub 2018 Apr 6. [PubMed:29630759]
  13. Baker JG, Wilcox RG: beta-Blockers, heart disease and COPD: current controversies and uncertainties. Thorax. 2017 Mar;72(3):271-276. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208412. Epub 2016 Dec 7. [PubMed:27927840]
  14. Frishman WH: beta-Adrenergic blockade in cardiovascular disease. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jul;18(4):310-9. doi: 10.1177/1074248413484986. Epub 2013 Apr 30. [PubMed:23637119]
  15. Abrahamsson T, Ek B, Nerme V: The beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor affinity of atenolol and metoprolol. A receptor-binding study performed with different radioligands in tissues from the rat, the guinea pig and man. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988 Jan 15;37(2):203-8. [PubMed:2829913]
  16. Salazar NC, Chen J, Rockman HA: Cardiac GPCRs: GPCR signaling in healthy and failing hearts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Apr;1768(4):1006-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2007.02.010. Epub 2007 Feb 20. [PubMed:17376402]
  17. Priest BT, McDermott JS: Cardiac ion channels. Channels (Austin). 2015;9(6):352-9. doi: 10.1080/19336950.2015.1076597. Epub 2015 Aug 20. [PubMed:26556552]
  18. Billington CK, Penn RB: Signaling and regulation of G protein-coupled receptors in airway smooth muscle. Respir Res. 2003;4:2. Epub 2003 Mar 14. [PubMed:12648290]
  19. Wachter SB, Gilbert EM: Beta-adrenergic receptors, from their discovery and characterization through their manipulation to beneficial clinical application. Cardiology. 2012;122(2):104-12. doi: 10.1159/000339271. Epub 2012 Jul 3. [PubMed:22759389]
  20. Thomas C. Westfall; Heather Macarthur; David P. Westfall (2018). 12. In Goodman & Gilman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. [ISBN:978-1-25-958473-2]
  21. LactMed: Atenolol [Link]
  22. ChemIDplus: Atenolol [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001924
KEGG Drug
D00235
PubChem Compound
2249
PubChem Substance
46506915
ChemSpider
2162
BindingDB
25753
ChEBI
2904
ChEMBL
CHEMBL24
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000482
PharmGKB
PA448499
Guide to Pharmacology
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Wikipedia
Atenolol
ATC Codes
C07CB53 — Atenolol and other diuretics, combinationsC07AB03 — AtenololC07FB03 — Atenolol and nifedipineC07DB01 — Atenolol, thiazides and other diureticsC07BB03 — Atenolol and thiazidesC07CB03 — Atenolol and other diuretics
AHFS Codes
  • 24:24.00 — Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents
FDA label
Download (226 KB)
MSDS
Download (72.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceBone, Age-related / Osteoporosis, Age-Related1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBlood Pressures / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
0RecruitingPreventionChronic Hypertension Complicating Pregnancy (Diagnosis) / Preeclampsia1
0RecruitingPreventionObesity, Morbid / Preeclampsia1
1CompletedBasic ScienceN/A - Healthy Subjects1
1CompletedTreatmentAnginal Pain / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
1TerminatedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentOrthostatic Intolerance / Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
2CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
2RecruitingPreventionPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAngina Pectoris1
2Unknown StatusPreventionMarfan Syndrome1
2WithdrawnTreatmentMigraine Disorders / Vestibular Diseases / Vestibular Migraine1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionHypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (Thickening of the Main Pumping Chamber of the Heart)1
3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases / Hypertension,Essential1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentHemangiomas1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)3
3CompletedTreatmentLeft Ventricular Hypertrophy1
3CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome3
3CompletedTreatmentMitral Valve Stenosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Small Vessels Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentInfantile Hemangiomas1
3TerminatedPreventionCardiac Diseases1
3TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3TerminatedTreatmentHemodialysis Treatment / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Left Ventricular Hypertrophy1
3Unknown StatusPreventionMarfan Syndrome1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBlood Pressures / Stroke, Ischemic1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedPrevention* Myocardial Infarction / Angina Pectoris / Cerebrovascular Accidents / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedPreventionPerioperative Hypertension1
4CompletedSupportive CareBlood Pressures / Exercise1
4CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Endothelial Function1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Hypertension,Essential / Strokes1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Stable Angina Pectoris1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)13
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4CompletedTreatmentSmall Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm1
4CompletedTreatmentUntreated Essential Hypertension1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4TerminatedTreatmentCarotid Plaques / Hypertension,Essential1
4TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBlood Pressures1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Stable Angina Pectoris1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebral Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOrthognathic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArrythmias / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCachexia / Cancer, Advanced1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Astrazeneca pharmaceuticals lp
  • Able laboratories inc
  • Apothecon sub bristol myers squibb co
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Dava pharmaceuticals inc
  • Genpharm pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ipca laboratories ltd
  • Ipr pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Northstar healthcare holdings ltd
  • Nostrum laboratories inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Scs pharmaceuticals
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Unique pharmaceutical laboratories
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Astrazeneca lp
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cadila Healthcare Ltd.
  • Caraco Pharmaceutical Labs
  • Cardinal Health
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Genpharm LP
  • Golden State Medical Supply Inc.
  • Group Health Cooperative
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Innovative Manufacturing and Distribution Services Inc.
  • Ipca Laboratories Ltd.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Merckle GmbH
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Mylan
  • Neighborcare Repackaging Inc.
  • Northstar Rx LLC
  • Norwich Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ohm Laboratories Inc.
  • Pack Pharmaceuticals
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmpak Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Piramal Healthcare
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Scripts LLC
  • Talbert Medical Management Corp.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Zydus Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral
TabletBuccal; Oral; Sublingual; Transmucosal
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/10mL
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Atenolol powder5.14USD g
Tenormin 100 mg tablet2.28USD tablet
Tenormin 25 mg tablet1.94USD tablet
Tenormin 50 mg tablet1.52USD tablet
Atenolol 100 mg tablet1.26USD tablet
Atenolol 50 mg tablet0.85USD tablet
Atenolol 25 mg tablet0.81USD tablet
Apo-Atenol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Co Atenolol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Mylan-Atenolol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Novo-Atenol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Phl-Atenolol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Pms-Atenolol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Ran-Atenolol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Ratio-Atenolol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Sandoz Atenolol 100 mg Tablet0.6USD tablet
Apo-Atenol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Co Atenolol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Mylan-Atenolol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Novo-Atenol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Phl-Atenolol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Pms-Atenolol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Ran-Atenolol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Ratio-Atenolol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Sandoz Atenolol 50 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Novo-Atenol 25 mg Tablet0.18USD tablet
Pms-Atenolol 25 mg Tablet0.18USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)158-160Barrett, A.M., Carter, J., Hull, R., Le Count, D.J. and Squire, C.J.; U.S. Patent 3,663,607; May 16, 1972; assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, England. Barrett, A.M., Carter, J., Hull, R., Le Count, D.J. and Squire, C.J.; U.S. Patent 3,836,671; September 17, 1974; assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, England.
water solubility1.33E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)MCFARLAND,JW ET AL. (2001)
logP0.16HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-6.44ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.6MERCK INDEX (2001)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.429 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.57ALOGPS
logP0.43ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.67ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area84.58 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity73.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.98 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9831
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9505
Caco-2 permeable-0.7922
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6773
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9446
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9856
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8959
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8416
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.5468
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6826
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9163
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9379
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9537
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8691
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8969
Rat acute toxicity2.0932 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.996
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8861
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00e9-9000000000-6a38697da7945fdb1908
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uy0-0950000000-e882b8032954e2a624cf
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0076-4920000000-3c7f23b7695e5c4dcc4c
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aos-9800000000-93a18f0e030605aa10aa
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01b9-6980000000-3a2af9caa0ddc645756a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0290000000-0e1f60f7eeef06627206
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-dda902f75e8d8e525d4f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-32b90aea04b68bdedbef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-f333c3bfc9bd6c0593d4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004l-0890000000-5c0a8df3cdde41f290f2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-58fd12e8cca5ee837799
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-271732f56fff3c9ecf87
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-3960000000-ee2e8e341081d16f5fdb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-3900000000-ff916216d2f4fc373c18
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-3900000000-7ce05e231c161678a1d9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a5a-4900000000-4d9ba2cbcfaa9a4fd7fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-326ded7fdf97f0b34fc5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-bb7e0317c8b0c0a5abbc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-3960000000-7c774d4cb55b5368392a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-3900000000-dc6f8a2d1c6ae9efff3d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-007k-3900000000-f1650653e39b75e13fa3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0532-3900000000-31769a32574200bca4e2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004l-0890000000-aae1100750adfa742e9b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-bfc82de3e4f68d57fc3a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ba-7950000000-507b336f1f79bec366f2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aba-9800000000-3a08c4ef10edc4fb0bb0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-2900000000-618ffd9706a09b5a63a3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000t-2900000000-fbfd48146105ca4959d3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-0980000000-1c21805f715b600204b2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-0980000000-0e0a07b984863b6487b0
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004l-0890000000-0b8ed14c1fe8c5a81255
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004l-0890000000-55a81270bd88170a11fb
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-d5916c30a1b4d703c5db
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0290000000-6e3398eb8fe4bbd67783
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0290000000-40359fd567f74abb7b74
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-3910000000-43ae37638a8827ea76f1
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylacetamides. These are amide derivatives of phenylacetic acids.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenylacetamides
Direct Parent
Phenylacetamides
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Phenol ethers / Alkyl aryl ethers / Secondary alcohols / Primary carboxylic acid amides / Amino acids and derivatives / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides
show 2 more
Substituents
Phenylacetamide / Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / 1,2-aminoalcohol / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxamide group / Secondary alcohol / Primary carboxylic acid amide / Carboxylic acid derivative
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid amide, ethanolamines, propanolamine (CHEBI:2904)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Schafer M, Frischkopf K, Taimor G, Piper HM, Schluter KD: Hypertrophic effect of selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation on ventricular cardiomyocytes from adult rat. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000 Aug;279(2):C495-503. [PubMed:10913016]
  2. Brown RA, Ilg KJ, Chen AF, Ren J: Dietary Mg(2+) supplementation restores impaired vasoactive responses in isolated rat aorta induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 May 10;442(3):241-50. [PubMed:12065078]
  3. Horinouchi T, Morishima S, Tanaka T, Suzuki F, Tanaka Y, Koike K, Miwa S, Muramatsu I: Different changes of plasma membrane beta-adrenoceptors in rat heart after chronic administration of propranolol, atenolol and bevantolol. Life Sci. 2007 Jul 12;81(5):399-404. Epub 2007 Jun 16. [PubMed:17628611]
  4. Alberti C, Monopoli A, Casati C, Forlani A, Sala C, Nador B, Ongini E, Morganti A: Mechanism and pressor relevance of the short-term cardiovascular and renin excitatory actions of the selective A2A-adenosine receptor agonists. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;30(3):320-4. [PubMed:9300315]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Nuttall SL, Routledge HC, Kendall MJ: A comparison of the beta1-selectivity of three beta1-selective beta-blockers. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2003 Jun;28(3):179-86. [PubMed:12795776]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
May be responsible for metabolizing a small portion of atenolol as CYP2D6 also metabolizes metoprolol, a strucurally similar molecule.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Sternieri E, Coccia CP, Pinetti D, Guerzoni S, Ferrari A: Pharmacokinetics and interactions of headache medications, part II: prophylactic treatments. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006 Dec;2(6):981-1007. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2.6.981 . [PubMed:17125412]
  2. Brodde OE, Kroemer HK: Drug-drug interactions of beta-adrenoceptor blockers. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003;53(12):814-22. [PubMed:14732961]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Niaei N, Hasanzadeh M, Shadjou N: Molecular interaction of some cardiovascular drugs with human serum albumin at physiological-like conditions: A new approach. J Mol Recognit. 2018 Aug;31(8):e2715. doi: 10.1002/jmr.2715. Epub 2018 Apr 6. [PubMed:29630759]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2019 23:59