Accession Number
DB00683  (APRD00680)
Small Molecule
Approved, Illicit

Midazolam is a short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, and amnesic properties.6 It belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. This drug is unique from others in this class due to its rapid onset of effects and short duration of action.6 Midazolam is available by oral, rectal, intranasal, intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes and has been used in various biomedical applications, including dentistry, cardiac surgery, and endoscopic procedures as pre-anesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia.13

This drug was initially approved by the US FDA in 1985, and has been approved for various indications since.Label In late 2018, the intramuscular preparation was approved by the FDA for the treatment of status epilepticus in adults.Label In May 2019, the nasal spray of midazolam was approved for the acute treatment of distinctive intermittent, stereotypic seizure episodes in patients 12 years of age and older. Midazolam is considered a schedule IV drug in the United States due to the low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence.9

  • Midazolam
  • Midazolamum
External IDs
Dea No. 2884 / Ro 21-3981/001 / Ro 21-3981/003
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Midazolam hydrochlorideW7TTW573JJ59467-96-8PLYSCVSCYOQVRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Midazolam maleate77520S18SE59467-94-6XYGVIBXOJOOCFR-BTJKTKAUSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BuccolamSolution10 mgBuccalShire Services Bvba2011-09-05Not applicableEu
BuccolamSolution7.5 mgBuccalShire Services Bvba2011-09-05Not applicableEu
BuccolamSolution5 mgBuccalShire Services Bvba2011-09-05Not applicableEu
BuccolamSolution2.5 mgBuccalShire Services Bvba2011-09-05Not applicableEu
Midazolam HClInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2013-06-28Not applicableUs
Midazolam HClInjection, solution0.5 mg/1mLIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2014-09-03Not applicableUs
Midazolam InjectionSolutionIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1999-07-21Not applicableCanada
Midazolam InjectionSolutionIntramuscular; IntravenousFresenius Kabi2001-03-26Not applicableCanada
Midazolam InjectionSolutionIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1999-07-21Not applicableCanada
Midazolam InjectionLiquidIntramuscular; IntravenousFresenius Kabi2001-03-26Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-midazolam Injectable 1 mg/mlLiquidIntramuscular; IntravenousApotex Corporation2001-04-102013-08-02Canada
Apo-midazolam Injectable 5 mg/mlLiquidIntramuscular; IntravenousApotex Corporation2001-04-102013-08-02Canada
MidazolamInjection1 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2012-08-082018-06-29Us
MidazolamInjection, solution5 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousThe Medicines Company2000-07-142016-03-31Us
MidazolamInjection, solution5 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousAlvogen Inc.2017-08-11Not applicableUs
MidazolamInjection, solution5 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc.2018-12-24Not applicableUs
MidazolamInjection1 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousAkorn, Inc.2005-05-06Not applicableUs
MidazolamInjection5 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.2000-06-20Not applicableUs
MidazolamInjection1 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2000-06-212013-06-30Us
MidazolamInjection1 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2000-06-202015-08-31Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Midazolam HClMidazolam hydrochloride (1 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2013-06-28Not applicableUs
Midazolam HClMidazolam hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2014-09-03Not applicableUs
MKH Dose PackMidazolam (3 mg/1) + Hydroxyzine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)TrocheSublingualImprimis Njof, Llc2019-03-04Not applicableUs
MKO MeltMidazolam (3 mg/1) + Ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate (2 mg/1)TrocheSublingualImprimis Njof, Llc2018-12-012019-03-04Us
MKO Melt Dose PackMidazolam (3 mg/1) + Ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Ondansetron hydrochloride (2 mg/1)TrocheSublingualImprimis Njof, Llc2019-03-04Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Anquil (General Pharma) / Benzosed (Pharmaceutical) / Dalam (Richmond) / Damizol (Specifar) / Demizolam (Dem Ilaç) / Doricum (Roche) / Dormicum (Roche) / Dormid (Scott) / Dormipron (Chalver) / Dormire (Cristália) / Dormitol (Square) / Dormixal (Demo) / Dormonid (Roche) / Drimnorth (Northia) / Epistatus (IFET) / Flormidal (Galenika) / Fulsed (Ranbaxy) / Fulsed Injection (Terapia) / Garen (Bio-Pharma) / Gobbizolam (Gobbi) / Hipnazolam (EMS) / Hipnoz (Pharos) / Hypnofast (Incepta) / Hypnovel (Roche) / Ipnovel (Roche) / Nocturna (Lafi) / Setam (Rimsa) / Talentum (Fisiopharma) / Terap (Sanitas) / Versed (Roche)
CAS number
Average: 325.767
Monoisotopic: 325.078203343
Chemical Formula
InChI Key




Indicated for promoting preoperative sedation, anxiolysis, anesthesia induction, or amnesia.12


Indicated for the treatment of status epilepticus in adults.Label


Indicated for the acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (i.e., seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) that are distinct from a patient’s usual seizure pattern in patients with epilepsy 12 years of age and older.11

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

General effects

Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Pharmacodynamic properties of midazolam and its metabolites, which are similar to those of other benzodiazepine drugs, include sedative, anxiolytic, amnestic, muscle relaxant, as well as hypnotic activities.12 Benzodiazepines enhance the inhibitory action of the amino acid neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Receptors for GABA are targeted by many important drugs that affect GABA function and are commonly used in the treatment of anxiety disorder, epilepsy, insomnia, spasticity, and aggressive behavior.7

Sedation and memory

The onset of sedation after intramuscular administration in adults is 15 minutes, with maximal sedation occurring 30-60 minutes after injection.Label In one study of adults, when tested the following day, 73% of the patients who were administered midazolam intramuscularly had no recollection of memory cards shown 30 minutes following drug administration; 40% had no recollection of the memory cards shown 60 minutes after drug administration. Onset time of sedative effects in pediatric patients begins within 5 minutes and peaks at 15-30 minutes depending upon the dose administered. In the pediatric population, up to 85% had no memory of pictures shown after receiving intramuscular midazolam compared to 5% of the placebo control group.12

Sedation in both adult and pediatric patients is reached within 3 to 5 minutes post intravenous (IV) injection. The time of onset is affected by the dose administered and the simultaneous administration of narcotic pre-medication. Seventy-one (71%) percent of the adult patients in clinical endoscopy studies had no memory of insertion of the endoscope; 82% of the patients had no memory of withdrawal of the endoscope.Label

Anesthesia induction

When midazolam is administered intravenously (IV) for anesthetic induction, induction of anesthesia occurs in about 1.5 minutes when narcotic pre-medication has been given and in 2 to 2.5 minutes without narcotic pre-medication/ other sedative pre-medication. Impairment in a memory test was observed in 90% of the patients.Label

Mechanism of action

The actions of benzodiazepines such as midazolam are mediated through the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Benzodiazepines increase the activity of GABA, thereby producing a sedating effect, relaxing skeletal muscles, and inducing sleep, anesthesia, and amnesia. Benzodiazepines bind to the benzodiazepine site on GABA-A receptors, which potentiates the effects of GABA by increasing the frequency of chloride channel opening.12 These receptors have been identified in different body tissues including the heart and skeletal muscle, although mainly appear to be present in the central nervous system.6

AGABA(A) Receptor
positive allosteric modulator
AGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Site
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

Learn more
Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

Learn more

Oral Absorption: Rapidly absorbed after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability, if given intramuscularly (IM), is greater than 90% Label. Due to first pass metabolism, only 40-50% of the administered oral dose reaches the circulation.6 The absolute bioavailability of the midazolam syrup in pediatric patients is about 36%.10

Intramuscular Absorption: The mean peak concentration (Cmax) and time to peak (Tmax) following the IM dose was 90 ng/mL (20% CV) and 0.5 hour (50% CV).Label

Rectal administration: After rectal administration midazolam is absorbed rapidly. Maximum plasma concentration is reached within 30 minutes. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 50%.13

Intranasal Administration: Midazolam is absorbed rapidly after intranasal administration. Mean peak plasma concentrations are reached within 10.2 to 12.6 minutes. The bioavailability is between 55 and 57%.13

Volume of distribution

Female gender, old age, and obesity may increase the volume of distribution. Midazolam may also cross the placenta and has been detected in human milk and cerebrospinal fluid.Label,12

Intravenous administration

1.24 to 2.02 L/kg [pediatric patients (6 months to <16 years) receiving 0.15 mg/kg IV midazolam] 1 to 3.1 L/kg [midazolam intravenously administered, healthy adults].12

Intramuscular administration

The mean apparent volume of distribution of midazolam after a single IM dose of 10 mg midazolam in healthy adults was 2117 (±845.1) mL/kg.Label

Protein binding

Midazolam is approximately 97% bound to plasma protein, mainly albumin, in adults. The 1-hydroxy metabolite is approximately 89% bound to plasma protein.12


Midazolam is primarily metabolized in the liver and gut by CYP3A4 Label to its pharmacologic active metabolite, alpha-hydroxymidazolam (also known as 1-hydroxy-midazolam), and 4-hydroxymidazolam (which makes up 5% or less of the biotransformation products). This metabolite likely contributes to the pharmacological effects of midazolam. Midazolam also undergoes N-glucuronidation via UGT1A4 after the process of hepatic oxidation by cytochrome enzymes.6

Route of elimination

The α-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide conjugate of midazolam is excreted in urine. No significant amount of parent drug or metabolites is found in urine before beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase deconjugation, suggesting that the urinary metabolites are excreted mainly as conjugates. The amount of midazolam excreted unchanged in the urine when given intravenously is less than 0.5%. 45% to 57% of the dose was excreted in the urine as 1-hydroxymethyl midazolam conjugate.12

Plasma clearance of midazolam is higher in patients that remain in supine position, because of a 40-60 percent increase in hepatic blood flow during supination. Pregnancy may also increase the metabolism of midazolam.6

Half life

Intravenous: healthy adults = 1.8 to 6.4 hours (mean of 3 hours).12

Intramuscular: Following IM administration of 10 mg midazolam, mean (±SD) elimination half-life was 4.2 (±1.87) hours.Label


Intramuscular: apparent total body clearance, 367.3 (±73.5) mL/hr/kg.Label Intravenous: total clearance (Cl), 0.25 to 0.54 L/hr/kg


LD50=215 mg/kg, in rats.MSDS


Signs of overdose include sedation, somnolence, confusion, impaired coordination, diminished reflexes, coma, and deleterious effects on vital signs. Serious cardiorespiratory adverse reactions have occurred, sometimes ending in death or permanent neurologic effects, after the administration of midazolam.Label

A note on cardiac and respiratory depression

After administration of midazolam, continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiac function is recommended until the patient is in stable condition. Serious and life-threatening cardiorespiratory adverse reactions, including hypoventilation, airway obstruction, apnea, and hypotension have been reported with the use of midazolam. Patients should be monitored in a setting with immediate access to resuscitative drugs if they are required. Resuscitation equipment and personnel trained in their use and skilled in airway management should be available when midazolam is administered.Label

The usual recommended intramuscular pre-medicating doses of midazolam do not depress the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide stimulation to a clinically significant extent in adults. Intravenous induction doses of midazolam depress the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide stimulation for at least 15 minutes longer than the duration of ventilatory depression following administration of thiopental in adults. Impairment of ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is more severe in adult patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).12

A note on dependence

When midazolam is used in long-term sedation in the ICU (intensive care unit) or other settings, physical dependence on midazolam may develop. The risk of dependence increases with dose and duration of treatment; this risk is also greater in patients with a medical history of substance abuse.9

Special caution should be exercised when administering midazolam in the following populations

High-risk patients include adults over 60 years of age, chronically ill or debilitated patients, which may include patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency, patients with chronic renal failure, impaired hepatic function or with impaired cardiac function, pediatric patients (especially those with cardiovascular instability). These high-risk patients require lower dosages and should be monitored on a continuous basis for early signs of alterations of vital functions, so that appropriate management may be administered.9


Midazolam was negative for genotoxicity during in vitro and in vivo assays.Label

Impairment of Fertility

When midazolam (0, 1, 4, or 16 mg/kg) was given orally to male and female rats before and during mating and continuing in females throughout gestation and lactation, no adverse effects on male or female fertility were observed. Midazolam plasma exposures (AUC) at the highest dose tested were approximately 6 times that in humans at the recomended human dose.Label

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe serum concentration of (R)-warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Midazolam.
(S)-WarfarinThe serum concentration of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Midazolam.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe therapeutic efficacy of Midazolam can be decreased when used in combination with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Midazolam.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe therapeutic efficacy of Midazolam can be decreased when used in combination with 6-O-benzylguanine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
  • Avoid grapefruit products.


Synthesis Reference
General References
  1. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 May 6;89(3-4):193-8. [PubMed:6135616]
  2. Isojarvi JI, Tokola RA: Benzodiazepines in the treatment of epilepsy in people with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1998 Dec;42 Suppl 1:80-92. [PubMed:10030438]
  3. Garratt JC, Gent JP, Feely M, Haigh JR: Can benzodiazepines be classified by characterising their anticonvulsant tolerance-inducing potential? Eur J Pharmacol. 1988 Jan 5;145(1):75-80. [PubMed:2894998]
  4. Tokunaga S, Takeda Y, Shinomiya K, Hirase M, Kamei C: Effects of some H1-antagonists on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Feb;103(2):201-6. Epub 2007 Feb 8. [PubMed:17287588]
  5. Vermeeren A: Residual effects of hypnotics: epidemiology and clinical implications. CNS Drugs. 2004;18(5):297-328. [PubMed:15089115]
  6. Nordt SP, Clark RF: Midazolam: a review of therapeutic uses and toxicity. J Emerg Med. 1997 May-Jun;15(3):357-65. [PubMed:9258787]
  7. Jembrek MJ, Vlainic J: GABA Receptors: Pharmacological Potential and Pitfalls. Curr Pharm Des. 2015;21(34):4943-59. [PubMed:26365137]
  8. Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW et al. (1999). Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (6th ed.). Lippincott Williams.
  9. Drug Scheduling: United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) [Link]
  10. DailyMed: Midazolam [Link]
  11. NAYZILAM® (midazolam) nasal spray - FDA Label [Link]
  12. Intravenous Midazolam FDA label [File]
  13. MedSafe NZ: Midazolam Inj [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
N05CD08 — Midazolam
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.08 — Benzodiazepines
PDB Entries
3u5k / 5te8
FDA label
Download (250 KB)
Download (68.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disease1
0CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceInteraction Drug Food2
0RecruitingTreatmentMidazolam Overdose1
0RecruitingTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
0TerminatedTreatmentFatigue / Ketamine / Malignancies1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceNash1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceNeoplasms Metastasis1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherCarcinoma, Advanced ALK+ or ROS1+Non-Small-Cell Lung, Neoplasm, Advanced ALK+ or ROS1+Solid Tumors1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Mesothelioma, Malignant / Metastatic Breast Cancer / Metastatic Cancers / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid tumour of the gastrointestinal tract / Colorectal Cancers / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Islet Cell Tumor / Lung Cancers / Metastatic Cancers / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin / Ovarian Cancer / Pheochromocytomas / Sarcomas / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDrug Interaction Potential1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / Solid Cancers1
1CompletedNot AvailableDrug-Drug Interaction Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of ASP015K and Midazolam1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole / Pharmacokinetics of Midazolam1
1CompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C Viral Infection1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
1CompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic1
1CompletedNot AvailablePharmacokinetic Interactions1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Metabolism1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAmnesia / Anaesthesia therapy / Anesthetics Agent / Pain / Sedation, Conscious1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus / Glucose Metabolism Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Biotransformation / Membrane Transport1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceEndometriosis1
1CompletedBasic ScienceGenotype-related Drug Metabolism1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Adult Subjects and Healthy Elderly Subjects1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Adult Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Male Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers19
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacologic Actions2
1CompletedBasic ScienceModerate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetic Assessments in Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic SciencePsoriasis1
1CompletedBasic ScienceRheumatoid Arthritis3
1CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedBasic ScienceVA Drug Interactions / VA Drug Interactions [VA Drug Interaction]1
1CompletedDiagnosticCytochrome / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticDigestive System Disorders1
1CompletedDiagnosticDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchCesarean Section Pain1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherALK-positive Advanced Tumors1
1CompletedOtherAdvanced Solid Tumors1
1CompletedOtherBiological Availability1
1CompletedOtherDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Episode / Unipolar Depression1
1CompletedOtherDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedOtherDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers11
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
1CompletedOtherLeukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell1
1CompletedOtherPhase 11
1CompletedOtherProstatic Neoplasms1
1CompletedOtherTumors, Solid1
1CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications1
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) / Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Solid Neoplasm1
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Non-Central Nervous System (CNS) Malignancies1
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Solid Tumors, Excluding Breast Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1CompletedTreatmentAmnesia-Memory Loss / Memory Losses1
1CompletedTreatmentAnemia / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Advanced1
1CompletedTreatmentCarcinoma NOS / Hodgkins Disease (HD) / Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / Neoplasms / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
1CompletedTreatmentCastration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) / Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) / Pharmacokinetics of MDV31001
1CompletedTreatmentChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
1CompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorders / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)3
1CompletedTreatmentDrug Interaction Potentiation3
1CompletedTreatmentDrug reactions1
1CompletedTreatmentEpidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Adult Subjects1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Male Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers31
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Psoriasis1
1CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure1
1CompletedTreatmentHeathy Volunteer1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis B Chronic Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentInfections, Respiratory Syncytial Virus1
1CompletedTreatmentInfectious Diseases1
1CompletedTreatmentInfluenza in Humans1
1CompletedTreatmentInvasive Aspergillosis1
1CompletedTreatmentJapanese Healthy Adult Males1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Neoplasms, Breast1
1CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
1CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
1CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) / Tuberculosis Infection2
1CompletedTreatmentRelapsed or Refractory Advanced Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder1
1CompletedTreatmentSkin Diseases, Bacterial1
1CompletedTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)1
1CompletedTreatmentSubstance Abuse1
1CompletedTreatmentTuberculosis Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentTumors, Solid4
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedTreatmentCMET-dysregulated Advanced Solid Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentImpaired kidney function1
1Not Yet RecruitingOtherHypercapnia / Ventilatory Depression1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceEndometriosis1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers4
1RecruitingHealth Services ResearchDepression1
1RecruitingOtherCrohn's Disease (CD)1
1RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingOtherLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Neoplasms, Lung1
1RecruitingOtherProcedural Sedation1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Solid Tumors / Metastatic Melanoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Colorectal Cancers / Metastatic Melanoma / Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Metastatic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers4
1RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B Chronic Infection1
1SuspendedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceCancer, Advanced1
1TerminatedOtherDepression / Depressive Disorder, Recurrent / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Relapses1
1TerminatedOtherHealthy Volunteers3
1TerminatedOtherPsoriasis Vulgaris (Plaque Psoriasis)1
1TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedTreatmentNeck Pain1
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceSubstance-Related Disorders1
1WithdrawnTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1WithdrawnTreatmentTumors, Solid1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPost Operative Pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Episode / Suicidal Thoughts1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCoughing1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Fatigue1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentOncological Children / Ontological Children1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRadical Mastectomy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
1, 2RecruitingBasic ScienceTobacco Use Disorders1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Postoperative Pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentFatigue1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNon Suicidal Self Injury / Thoughts of Self Harm1
1, 2TerminatedPreventionSepsis1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Cancer of the Breast / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedNot AvailableHypotension1
2CompletedOtherDental Anxiety1
2CompletedPreventionForearm Surgeries1
2CompletedSupportive CareChildren1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anxiety1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Depression / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2CompletedTreatmentChildren Requiring Sedation to Facilitate Laceration Repair1
2CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Procedural Sedation1
2CompletedTreatmentIntubated and Mechanically Ventilated Pediatric Subjects1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2CompletedTreatmentRespiratory Failure1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOther Specified Pulmonary Tuberculosis / Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2RecruitingDiagnosticDelayed Recovery From Anaesthesia1
2RecruitingPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingPreventionSedation During Spinal Anesthesia1
2RecruitingSupportive CareEndoscopy / Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdministration and Dosage of Ketamine / Endoscopic Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentHallux Valgus and Bunion / Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Violent Aggressive Behavior1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
2RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
2SuspendedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety / Pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2Unknown StatusPreventionAdenoidectomy / Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / Postoperative Care / Postoperative pain / Surgical Procedures, Operative / Tonsillectomy1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareIntracranial Hemorrhages / Ischemia, Brain / Stroke / Vasospasm, Intracranial1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Dural Puncture Headache / Post-Dural Puncture Headache1
2WithdrawnDiagnosticComputerized tomography / Procedural Sedation / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareDelirium / Dyspnea / Nausea / Pain Intractable / Pain, Intractable1
2WithdrawnTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionDiagnostic Esophagogastroduodenoscopy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Stenosis, Spinal1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBurning Nose1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Otitis Media1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentClosed Multiple Fractures of Upper and Lower Limbs1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy / Colorectal Polyps1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation During Procedure / Endobronchial Ultrasound1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDental Anxiety / Impacted Third Molar Tooth1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIllness, Critical1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSedation1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentIllness, Critical1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentDepression / Pain, Acute1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
3Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareAnxiety States / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depressive Disorder1
3CompletedNot AvailableChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hip Fracture1
3CompletedDiagnosticBreast Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
3CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionPost-operative Pain for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedSupportive CareBleeding / Dexmedetomidine / Surgical Field1
3CompletedSupportive CareColonoscopy1
3CompletedSupportive CareEpilepsies / Hydrocephaly1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Traumatic Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
3CompletedTreatmentBehavior, Child1
3CompletedTreatmentChild's Anxiety / Parental/Caregiver Anxiety1
3CompletedTreatmentContinuous Sedation in Initially Sedated Adults in ICU1
3CompletedTreatmentConvulsive / Nervous System Diseases / Seizures / Status Epilepticus (Convulsive)1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Anxiety1
3CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone1
3CompletedTreatmentPaediatric Outpatient Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentPediatric Status Epilepticus1
3CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
3CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareMechanically Ventilated, Critically Ill Children1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shock, Septic1
3RecruitingPreventionCognitive Dysfunctions1
3RecruitingSupportive CareFluoride Poisoning / Hepatic Function / Poisoning by Inhaled Anaesthetic / Recovery From Sedation / Renal Function1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreech Presentation1
3RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Neuralgia / Pain, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Local Anesthesia / Sedation, Conscious1
3RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentNervous System Diseases1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcute Agitated Patients1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenia1
3TerminatedTreatmentSedation in Intensive Care1
3TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
3Unknown StatusPreventionIllness, Critical / Respiratory Failure1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareSedation1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentIntubation Complications1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPrematurity of Fetus / Respiratory Distress Syndrome1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareAnxiety / Laceration1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareEpilepsies / Metabolic Diseases / Traumas1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Illness, Critical / Sleep1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDriving Performance After Minor Ambulatory Surgery / Minor Surgical Procedures With Monitored Anesthesia Care1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEffect of Sedation on Heart Rate Variability1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSedation in Intensive Care Unit Patients1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Orthopaedic Disorders1
4CompletedNot AvailableDisorders of Gallbladder, Biliary Tract and Pancrease1
4CompletedNot AvailableFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnalgesic Drugs / Antinociceptive Agents1
4CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
4CompletedBasic ScienceRejection, Transplant1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticAlteration of Cognitive Function / Gastrointestinal Dysfunction1
4CompletedDiagnosticCopeptin / Preanesthetic Medication1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchFlexible Bronchoscopy1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchGeneral Surgery / Sedation1
4CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Colonoscopy1
4CompletedOtherBronchoscopy / Fentanyl / Narcotrend / Remifentanil / Sedation, Conscious / Sufentanil1
4CompletedOtherLumbar Punctures / Minor Incision Drainage of Abscesses Not Requiring Extensive Debridement / Sedation, Conscious / Simple Lacerations Less Than 4 cm1
4CompletedPreventionAdrenocortical Deficiency / Hemodynamics Instability1
4CompletedPreventionCognitive Impairments1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium on Emergence / Inhalational Anesthetics Adverse Reaction / Strabismus Following Ocular Surgery1
4CompletedPreventionDisease, Chronic1
4CompletedPreventionElective Orthopedic Surgery1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
4CompletedPreventionPatients Undergoing Puncture of the Bone Marrow1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia; Reaction1
4CompletedSupportive CareEndoscopy1
4CompletedSupportive CareHypothermia1
4CompletedSupportive CareInfertility1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntubation Difficult / Intubation; Difficult1
4CompletedSupportive CareIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Polyps1
4CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia / Premedication1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAggressive reaction / Anxiety / Depression / Fatigue / Postoperative Period1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Hepatitis, Chronic / Liver Cirrhosis1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Laceration1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Nausea / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBrain Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Phacoemulsification1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Conscious Sedation Failure During Procedure / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentCholangiocarcinomas / Choledocholithiasis / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Pancreatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy / Sedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentCytochrome P450 CYP3A Enzyme Deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation / Illness, Critical / Ventilators, Mechanical1
4CompletedTreatmentDiagnostic Colonoscopy Screening1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Safety / Procedural Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentEarly Childhood Caries1
4CompletedTreatmentEfficacy and Safety of Mivacurium Chloride for Pediatric Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Moderate Sedation / Propofol / Target Controlled Infusion (TCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure / Minimally Conscious State1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Forearm Injuries / Orthopedic Procedures / Traumas / Upper Extremity1
4CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Stroma Tumors / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma / Renal-cell Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentInadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentIntraoperative Analgesic Use / Postcraniotomy Headache / Postoperative Analgesic Use / Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedTreatmentKetamine Induced Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentComputerized tomography / MRI of liver / Ultrasound1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
4CompletedTreatmentMechanically Ventilated and Intubated Subjects1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentOther Surgical Procedures1
4CompletedTreatmentOxidative Stress / Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Caudal epidural block therapy / Pain / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentPreanesthetic Medication1
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentSepsis / Shock, Septic / Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)1
4CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Quality of Patients Undergoing TURP1
4CompletedTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts1
4CompletedTreatmentTerminal Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentTumors, Solid1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / BMI >30 kg/m21
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplications / Delirium / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableChildren / Dormicum / Sedation, Conscious1
4Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchPatients Satisfaction1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIllness, Critical1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionInhalation Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBronchoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEmergency / Procedural anxiety1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyoclonus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSafety and Efficacy of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine1
4RecruitingDiagnosticLiver Diseases1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchEpidural Analgesics for Comparison1
4RecruitingPreventionTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pulmonary Edema1
4RecruitingTreatmentAmbulatory Surgery / Circumcision / Dental Cares / Inhalation Anesthesia / Perioperative Anxiety / Preanesthetic Medication / Tonsillectomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentBladder Tumors / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4RecruitingTreatmentChild Behavior / Dental Caries in Children1
4RecruitingTreatmentDental Anxiety / Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentDental Caries in Children / Hydroxyzine / Meperidine / Midazolam / Pediatric Dental Sedation1
4RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Mechanically Ventilated Sedated Patients / Midazolam / Sedation / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4RecruitingTreatmentFlexible Bronchoscopy / Safety / Satisfaction / Sedation1
4RecruitingTreatmentGout Flares1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaceration of Skin1
4RecruitingTreatmentPatients Requiring Diagnostic Gastroscopy Suitable for Sedation / Patients Requiring Diagnostic Gastroscopy With Sedation1
4RecruitingTreatmentPreanesthetic Medication1
4SuspendedTreatmentAnxiety / Pediatric ALL / Procedural anxiety1
4SuspendedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Ulcerative Colitis1
4SuspendedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / NAFLD / Pediatric Obesity1
4TerminatedBasic ScienceSevere Sepsis1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute Agitation, Behavioural Emergency1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentIllness, Critical / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4TerminatedTreatmentOrthopedic Procedures / Procedural Sedation / Regional Anesthesia Block1
4TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceHyperalgesia4
4Unknown StatusPreventionAnaesthetic Preconditioning / Myocardial Injury1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDelirium2
4Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4Unknown StatusPreventionSedative Withdrawal Delirium1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hemodynamics / Oxidative Stress1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Arthroplasty / Gastric Resection1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCongenital Choledochal Cyst / Congenital Hydronephrosis / Fracture Bone1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDelirium2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDental Care for Disabled1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Mechanically Ventilated Patients / Midazolam / Sedation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEmergency1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFailed Conscious Sedation During Procedure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy (HE)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInflammatory Disorder of Immune System / Sepsis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaceration1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaryngoscopy / Preanesthetic Medication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSafety of Dexmedetomidine Sedation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
4WithdrawnPreventionC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac / Delirium1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareAlcohol Dependence / Respiration, Artificial1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAdverse Anesthesia Outcome / Nephrostomy; Complications / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity / Upper Urinary Tract Dilatation and Obstruction1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAortic Valve Stenosis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableDelirium / Respiratory Failure1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentIntubated Requiring Sedation for Greater Than 48 Hours1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAAT Deficiency / AATD / Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency / Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Fibrosis, Liver1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnxiety / Satisfaction / Sedation / Tolerance1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBradycardia Sinus / Hydroxyzine / Reflex, Oculocardiac / Strabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBronchoscopy / Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableClinical Indications for Transesophageal Echocardiography1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEarly Gastric Cancer / Gastric Adenoma1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFunctional Dyspepsia / Gastritis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIllness, Critical1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMidazolam1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePharmacokinetics / Voriconazole1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePsychomotor Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCritical Care / Deep Sedation / Sedation, Conscious1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSaccadic Eye Movements1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticEGD Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPain1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticSacroiliac Joint Pain / Sympathetically Maintained Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticSedation1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticVentricular Tachycardia (VT)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAOD Effects and Consequences1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Anxiety / General Surgery / Pain / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBronchoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDental Anxiety1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEndobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdrenal Insufficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAkathisia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Orthopedic Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnesthesia Morbidity / Children / Delirium on Emergence1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNausea, Postoperative / Vomiting, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPediatric Emergence Agitation and Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPeripheral Obliterative Arteriopathy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionTonsillitis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Body Temperature Changes1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnxiety1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnxiety / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareGastric Ulcer / Gastro Esophageal Reflux / Sedation Complication1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareMalignancies1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePre Operative Anxiety1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRespiratory Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTransient Hypertension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Drug / Analgesic Adverse Reaction / Arteriovenous Fistulas / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Midazolam Adverse Reaction / Patients Satisfaction / Sedative Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAgitation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnxiety1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnxiety Preoperative / Midazolam Premedication / Premedication1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) / Skin Cancers / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Pain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCataracts1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Midazolam Overdose / Respiratory Failure / Weaning Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentColonoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDysrhythmia, Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEchocardiography, Transesophageal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentExtrusion of Tooth1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFractures, Compression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemodynamics After Spinal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIllness, Critical1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntubations1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Major depressive disorder, recurrent episode / Severe Depression / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOther Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Functions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation and Analgesia During Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPsychomotor Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRespiration Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSedation in Critically Ill COPD Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSedation, Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSepsis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSepsis / Shock1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSepsis / Traumas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStress, Psychological1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative paralytic ileus1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherIntestinal Microbiota / Ventilations, Mechanical1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionEndoscopy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionLaryngectomy; Status1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentVirtual Reality1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / IVF1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSedation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingDevice FeasibilitySedation / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAgitation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain / Preoperative Sedation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjuvants,Anesthesia / Balanced Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety / Atherosclerosis / Coronary Artery Disease / Pain, Acute / Vasospasm;Peripheral / Virtual Reality1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Dislocation, Shoulder1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrain Glioma1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease With Ulceration1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHypercatabolism / Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Use Disorders1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntra-nasal Delevery Device / Procedural Sedation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPerioperative Period1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPermanent Pacemaker Implantation1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDepression1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Pharmacodynamics1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDrug Effect1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableGliomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchSedation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherSedation / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnxiety / Anxiety, Preoperative / Child, Only: 4-6years / Children / General Surgery / Surgical Procedure, Otorhinolaryngeal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIntubation; Difficult or Failed1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSepsis-Associated Encephalopathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnoxic Encephalopathy / Cardiac Arrest (CA) / Refractory seizure disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChildren Under General Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDental Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMidazolam in Preeclamptic Patients1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentTonsillectomy1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailablePsychomotor Agitation1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableVesicoureteral Reflux1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherChronic Alcoholism1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentRespiratory Failure1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentUndesired Pregnancy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAmbulatory Patients Referred for a First-time Colonoscopy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableFunctional disorders of the biliary tract / Pancreatic Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionCystoscopy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusScreeningAnesthesia Recovery Period / Delirium, Dementia, Cognitive Disorders / Mental Competency / Neurobehavioural Manifestation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareDiverticulosis, Colonic / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Rectal Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareInsomnia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CarePacemaker Implantation / Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBronchoscopy / Bronchoscopy; / Central Airway Stenosis / Interventional; / Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation / Sedation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMask Acceptance / Post Operative Delerium / Pre Operative Sedation1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableTraumas1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherCerebral Ischemia-Hypoxia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative Pain Control / Wrist Injury1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentSedation; Aged; Hemodynamics1


  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Astrazeneca pharmaceuticals lp
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Ben venue laboratories inc
  • Claris lifesciences ltd
  • Hospira inc
  • International medicated systems ltd
  • International medication systems ltd
  • Taylor pharmaceuticals
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Hlr technology
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Paddock laboratories inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Akorn Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • B&B Pharmaceuticals
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Cura Pharmaceutical Co. Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Mikart Inc.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Paddock Labs
  • Patheon Inc.
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Roxane Labs
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
SolutionBuccal10 mg
SolutionBuccal2.5 mg
SolutionBuccal5 mg
SolutionBuccal7.5 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/2mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous2 mg/2mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
SyrupOral10 mg/5mL
SyrupOral2 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
SprayNasal5 mg/0.1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular5 mg/1mL
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Midazolam 5 mg/ml3.9USD ml
Midazolam-nacl 2 mg/ml inj2.31USD ml
Midazolam hcl 5 mg/ml vial1.18USD ml
Midazolam-nacl 1 mg/ml inj1.13USD ml
Midazolam hcl 2 mg/ml syrup1.08USD ml
Midazolam 1 mg/ml isecure syr0.73USD ml
Midazolam hcl 1 mg/ml vial0.26USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)161-164MSDS
boiling point (°C)497MSDS
water solubilitysolubleFDA label
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00987 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area30.18 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity99.43 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9724
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5074
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5587
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8388
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7476
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7366
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7194
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8586
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.7132
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6887
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.6554
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5214
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9001
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8024
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity3.1488 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9827
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7379
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-03di-3839000000-42781254e15bcd5b31b6
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0009000000-2411220f611ba30ef225
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0009000000-c724b297ae99edb399d3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004l-0098000000-b57c162c4eeaad9ef111
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-a3133528f5491f4c9a6b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fs-0290000000-ee126555f849ecfff795
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0009000000-4ae622c7b53369b0cfb1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0019000000-00c3c9e2813a454acda1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-0093000000-a8ca99ef6c84536bff07
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0091000000-3edc4aa6f67d99b789a8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0abd-0290000000-aa5e16437618ad2adb86
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fs-0490000000-a323090224c5b01e3990
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0189000000-6e704a4a2a65211394ab
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0910000000-98021a5812f1663e9397


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepines. These are compounds containing an imidazole ring and a 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system, both sharing one nitrogen atom.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Fluorobenzenes / 1,4-diazepines / N-substituted imidazoles / Aryl fluorides / Aryl chlorides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Ketimines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 3 more
Imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine / Para-diazepine / Fluorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / N-substituted imidazole
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
diazepine (CHEBI:6931)


Protein group
Pharmacological action
Positive allosteric modulator
Curator comments
The GABA(A) receptor is pentameric (i.e. comprising 5 subunit proteins) and therefore has a multitude of potential isoforms. The above target is a collection of all possible GABA(A) subunits that may participate in the formation of the pentameric receptor and is not meant to imply direct a drug-protein interaction for each individual subunit.
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

  1. Sigel E, Steinmann ME: Structure, function, and modulation of GABA(A) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 23;287(48):40224-31. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R112.386664. Epub 2012 Oct 4. [PubMed:23038269]
  2. Zhu S, Noviello CM, Teng J, Walsh RM Jr, Kim JJ, Hibbs RE: Structure of a human synaptic GABAA receptor. Nature. 2018 Jul;559(7712):67-72. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0255-3. Epub 2018 Jun 27. [PubMed:29950725]
Protein group
Pharmacological action
Curator comments
Benzodiazepines modulate GABA(A) function by binding at the interface between alpha (α) and gamma (γ) subunits. Of the 6 α-subunits, only 4 (α-1, -2, -3, and -5) participate in the formation of this binding site. The above target is a collection of all α- and γ-subunits that are known to participate in the formation of the benzodiazepine binding site.
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

  1. Zhu S, Noviello CM, Teng J, Walsh RM Jr, Kim JJ, Hibbs RE: Structure of a human synaptic GABAA receptor. Nature. 2018 Jul;559(7712):67-72. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0255-3. Epub 2018 Jun 27. [PubMed:29950725]
  2. Sigel E, Steinmann ME: Structure, function, and modulation of GABA(A) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 23;287(48):40224-31. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R112.386664. Epub 2012 Oct 4. [PubMed:23038269]


1. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Foti RS, Rock DA, Wienkers LC, Wahlstrom JL: Selection of alternative CYP3A4 probe substrates for clinical drug interaction studies using in vitro data and in vivo simulation. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Jun;38(6):981-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.032094. Epub 2010 Mar 4. [PubMed:20203109]
  2. Pelkonen O, Maenpaa J, Taavitsainen P, Rautio A, Raunio H: Inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Xenobiotica. 1998 Dec;28(12):1203-53. [PubMed:9890159]
  3. Zhou S, Chan E, Lim LY, Boelsterli UA, Li SC, Wang J, Zhang Q, Huang M, Xu A: Therapeutic drugs that behave as mechanism-based inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4. Curr Drug Metab. 2004 Oct;5(5):415-42. [PubMed:15544435]
  4. Williams JA, Ring BJ, Cantrell VE, Jones DR, Eckstein J, Ruterbories K, Hamman MA, Hall SD, Wrighton SA: Comparative metabolic capabilities of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):883-91. [PubMed:12124305]
  5. Galetin A, Clarke SE, Houston JB: Quinidine and haloperidol as modifiers of CYP3A4 activity: multisite kinetic model approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1512-22. [PubMed:12433827]
  6. Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE: Measurement of Michaelis constants for cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation reactions using a substrate depletion approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):831-7. [PubMed:12065442]
  7. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4
Molecular Weight
60024.535 Da
  1. Klieber S, Hugla S, Ngo R, Arabeyre-Fabre C, Meunier V, Sadoun F, Fedeli O, Rival M, Bourrie M, Guillou F, Maurel P, Fabre G: Contribution of the N-glucuronidation pathway to the overall in vitro metabolic clearance of midazolam in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 May;36(5):851-62. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019539. Epub 2008 Feb 6. [PubMed:18256203]
  2. Hyland R, Osborne T, Payne A, Kempshall S, Logan YR, Ezzeddine K, Jones B: In vitro and in vivo glucuronidation of midazolam in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;67(4):445-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03386.x. [PubMed:19371318]
  3. Seo KA, Bae SK, Choi YK, Choi CS, Liu KH, Shin JG: Metabolism of 1'- and 4-hydroxymidazolam by glucuronide conjugation is largely mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A4, 2B4, and 2B7. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Nov;38(11):2007-13. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.035295. Epub 2010 Aug 16. [PubMed:20713656]
  4. Liu Y, She M, Wu Z, Dai R: The inhibition study of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases with cytochrome P450 selective substrates and inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2011 Jun;26(3):386-93. doi: 10.3109/14756366.2010.518965. Epub 2010 Oct 13. [PubMed:20939765]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
  1. Patki KC, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: In vitro metabolism of midazolam, triazolam, nifedipine, and testosterone by human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochromes p450: role of cyp3a4 and cyp3a5. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jul;31(7):938-44. [PubMed:12814972]
  2. Wandel C, Bocker R, Bohrer H, Browne A, Rugheimer E, Martin E: Midazolam is metabolized by at least three different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Br J Anaesth. 1994 Nov;73(5):658-61. [PubMed:7826796]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
  1. Williams JA, Ring BJ, Cantrell VE, Jones DR, Eckstein J, Ruterbories K, Hamman MA, Hall SD, Wrighton SA: Comparative metabolic capabilities of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):883-91. [PubMed:12124305]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 03, 2020 22:12

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Logo pink
Stay in the know!
As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages.