Identification

Name
Chlorhexidine
Accession Number
DB00878  (APRD00545)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial biguanide used as a topical antiseptic and in dental practice for the treatment of inflammatory dental conditions caused by microorganisms.11 It is one of the most common skin and mucous membrane antiseptic agents in use today.2 The molecule itself is a cationic bis-guanide consisting of two 4-chlorophenyl rings and two biguanide groups joined by a central hexamethylene chain.7 Topical chlorhexidine for disinfection, as well as oral rinses for dental use, carries activity against a broad range of pathogens including bacteria, yeasts, and viruses.12,11,7

Chlorhexidine was developed in the UK by Imperial Chemical Industries in the early 1950s9 and was introduced to the US in the 1970s.18

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,1'-Hexamethylene bis(5-(p-chlorophenyl)biguanide)
  • Chlorhexidin
  • Chlorhexidine
  • Chlorhexidinum
  • Cloresidina
  • Clorhexidina
  • N,N'-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,12-diimino-2,4,11,13-tetraazatetradecanediimidamide
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Chlorhexidine acetate5908ZUF22Y56-95-1WDRFFJWBUDTUCA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chlorhexidine gluconateMOR84MUD8E18472-51-0YZIYKJHYYHPJIB-UUPCJSQJSA-N
Chlorhexidine hydrochlorideE64XL9U38K3697-42-5WJLVQTJZDCGNJN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Antiseptic Skin CleanserSolution4 g/100mLTopicalCardinal Health2012-01-012020-10-31Us
Antiseptic Skin CleanserSolution4 g/100mLTopicalXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2012-01-01Not applicableUs
BetaseptSolution0.04 mg/1mLTopicalXttrium Laboratories, Inc.1993-06-01Not applicableUs
ChlorhexidineMouthwashBuccalEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2017-10-19Not applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine Alcohol FreeMouthwashBuccalEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2018-02-20Not applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse0.12 mg/1mLOralActavis Mid Atlantic LLC,2009-02-11Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral Rinse, USPMouthwashBuccalSage Products LLC2016-02-03Not applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral Rinse, USPLiquid; MouthwashOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Denticare Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse 0.12%MouthwashBuccalAmd Medicom Inc1999-11-26Not applicableCanada
Gelato ChlorohexidineRinse0.5448 g/454gDentalMycone Dental Supply Co., Inc Dba Keystone Industries And Deepak Products Inc.2010-03-312011-11-23Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralHenry Schein, Inc.2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralHenry Schein, Inc.2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Apo-chlorhexidine Oral RinseLiquidOralApotex Corporation2000-08-29Not applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine GluconanteRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralAmd Medicom Inc.2006-06-02Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine GluconateLiquid0.12 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2016-01-22Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralA-S Medication Solutions2010-06-012017-12-21Us
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2010-08-05Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse0.12 mg/1mLOralRebel Distributors2009-08-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Antibacterial Protective HandLotion.07075 g/14.15gTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antibacterial Protective HandLotion.0045 g/.9gTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antimicrobial Foam HandwashLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalGOJO Industries, Inc.2018-04-01Not applicableUs
Antimicrobial Skin CleanserLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalGOJO Industries, Inc.2008-03-01Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Body CleanserClothTopicalSage Products LLC2006-02-14Not applicableCanada
Antiseptic Cleanser SolutionSolutionTopicalNiagara Pharmaceuticals Inc.1996-08-202016-05-12Canada
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesSwab0.0002 mg/1mgTopicalGuangdong Comfort Medical Products Co., Ltd.2017-07-17Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesSwab0.0002 mg/1mgTopicalFoshan Flying Medical Products Co., Ltd.2012-12-27Not applicableUs
Antiseptic First Aid SprayLiquidTopicalWasip Ltd.2007-06-112016-07-14Canada
Antiseptic Foam HandwashLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalGOJO Industries, Inc.2011-12-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
3M AvagardChlorhexidine gluconate (8.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (506.3 mg/1mL)LotionTopical3M Health Care2001-06-14Not applicableUs
3M SoluPrepChlorhexidine gluconate (20 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)SolutionTopical3M Company2018-10-08Not applicableUs
3M SoluPrepChlorhexidine gluconate (20 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)SolutionTopical3M Company2018-10-08Not applicableUs
3m Soluprep SpongeChlorhexidine gluconate (2 %) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 %)SpongeTopical3 M Pharmaceuticals2013-09-11Not applicableCanada
Avagard ChgChlorhexidine gluconate (1 %) + Ethanol (61 %)LotionTopical3 M Pharmaceuticals2003-07-02Not applicableCanada
Baxedin 2% - 70%Chlorhexidine gluconate (2 %) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 %)SolutionTopicalOmega Laboratories Ltd2004-07-07Not applicableCanada
BioprepChlorhexidine gluconate (1 %) + Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (.5 %)SoapTopicalLarose & Fils Ltee1984-12-312005-03-23Canada
BioprepChlorhexidine gluconate (1 %) + Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (.5 %)SoapTopicalProduits Sani Professionel Ltee1984-12-311996-09-09Canada
Bioprep LiqChlorhexidine gluconate (.1 %) + Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (.5 %) + Isopropyl alcohol (5 %)LiquidTopicalJ.C. Sani Care Inc.1992-12-311997-08-14Canada
Burn O Sol SprayChlorhexidine acetate (.5 %) + Benzocaine (2 %)SprayTopicalProtector Canada Inc.1992-12-312012-06-18Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Antibacterial Protective HandChlorhexidine gluconate (.07075 g/14.15g)LotionTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antibacterial Protective HandChlorhexidine gluconate (.0045 g/.9g)LotionTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesChlorhexidine gluconate (0.0002 mg/1mg)SwabTopicalFoshan Flying Medical Products Co., Ltd.2012-12-27Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesChlorhexidine gluconate (0.0002 mg/1mg)SwabTopicalGuangdong Comfort Medical Products Co., Ltd.2017-07-17Not applicableUs
Bei Ling Tong Bao Er Zheng Yuan Antibacterial CreamsChlorhexidine acetate (0.03 g/15g)CreamTopicalJilin Mancaotang Health Management Group Co Ltd2018-11-202019-10-21Us
Ezy-TMChlorhexidine gluconate (2 g/100g)ClothTopicalJiangxi Sencen Hygienic Products Co., Ltd.2011-07-122016-07-12Us
Freeman Packing Alcohol WipeChlorhexidine gluconate (1 g/100g) + Ethanol (40 g/100g)LiquidTopicalJiangxi Sencen Hygienic Products Co., Ltd.2015-04-12Not applicableUs
Gelato ChlorohexidineChlorhexidine gluconate (0.5448 g/454g)RinseDentalMycone Dental Supply Co., Inc Dba Keystone Industries And Deepak Products Inc.2010-03-312011-11-23Us
Hand WipesChlorhexidine gluconate (0.1 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.08 g/100g)LiquidTopicalJiangxi Sencen Hygienic Products Co., Ltd.2015-10-122016-07-12Us
JIANLIANG Antibacterial Sprays 10mLChlorhexidine acetate (0.02 g/10mL)LiquidTopicalWeifang Hongyang Pharmacy Co., Ltd.2018-05-152019-12-31Us
International/Other Brands
Cida-Stat (Ecolab) / Corsodyl (GlaxoSmithKline) / DentiSept / Dyna-Hex (Xttrium) / Exidine (Xttrium) / Hexadol (Green Cross) / Hibiscrub (AstraZeneca) / Hibitane (Imperial Chemical Industries) / Microderm (Johnson & Johnson) / Periogard Oral Rinse (Colgate) / Pharmaseal Scrub Care (CareFusion) / Prevacare R (Johnson & Johnson) / Rotersept (Roter) / Sterilon (Emcure) / Tubulicid
Categories
UNII
R4KO0DY52L
CAS number
55-56-1
Weight
Average: 505.447
Monoisotopic: 504.203196424
Chemical Formula
C22H30Cl2N10
InChI Key
GHXZTYHSJHQHIJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H30Cl2N10/c23-15-5-9-17(10-6-15)31-21(27)33-19(25)29-13-3-1-2-4-14-30-20(26)34-22(28)32-18-11-7-16(24)8-12-18/h5-12H,1-4,13-14H2,(H5,25,27,29,31,33)(H5,26,28,30,32,34)
IUPAC Name
N-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-3-(6-{N-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)carbamimidamidomethanimidoyl]amino}hexyl)carbamimidamidomethanimidamide
SMILES
ClC1=CC=C(NC(=N)NC(=N)NCCCCCCNC(=N)NC(=N)NC2=CC=C(Cl)C=C2)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Chlorhexidine is available over-the-counter in various formulations (e.g. solution, sponge, cloth, swab) as a topical antiseptic to sanitize prior to surgeries and/or medical procedures.12,13,14,15 Dental formulations, available by prescription only, include an oral rinse indicated for the treatment of gingivitis11 and a slow-release "chip" which is inserted into periodontal pockets and is indicated for the reduction of pocket depth in adult patients with periodontitis as an adjunct therapy to dental scaling and root planing procedures.16

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial with demonstrated activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and viruses.2 Antimicrobial activity is dose-dependent - chlorhexidine is bacteriostatic at lower concentrations (0.02%-0.06%) and bactericidal at higher concentrations (>0.12%).2 Pharmacokinetic studies of oral chlorhexidine rinses indicate that approximately 30% of the active ingredient is retained in the mouth following rinsing, which is subsequently slowly released into oral fluids.11 This ability to adsorb to dentine, shared with tetracycline antibiotics such as doxycycline, is known as "substantivity" and is the result of chlorhexidine's positive charge - it is likely that this substantivity plays at least some role in chlorhexidine's antimicrobial activity, as its persistence on surfaces such as dentine prevent microbial colonization.7

Dental chlorhexidine rinses may result in staining of oral surfaces, such as teeth. This effect is not ubiquitous and appears to be more significant with extended therapy (i.e. up to 6 months) - nevertheless, patients for whom oral staining is unacceptable should use chlorhexidine rinse with caution and for the shortest effective interval.11 Allergic reactions to chlorhexidine have been associated with the development of anaphylaxis.8

Mechanism of action

Chlorhexidine’s broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects are due to its ability to disrupt microbial cell membranes. The positively charged chlorhexidine molecule reacts with negatively charged phosphate groups on microbial cell surfaces - this reaction both destroys the integrity of the cell, allowing leakage of intracellular material, and allows chlorhexidine to enter the cell, causing precipitation of cytoplasmic components and ultimately cell death.16,7 The specific means of cell death is dependent on the concentration of chlorhexidine - lower concentrations are bacteriostatic and result in leakage of intracellular substances such as potassium and phosphorous, whereas higher concentrations are bactericidal and cause cytoplasmic precipitation.7

TargetActionsOrganism
ABacterial outer membrane
incorporation into and destabilization
Bacteria
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Topically, chlorhexidine is unlikely to undergo any degree of systemic absorption. Orally administered chlorhexidine, such as that found in oral rinses for dental purposes, is very poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract - the Cmax in human subjects following an oral dose of 300mg was 0.206 µg/g and occurred approximately 30 minutes after ingestion (Tmax).11 Following the insertion of 4 PerioChips in 18 adult patients, no detectable plasma or urine chlorhexidine levels were observed.16

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Chlorhexidine is known to bind albumin in both serum and saliva,5 though the extent of this binding is unclear.

Metabolism

As chlorhexidine is very poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, it is unlikely to undergo metabolic conversion to any significant extent.11

Route of elimination

Excretion of chlorhexidine gluconate occurs almost exclusively via the feces, with less than 1% of an ingested dose excreted in the urine.11

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The LD50 of subcutaneously administered chlorhexidine in mice is >5 g/kg.17

Small children are likely to be more susceptible to chlorhexidine overdose - ingestion of 1-2 ounces by a small child may result in gastric distress, nausea, and intoxication. Treatment should consist of symptomatic and supportive measures. Seek medical attention if a child ingests >4 ounces of chlorhexidine solution or if symptoms of intoxication develop post-exposure.11

Affected organisms
  • Bacteria
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
No interactions found.
Food Interactions
  • Take separate from meals. May affect the taste of food and beverages. Avoid eating or drinking for 30 minutes following use.

References

Synthesis Reference

Rose, F.L. and Swain, G.; US. Patent 2,684,924; July 27, 1954; assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.

US2684924
General References
  1. McBain AJ, Bartolo RG, Catrenich CE, Charbonneau D, Ledder RG, Gilbert P: Effects of a chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash on the vitality and antimicrobial susceptibility of in vitro oral bacterial ecosystems. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Aug;69(8):4770-6. [PubMed:12902270]
  2. Karpinski TM, Szkaradkiewicz AK: Chlorhexidine--pharmaco-biological activity and application. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Apr;19(7):1321-6. [PubMed:25912596]
  3. Betcher DL, Burnham N: Chlorhexidine. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 1990 Apr;7(2):82-3. doi: 10.1177/104345429000700227. [PubMed:2363891]
  4. Kuyyakanond T, Quesnel LB: The mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Dec 15;100(1-3):211-5. [PubMed:1335944]
  5. Hjeljord LG, Rolla G, Bonesvoll P: Chlorhexidine-protein interactions. J Periodontal Res Suppl. 1973;12:11-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1973.tb02158.x. [PubMed:4269593]
  6. Radford JR, Homer KA, Naylor MN, Beighton D: Inhibition of human subgingival plaque protease activity by chlorhexidine. Arch Oral Biol. 1992 Apr;37(4):245-8. doi: 10.1016/0003-9969(92)90045-a. [PubMed:1520091]
  7. Mohammadi Z, Abbott PV: The properties and applications of chlorhexidine in endodontics. Int Endod J. 2009 Apr;42(4):288-302. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01540.x. Epub 2009 Feb 7. [PubMed:19220510]
  8. Sharp G, Green S, Rose M: Chlorhexidine-induced anaphylaxis in surgical patients: a review of the literature. ANZ J Surg. 2016 Apr;86(4):237-43. doi: 10.1111/ans.13269. Epub 2015 Sep 11. [PubMed:26361890]
  9. Lim KS, Kam PC: Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008 Jul;36(4):502-12. doi: 10.1177/0310057X0803600404. [PubMed:18714617]
  10. Health Canada Product Monograph: Peridex (chlorhexidine gluconate) oral rinse [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Peridex (chlorhexidine gluconate) oral rinse [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Avagard (chlorhexidine/ethyl alcohol) topical solution [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Pre-Scrub (chlorhexidine gluconate) topical scrub [Link]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: ChloraPrep One-Step (chlorhexidine/isopropyl alcohol) topical swab [Link]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Chlorhexidine gluconate topical cloth [Link]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: PerioChip (chlorhexidine gluconate) chip for oral insertion [Link]
  17. CaymanChem: Chlorhexidine MSDS [Link]
  18. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care (2009) [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015016
KEGG Drug
D07668
KEGG Compound
C06902
PubChem Compound
9552079
PubChem Substance
46506388
ChemSpider
2612
BindingDB
50170723
RxNav
2358
ChEBI
3614
ChEMBL
CHEMBL790
ZINC
ZINC000014768621
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001326
PharmGKB
PA164776863
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Chlorhexidine
ATC Codes
R02AA05 — ChlorhexidineS03AA04 — ChlorhexidineD08AC52 — Chlorhexidine, combinationsD08AC02 — ChlorhexidineS01AX09 — ChlorhexidineD09AA12 — ChlorhexidineB05CA02 — ChlorhexidineA01AB03 — ChlorhexidineS02AA09 — Chlorhexidine
AHFS Codes
  • 34:00.00 — Dental Agents
  • 52:04.92 — Miscellaneous Anti-infectives
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives
FDA label
Download (56 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceCleaning Product Causing Toxic Effect1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDental Diseases1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDisinfectant Causing Toxic Effect1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Flare up1
0RecruitingPreventionAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Diabetic Vascular Diseases / Proliferative Retinopathy / Retina Vein Occlusion1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherChlorhexidine Allergy / Infection / Rash1
1CompletedNot AvailableSurgical Site Infections2
1CompletedPreventionBacteremia / Clostridium Infections / Hospital Acquired Infections / Pneumonia / Sepsis / Urinary Tract Infection1
1CompletedPreventionPneumonia / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
1CompletedPreventionSurgical Skin Preparation1
1CompletedPreventionVentilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia1
1CompletedSupportive CareHead and Neck Carcinoma1
1CompletedTreatmentDentist-Patient Relations1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure With Normal Ejection Fraction / Pulmonary Heart Disease and Diseases of Pulmonary Circulation / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
1Unknown StatusPreventionDental Decay / Orthodontic Appliance Complication1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableTopical Antisepsis1
1, 2CompletedPreventionDental Decay / Long Term Adverse Effects / Orthodontic Appliance Complication / White Spot Lesion of Tooth1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPlaque, Dental1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers3
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionBreath odour1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionBone Loss / Implant Infection1
2CompletedNot AvailablePneumonia1
2CompletedNot AvailableSurgical Site Infections1
2CompletedBasic ScienceChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
2CompletedBasic ScienceStaining Effect of Chlorhexidine1
2CompletedPreventionBacterial Recovery of Skin Flora Post-Product Application1
2CompletedPreventionClostridium Difficile1
2CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionOral Mucositis1
2CompletedPreventionPreoperative Skin Preparation1
2CompletedPreventionSkin Coverage1
2CompletedPreventionStem Cell Transplant Complications1
2CompletedPreventionVentilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia / Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)1
2CompletedTreatmentGingivitis1
2CompletedTreatmentGingivitis / Mucositis1
2CompletedTreatmentHypochlorous Acid / Mouthwashes1
2CompletedTreatmentMRSA Colonization / MRSA-Colonization1
2CompletedTreatmentMucositis1
2CompletedTreatmentPeri-Implantitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis / Premature Birth of Newborn1
2CompletedTreatmentPlaque, Dental1
2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionDiabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU)1
2RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section / Surgical Site Infections1
2RecruitingPreventionPenile Prosthesis; Complications1
2RecruitingPreventionS. Aureus Oropharyngeal Colonization1
2RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
2RecruitingPreventionDry socket syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcanthamoeba Keratitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2RecruitingTreatmentDental Decay1
2RecruitingTreatmentHemorrhoids1
2TerminatedNot AvailableSurgical Site Infections1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceCesarean Section; Infection / Surgical Site Infections1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAntimicrobial Effect / Caries / High Caries Risk Patients / Side Effects1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHospital Acquired Infections1
2, 3CompletedPreventionSepsis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCatheterization1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentEndodontic Disease / Root canal infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriapical Abscess1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontal Diseases2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAntimicrobial Effect / High Caries Risk Patients / Patient Satisfaction to Taste / Salivary pH1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionRadiation Dermatitis1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionEsophageal Cancers / Lung Cancers / Post-operative Pneumonia1
2, 3WithdrawnPreventionNeonatal Mortality Rate / Neonatal Sepsis1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionSurgical Skin Preparation1
3Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareBacterial Infections / Infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci / Myeloid Neoplasm / Neoplasms, Benign / Neoplasms, Malignant / Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Myeloid Neoplasm1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPeri-Implantitis1
3CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
3CompletedNot AvailableTopical Antisepsis1
3CompletedDiagnosticGynecologic Diseases1
3CompletedOtherSurgical Site Infections1
3CompletedPreventionAntibiotic Resistant Infection1
3CompletedPreventionBacteria Microflora Reduction1
3CompletedPreventionBacterial Infections1
3CompletedPreventionBacterial Microflora Reduction1
3CompletedPreventionBacterial Reduction Post-product Application1
3CompletedPreventionBacterial Reduction on Skin Flora Post-product Application1
3CompletedPreventionDental Decay1
3CompletedPreventionDental Decay / Periodontal Diseases / Tooth Lost1
3CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
3CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Irritation Potential1
3CompletedPreventionICU-acquired Bacteraemia / ICU-ecology (Multidrug Resistant Bacteria)1
3CompletedPreventionInfection1
3CompletedPreventionInfectious Diseases2
3CompletedPreventionMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Skin Infections1
3CompletedPreventionOmphalitis1
3CompletedPreventionPlaque, Dental1
3CompletedPreventionPost Operative Complications / Surgical Site Infections1
3CompletedPreventionPostoperative Wound Infection1
3CompletedPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
3CompletedPreventionSurgical Skin Preparation4
3CompletedPreventionVentilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Decay1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Adult Periodontitis1
3CompletedTreatmentGingival Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentGingivitis1
3CompletedTreatmentInfections and Respiratory Infectious1
3CompletedTreatmentNeutropenia1
3CompletedTreatmentPharyngitis1
3CompletedTreatmentPlaque, Dental2
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentApical Periodontitis1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDental Decay1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Chlorhexidine / Communicable Diseases / Infection / Laparotomy / Pathologic Processes / Perioperative Complication / Pneumonia / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative Wound Infection / Surgical Site Infections / Wound Infections1
3RecruitingOtherAntimicrobial Effect1
3RecruitingPreventionGeneral Surgery / Postoperative Wound Infection / Surgery--Complications / Surgical Site Infections1
3RecruitingPreventionInfection / Post Operative Infection Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery1
3RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Surgeries / Surgical Site Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentChlorhexidine / Ventilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia1
3RecruitingTreatmentGingivitis1
3TerminatedPreventionDental Decay1
3TerminatedPreventionSkin Flora Bacterial Reduction Post-product Application1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCaries1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCord Care / Neonatal Mortality / Omphalitis1
3Unknown StatusPreventionInfant, Newborn, Diseases / Puerperal Infection / Sepsis1
3Unknown StatusPreventionPeristomal Wound Infection / Swallowing Disorders1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGingivitis / Inflammatory Reaction / Periodontitis / Plaque, Dental1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionArrhythmia / Heart Failure1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionDecolonization / Orthopaedic Surgery / Prevention / Staphylococcus Aureus / Surgical Site Infections1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionIntravenous Drug Abuse, S Aureus Colonization1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionPropionibacterium Acnes1
4CompletedNot AvailableAntimicrobial Effectiveness2
4CompletedNot AvailableArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedNot AvailableThis Study Evaluated the Effectiveness of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse on Subgingival Microbiota1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchHuman Microbiome2
4CompletedOtherSurgical Preparation of the Vagina1
4CompletedPreventionBacteremia1
4CompletedPreventionBacteremia / Tooth Extraction Status Nos1
4CompletedPreventionCatheter Failure / Intravascular-catheter Colonization1
4CompletedPreventionCutaneous Abscess1
4CompletedPreventionDental Decay / Periodontal Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionDental Prophylaxis and Implant Surgery1
4CompletedPreventionEffects of Topical Chlorhexidine and Benzidine Spray1
4CompletedPreventionGingivitis / Periodontitis1
4CompletedPreventionHealthcare Associated Pneumonia / Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia / Nosocomial Pneumonia / Pneumonia, Aspiration / Ventilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia / Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)1
4CompletedPreventionHysterectomy1
4CompletedPreventionMouthwash / Oral Biofilm / Periodontitis1
4CompletedPreventionNeonatal Infections1
4CompletedPreventionOral Health1
4CompletedPreventionOral Hygiene1
4CompletedPreventionPeritoneal Dialysis Catheter Exit Site Infection1
4CompletedPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Sore Throat1
4CompletedPreventionSkin Diseases, Infectious1
4CompletedPreventionSkin Health1
4CompletedPreventionStaph Aureus Methicillin Resistant Colonization1
4CompletedPreventionDry socket syndrome1
4CompletedSupportive CareGeneral Skin Cleansing1
4CompletedSupportive CareGingivitis1
4CompletedSupportive CareOral Mucositis1
4CompletedTreatmentAmputation Wound / Wound Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentBacterial Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentDental Implants / Tooth Socket1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes / Periodontitis1
4CompletedTreatmentGingivitis1
4CompletedTreatmentHand Hygiene Effectiveness1
4CompletedTreatmentMRSA1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Hepatic1
4CompletedTreatmentObese / Obesity, Morbid / Periodontitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPeri-Implantitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPeriimplantitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
4CompletedTreatmentRecession, Gingival2
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentClosed Lower Extremity Fracture / Fracture of Pelvis / Fractures, Open / Lower Extremity Fractures / Open Appendicular Fracture / Pelvis; Fracture / Surgical Site Infections / Unplanned Fracture-Related Reoperation1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentFractures, Open / Open Appendicular Fracture / Surgical Site Infections / Unplanned Fracture-Related Reoperation1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherGeneral Skin Cleansing1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCaries / Periodontal Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCentral Venous Catheter Related Bacteremia / Sepsis Affecting Skin1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionClostridium Difficile / Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) / Pseudomonas Aeruginosa1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionGingivitis / Plaque, Dental1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPlaque, Dental1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections / Upper limb fracture1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNormal Blood Pressure / Periodontitis1
4RecruitingOtherVaginal Surgeries1
4RecruitingPreventionAlveoli, Teeth; Inflammation / Alveolitis of Jaw / Dry socket syndrome / Impacted Third Molar Tooth1
4RecruitingPreventionBloodstream Infections / Omphalitis1
4RecruitingPreventionCardiac Surgery in Adult Patient1
4RecruitingPreventionHospitalizations / Infection1
4RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Breast / Wound Infections1
4RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections2
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Foot1
4RecruitingTreatmentMRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Staphylococcus Aureus1
4RecruitingTreatmentMechanical Ventilation for More Than 48 Hours1
4RecruitingTreatmentPeriodontal Diseases / Periodontitis / Plaque, Dental1
4TerminatedPreventionArthroplasty, Knee Replacement / Knee Replacement Surgery1
4TerminatedTreatmentMRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection / MRSA Colonization1
4TerminatedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceGingivitis / Oral Biofilm / Periodontitis1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBacterial Colonization / Lower Extremity Surgery / Surgical Antiseptic / Surgical Site Infections1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBacteriuria / Hospital Acquired Infections / Urinary Tract Infection1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIngrown Toenail1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentNecrotic Pulp1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRecession, Gingival / Tooth Abrasion1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdverse Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDrying Time1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePeriodontitis, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRespiratory Failure / Ventilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia / Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) / Wounds and Injuries1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAsepsis / Epidural Analgesia / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBacteremia2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBacteremia / Catheter-related Bloodstream Infection (CRBSI) NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCaries / Oral Surgical Wound Infection / Periimplantitis / Periodontal Diseases / Plaque, Dental1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCatheter Related Infections / Cross Infection / Infection Due to Indwelling Urinary Catheter / Postoperative Wound Infection / Ventilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia / Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionColonization / Line Insertion Site1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCommunity-Acquired Infections / Staphylococcal Skin Infections / Staphylococcus Aureus1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDental Decay1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGingivitis2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionInfection2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionInfection caused by staphylococci1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLow Birth Weight / Neonatal Sepsis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMRSA Skin Infections / Staphylococcal Skin Infections / Staphylococcus Aureus1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMethicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeonatal Mortality / Neonatal Sepsis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOral Health1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOral Hygiene / PH / Saliva Altered / Tooth Structure; Disorder2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOrthopedic Disorders / Surgical Site Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPlaque, Dental1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-operative Surgical Site Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionShoulder Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionStaph Aureus Colonization / Staph Aureus Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSurgery, Colorectal1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSurgical Site Infection Following Cesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSurgical Site Infections2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionTracheal Intubation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Furunculosis / MRSA Infection / Staphylococcal Skin Infections / Staphylococcus Aureus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus / Esophagus, Barrett / Reflux Esophagitis (RE)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroplasties, Hip Replacement / Postoperative Wound Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreath odour1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDental Decay1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGingivitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGingivitis / Periodontitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Oral Candidiasis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMRSA Colonization1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOral Cancers / Oral Mucositis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPeriodontal Diseases / Periodontitis, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRecession, Gingival1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSurgical Site Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVentilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionPropionibacterium infection1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentGingival Bleeding1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceOral Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Counts1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentGingival Bleeding1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNecrotic Pulp1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Dental / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionEsophageal Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMotility Disorders / Staphylococcus Aureus1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningCatheter Related Infections / Infection of Catheter Exit Site1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentInfection1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeri-implant Mucositis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionCentral Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) / Line Insertion Site1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnti-infecting Agents, Local1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Periodontitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherGingivitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionInfection1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionSurgical Site Infections1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Xttrium laboratories inc
  • Sage products inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • John o butler co
  • Novex pharma
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • 3m co
  • Colgate oral pharmaceuticals inc
  • Soapco inc
  • Ecolab inc
  • Regent medical americas llc
  • Johnson and johnson medical inc
  • Matrix medical corp
  • Kw griffen co
  • Becton dickinson and co
  • Kendall co
  • Becton dickinson surgical system
  • Molnlycke health care
  • Pharmaseal div baxter healthcare corp
  • Dexcel pharma technologies ltd
Packagers
  • 3M Health Care
  • Adrian Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Aplicare Inc.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • AR Medicom Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Cao Group Inc.
  • Colgate Oral
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Dental Technologies Inc.
  • DENTSPLY International
  • Dexcel Ltd.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Germiphene Corp.
  • Henry Schein Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Johnson & Johnson Healthcare
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Molnlycke Health
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nord Ost Corp.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Raz Co. Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Sage Products Inc.
  • Stoma Health Products
  • Sunstar Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Xactdose Inc.
  • Xttrium Laboratories
  • Zila Therapeutics Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical
SpongeTopical
LotionTopical.0045 g/.9g
LotionTopical.07075 g/14.15g
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
ClothTopical
SwabTopical0.0002 mg/1mg
LiquidTopical4 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100g
LiquidOral
DressingTopical
SpongeTopical40 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical40 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical40 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical40 g/1000mL
CreamTopical0.03 g/15g
SolutionTopical.04 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical0.04 mg/1mL
SprayTopical
GelTopical4 g/100mL
LiquidOral0.12 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.12 mg/1mL
RinseOral1.2 mg/1mL
LiquidBuccal1.2 mg/1mL
LiquidBuccal1.2 [iU]/1mL
Liquid; mouthwashOral
SolutionTopical0.75 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical
LiquidTopical
LiquidDental1.2 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical4 g/100mL
SolutionTopical4 %
SolutionTopical2 %
LiquidOphthalmic
ClothTopical2 g/100g
LiquidTopical4 g/100mL
RinseDental0.5448 g/454g
GelTopical
MouthwashBuccal
ClothTopical
LiquidTopical
SwabTopical
GelTopical
AerosolTopical
SolutionTopical213 g/1000mL
LiquidCutaneous; Infiltration
GelUrethral
LiquidTopical0.02 g/10mL
KitOral
ConcentrateIrrigation2.36 mL/236mL
CreamTopical
SwabTopical
RinseDental1.2 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical
Liquid; mouthwashBuccal
Insert, extended releasePeriodontal2.5 mg/1
LiquidOral1.2 mg/1mL
MouthwashBuccal0.12 %
RinseBuccal1.2 mg/1mL
SolutionBuccal0.12 %
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionTopical1 mg/25mL
Kit; solutionDental
LiquidBuccal
LotionTopical.283 g/56.6g
LotionTopical2.1508 g/430.16g
LotionTopical
SolutionTopical
KitBuccal
ClothTopical500 mg/1
LiquidTopical2 g/100mL
CreamTopical
SolutionTopical.75 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical4 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
SoapTopical24 mg/3g
SoapTopical48 mg/3g
KitTopical
SoapTopical
Liquid; spongeTopical
AerosolTopical
SpongeTopical
Solution; spongeTopical
ShampooTopical
SprayTopical
LiquidExtracorporeal
KitBuccal1.2 [iU]/1mL
LiquidTopical0.01 g/10mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Peridex 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle23.99USD bottle
Periogard 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle15.99USD bottle
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle14.0USD bottle
Biopatch dressing4.21USD each
Hibistat towelette0.43USD each
Chlorhexidine gluc 20% soln0.16USD ml
Hibiclens 4% liquid0.04USD ml
Peridex 0.12% liquid0.04USD ml
Chlorhexidine 2% scrub0.03USD ml
Chlorhexidine 0.12% rinse0.02USD ml
Dynahex 4% liquid0.02USD ml
Dynahex 2% liquid0.01USD ml
Periogard 0.12% oral rinse0.01USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US7422388No2008-09-092027-04-25Us
US6536975No2003-03-252020-11-10Us
US6729786No2004-05-042023-03-14Us
US7241065No2007-07-102023-03-14Us
US5690958No1997-11-252016-09-30Us
US6991394No2006-01-312024-01-31Us
US7182536No2007-02-272023-12-30Us
US5538353No1996-07-232015-08-25Us
US5772346No1998-06-302017-04-22Us
US7081246No2006-07-252016-08-03Us
US5897031No1999-04-272016-06-21Us
USD468424No2003-01-072017-01-07Us
US7066916No2006-06-272024-02-17Us
US7595021No2009-09-292023-05-12Us
US7717889No2010-05-182025-02-27Us
US7935093No2011-05-032027-10-02Us
US7427574No2008-09-232026-04-25Us
US8623935No2014-01-072029-07-26Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility800 mg/L (at 20 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.08HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995), ionized pH 5
pKa10.8 (at 25 °C)HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0261 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.71ALOGPS
logP4.51ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area167.58 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity181.71 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability54.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8984
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7872
Caco-2 permeable+0.5231
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6016
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5733
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9175
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7955
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7033
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6218
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6532
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8025
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6847
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.927
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5065
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.59
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6532
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.857
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9896
Rat acute toxicity1.7711 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.5579
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5661
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-2900000000-77fb2c1a85c1b39d8e91
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00yi-2912000000-109a5810a9e5d36f3105

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Chlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Biguanides / Aryl chlorides / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Biguanide / Chlorobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Guanidine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidamide / Organohalogen compound / Imine
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monochlorobenzenes, biguanides (CHEBI:3614)

Targets

1. Bacterial outer membrane
Kind
Group
Organism
Bacteria
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Incorporation into and destabilization
References
  1. Zorko M, Jerala R: Alexidine and chlorhexidine bind to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid and prevent cell activation by antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Oct;62(4):730-7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn270. Epub 2008 Jul 16. [PubMed:18635521]
  2. Kuyyakanond T, Quesnel LB: The mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Dec 15;100(1-3):211-5. [PubMed:1335944]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Hjeljord LG, Rolla G, Bonesvoll P: Chlorhexidine-protein interactions. J Periodontal Res Suppl. 1973;12:11-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1973.tb02158.x. [PubMed:4269593]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 05, 2020 21:45

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