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Accession Number
DB00557  (APRD00688)
Small Molecule

A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite cetirizine, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.

  • Hidroxizina
  • Hychotine
  • Hydroksyzyny
  • Hydroxine
  • Hydroxizine
  • Hydroxizinum
  • Hydroxycine
  • Hydroxyzin
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Hydroxyzinum
  • Idrossizina
External IDs
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Hydroxyzine hydrochloride76755771U32192-20-3ANOMHKZSQFYSBR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Hydroxyzine pamoateM20215MUFR10246-75-0ASDOKGIIKXGMNB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AtaraxTablet10 mg/1OralRoerig2006-06-20Not applicableUs
AtaraxSyrup10 mg/5mLOralRoerig2006-06-20Not applicableUs
AtaraxTablet100 mg/1OralRoerig2006-06-20Not applicableUs
AtaraxTablet50 mg/1OralRoerig2006-06-20Not applicableUs
AtaraxTablet25 mg/1OralRoerig2006-06-20Not applicableUs
Atarax Cap 10mgCapsuleOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1956-12-312005-09-15Canada
Atarax Cap 25mgCapsuleOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1956-12-312005-09-15Canada
Atarax Cap 50mgCapsuleOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1959-12-312005-09-15Canada
Atarax Im Sol 50mg/mlSolutionIntramuscularErfa Canada 2012 Inc1957-12-312005-08-18Canada
Atarax Syrup 2mg/mlSyrupOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1956-12-31Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
HydroxyzineTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2007-03-20Not applicableUs
HydroxyzineTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralMajor Pharmaceuticals2007-03-20Not applicableUs
HydroxyzineInjection, solution25 mg/1mLIntramuscularGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-03-012017-01-17Us
HydroxyzineTablet, film coated25 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2007-03-20Not applicableUs
HydroxyzineInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntramuscularGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-03-01Not applicableUs
HydroxyzineTablet, film coated25 mg/1OralMajor Pharmaceuticals2007-03-20Not applicableUs
HydroxyzineTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2007-03-20Not applicableUs
HydroxyzineInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntramuscularGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-03-01Not applicableUs
HydroxyzineTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralMajor Pharmaceuticals2007-03-202012-11-30Us
HydroxyzineTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2009-12-28Not applicableUs50111 0307 01 nlmimage10 8429422a
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MKH Dose PackHydroxyzine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Midazolam (3 mg/1)TrocheSublingualImprimis Njof, Llc2019-03-04Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Hyzine (Hyrex) / Masmoran (Pfizer) / Rezine / Vistaject-50 / Vistazine
CAS number
Average: 374.904
Monoisotopic: 374.176105825
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For symptomatic relief of anxiety and tension associated with psychoneurosis and as an adjunct in organic disease states in which anxiety is manifested. Useful in the management of pruritus due to allergic conditions such as chronic urticaria.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Hydroxyzine, a piperazine antihistamine structurally related to buclizine, cyclizine, and meclizine, is used to treat histamine-mediated pruritus or pruritus due to allergy, nausea and vomiting, and, in combination with an opiate agonist, anxiolytic pain. Hydroxyzine is also used as a perioperative sedative and anxiolytic and to manage acute alcohol withdrawal. Hydroxyzine's active metabolite, cetirizine, is also used as an H1-antagonist.

Mechanism of action

Hydroxyzine competes with histamine for binding at H1-receptor sites on the effector cell surface, resulting in suppression of histaminic edema, flare, and pruritus. The sedative properties of hydroxyzine occur at the subcortical level of the CNS. Secondary to its central anticholinergic actions, hydroxyzine may be effective as an antiemetic.

AHistamine H1 receptor
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding




Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

20 to 25 hours

Not Available

Oral, rat LD50: 950 mg/kg. Symptoms of overexposure include hypersedation.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Hydroxyzine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Hydroxyzine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
7-NitroindazoleHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.
AbexinostatThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Hydroxyzine is combined with Abexinostat.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Hydroxyzine is combined with Acebutolol.
AcepromazineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Acepromazine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food.


Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 2,899,436.

General References
  1. HUTCHEON DE, MORRIS DL, SCRIABINE A: Cardiovascular action of hydroxyzine (atarax). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1956 Dec;118(4):451-60. [PubMed:13385806]
  2. DOLAN CM: Management of emotional disturbances; use of hydroxyzine (atarax) in general practice. Calif Med. 1958 Jun;88(6):443-4. [PubMed:13536863]
  3. Clark BG, Araki M, Brown HW: Hydroxyzine-associated tardive dyskinesia. Ann Neurol. 1982 Apr;11(4):435. [PubMed:7103423]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
PDRhealth Drug Page
ATC Codes
N05BB01 — HydroxyzineN05BB51 — Hydroxyzine, combinations
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.92 — Miscellaneous Anxiolytics Sedatives and Hypnotics
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
2CompletedNot AvailableAnxiety1
3CompletedTreatmentBehavior, Child1
3RecruitingTreatmentAquagenic pruritus / Myeloproliferative Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedPreventionNausea / Pruritus / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Urticaria1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentDental Caries in Children / Hydroxyzine / Meperidine / Midazolam / Pediatric Dental Sedation1
4TerminatedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnxiety in Those Patients With Anorexia Nervosa / Anxiety in Those Patients With Anorexia Nervosa or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, Specifically With Low BMI(≤ 18) / Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, BMI (<=18)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBradycardia Sinus / Hydroxyzine / Reflex, Oculocardiac / Strabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePlacebo Drug Interaction / Placebo Effect1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSubstance-Related Disorders1


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Dosage forms
SyrupOral10 mg/5mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg
CapsuleOral50 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular50 mg/1mL
SolutionOral10 mg/5mL
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntramuscular25 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular50 mg/1mL
SuspensionOral25 mg/5mL
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Hydroxyzine Hcl 50 mg/ml4.42USD ml
Hydroxyzine 50 mg/ml vial3.96USD ml
Hydroxyzine 25 mg/ml vial3.6USD ml
Hydroxyzine hcl powder2.75USD g
Hydroxyzine pamoate powder2.14USD g
Vistaril 50 mg capsule2.03USD capsule
HydrOXYzine HCl 50 mg/ml vial1.78USD vial
Vistaril 25 mg capsule1.71USD capsule
Vistaril 100 mg capsule1.7USD capsule
Hydroxyzine hcl 50 mg tablet1.19USD tablet
Hydroxyzine hcl 10 mg tablet0.72USD tablet
Hydroxyzine hcl 25 mg tablet0.7USD tablet
HydrOXYzine Pamoate 100 mg capsule0.67USD capsule
Hydroxyzine pam 50 mg capsule0.64USD capsule
Hydroxyzine pam 100 mg capsule0.63USD capsule
Hydroxyzine pam 25 mg capsule0.46USD capsule
Vistaril 25 mg/5ml Suspension0.45USD ml
HydrOXYzine Pamoate 25 mg capsule0.3USD capsule
HydrOXYzine Pamoate 50 mg capsule0.23USD capsule
Apo-Hydroxyzine 50 mg Capsule0.22USD capsule
Novo-Hydroxyzin 50 mg Capsule0.22USD capsule
Apo-Hydroxyzine 25 mg Capsule0.15USD capsule
Novo-Hydroxyzin 25 mg Capsule0.15USD capsule
HydrOXYzine HCl 10 mg/5ml Syrup0.13USD ml
Apo-Hydroxyzine 10 mg Capsule0.12USD capsule
Novo-Hydroxyzin 10 mg Capsule0.12USD capsule
Atarax 2 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Pms-Hydroxyzine 2 mg/ml Syrup0.04USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Not Available


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)193 °CU.S. Patent 2,899,436.
water solubility< 700 mg/mLNot Available
logP2.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0914 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.82ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area35.94 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity107.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8623
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9516
Caco-2 permeable-0.5565
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7447
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8563
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6394
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.592
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8352
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7193
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9111
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8535
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9623
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7615
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7558
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.6612 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.5929
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7898
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0udi-6491000000-95c46c16c2b29900f4d9
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0uxr-4591000000-d2e3424c44feae8a5d9c
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0593000000-f20d2328497a3a80239b


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
N-alkylpiperazines / Chlorobenzenes / Aralkylamines / Aryl chlorides / Trialkylamines / Dialkyl ethers / Azacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides
show 1 more
Diphenylmethane / Chlorobenzene / Aralkylamine / Halobenzene / N-alkylpiperazine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / 1,4-diazinane / Piperazine / Tertiary aliphatic amine
show 17 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monochlorobenzenes, N-alkylpiperazine, hydroxyether (CHEBI:5818)


1. Histamine H1 receptor
Pharmacological action
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Spahr L, Coeytaux A, Giostra E, Hadengue A, Annoni JM: Histamine H1 blocker hydroxyzine improves sleep in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Apr;102(4):744-53. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [PubMed:17222324]
  3. Sakaguchi T, Itoh H, Ding WG, Tsuji K, Nagaoka I, Oka Y, Ashihara T, Ito M, Yumoto Y, Zenda N, Higashi Y, Takeyama Y, Matsuura H, Horie M: Hydroxyzine, a first generation H(1)-receptor antagonist, inhibits human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) current and causes syncope in a patient with the HERG mutation. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Dec;108(4):462-71. Epub 2008 Dec 5. [PubMed:19057127]
  4. Chen C: Physicochemical, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of the zwitterionic antihistamines cetirizine and levocetirizine. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15(21):2173-91. [PubMed:18781943]
  5. Snowman AM, Snyder SH: Cetirizine: actions on neurotransmitter receptors. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990 Dec;86(6 Pt 2):1025-8. [PubMed:1979798]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
  1. Hamelin BA, Bouayad A, Drolet B, Gravel A, Turgeon J: In vitro characterization of cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibition by classic histamine H1 receptor antagonists. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jun;26(6):536-9. [PubMed:9616188]
  2. Moller J, Laflamme L, Soderberg Lofdal K: CYP2D6-inhibiting drugs and the increased risk of fall-related injuries due to newly initiated opioid treatment--a Swedish, register-based case-crossover study. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Feb;116(2):134-9. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12289. Epub 2014 Jul 25. [PubMed:24975450]
  3. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 12, 2019 09:58