Identification

Name
Chlorhexidine
Accession Number
DB00878
Description

Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial biguanide used as a topical antiseptic and in dental practice for the treatment of inflammatory dental conditions caused by microorganisms.11 It is one of the most common skin and mucous membrane antiseptic agents in use today.2 The molecule itself is a cationic bis-guanide consisting of two 4-chlorophenyl rings and two biguanide groups joined by a central hexamethylene chain.7 Topical chlorhexidine for disinfection, as well as oral rinses for dental use, carries activity against a broad range of pathogens including bacteria, yeasts, and viruses.12,11,7

Chlorhexidine was developed in the UK by Imperial Chemical Industries in the early 1950s9 and was introduced to the US in the 1970s.18

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 505.447
Monoisotopic: 504.203196424
Chemical Formula
C22H30Cl2N10
Synonyms
  • 1,1'-Hexamethylene bis(5-(p-chlorophenyl)biguanide)
  • Chlorhexidin
  • Chlorhexidine
  • Chlorhexidinum
  • Cloresidina
  • Clorhexidina
  • N,N'-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,12-diimino-2,4,11,13-tetraazatetradecanediimidamide

Pharmacology

Indication

Chlorhexidine is available over-the-counter in various formulations (e.g. solution, sponge, cloth, swab) as a topical antiseptic to sanitize prior to surgeries and/or medical procedures.12,13,14,15 Dental formulations, available by prescription only, include an oral rinse indicated for the treatment of gingivitis11 and a slow-release "chip" which is inserted into periodontal pockets and is indicated for the reduction of pocket depth in adult patients with periodontitis as an adjunct therapy to dental scaling and root planing procedures.16

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial with demonstrated activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and viruses.2 Antimicrobial activity is dose-dependent - chlorhexidine is bacteriostatic at lower concentrations (0.02%-0.06%) and bactericidal at higher concentrations (>0.12%).2 Pharmacokinetic studies of oral chlorhexidine rinses indicate that approximately 30% of the active ingredient is retained in the mouth following rinsing, which is subsequently slowly released into oral fluids.11 This ability to adsorb to dentine, shared with tetracycline antibiotics such as doxycycline, is known as "substantivity" and is the result of chlorhexidine's positive charge - it is likely that this substantivity plays at least some role in chlorhexidine's antimicrobial activity, as its persistence on surfaces such as dentine prevent microbial colonization.7

Dental chlorhexidine rinses may result in staining of oral surfaces, such as teeth. This effect is not ubiquitous and appears to be more significant with extended therapy (i.e. up to 6 months) - nevertheless, patients for whom oral staining is unacceptable should use chlorhexidine rinse with caution and for the shortest effective interval.11 Allergic reactions to chlorhexidine have been associated with the development of anaphylaxis.8

Mechanism of action

Chlorhexidine’s broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects are due to its ability to disrupt microbial cell membranes. The positively charged chlorhexidine molecule reacts with negatively charged phosphate groups on microbial cell surfaces - this reaction both destroys the integrity of the cell, allowing leakage of intracellular material, and allows chlorhexidine to enter the cell, causing precipitation of cytoplasmic components and ultimately cell death.16,7 The specific means of cell death is dependent on the concentration of chlorhexidine - lower concentrations are bacteriostatic and result in leakage of intracellular substances such as potassium and phosphorous, whereas higher concentrations are bactericidal and cause cytoplasmic precipitation.7

TargetActionsOrganism
ABacterial outer membrane
incorporation into and destabilization
Bacteria
Absorption

Topically, chlorhexidine is unlikely to undergo any degree of systemic absorption. Orally administered chlorhexidine, such as that found in oral rinses for dental purposes, is very poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract - the Cmax in human subjects following an oral dose of 300mg was 0.206 µg/g and occurred approximately 30 minutes after ingestion (Tmax).11 Following the insertion of 4 PerioChips in 18 adult patients, no detectable plasma or urine chlorhexidine levels were observed.16

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Chlorhexidine is known to bind albumin in both serum and saliva,5 though the extent of this binding is unclear.

Metabolism

As chlorhexidine is very poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, it is unlikely to undergo metabolic conversion to any significant extent.11

Route of elimination

Excretion of chlorhexidine gluconate occurs almost exclusively via the feces, with less than 1% of an ingested dose excreted in the urine.11

Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

The LD50 of subcutaneously administered chlorhexidine in mice is >5 g/kg.17

Small children are likely to be more susceptible to chlorhexidine overdose - ingestion of 1-2 ounces by a small child may result in gastric distress, nausea, and intoxication. Treatment should consist of symptomatic and supportive measures. Seek medical attention if a child ingests >4 ounces of chlorhexidine solution or if symptoms of intoxication develop post-exposure.11

Affected organisms
  • Bacteria
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
No interactions found.
Food Interactions
  • Take separate from meals. May affect the taste of food and beverages. Avoid eating or drinking for 30 minutes following use.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Chlorhexidine acetate5908ZUF22Y56-95-1WDRFFJWBUDTUCA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chlorhexidine gluconateMOR84MUD8E18472-51-0YZIYKJHYYHPJIB-UUPCJSQJSA-N
Chlorhexidine hydrochlorideE64XL9U38K3697-42-5WJLVQTJZDCGNJN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Cida-Stat (Ecolab) / Corsodyl (GlaxoSmithKline) / DentiSept / Dyna-Hex (Xttrium) / Exidine (Xttrium) / Hexadol (Green Cross) / Hibiscrub (AstraZeneca) / Hibitane (Imperial Chemical Industries) / Microderm (Johnson & Johnson) / Periogard Oral Rinse (Colgate) / Pharmaseal Scrub Care (CareFusion) / Prevacare R (Johnson & Johnson) / Rotersept (Roter) / Sterilon (Emcure) / Tubulicid
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Antiseptic Skin CleanserSolution4 g/100mLTopicalXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2012-01-01Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Skin CleanserSolution4 g/100mLTopicalCardinal Health2012-01-012020-10-31Us
BetaseptSolution0.04 mg/1mLTopicalXttrium Laboratories, Inc.1993-06-01Not applicableUs
ChlorhexidineMouthwashBuccalEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2017-10-19Not applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine Alcohol FreeMouthwashBuccalEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2018-02-20Not applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse0.12 mg/1mLOralActavis Mid Atlantic LLC,2009-02-11Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral Rinse, USPLiquid; MouthwashOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral Rinse, USPMouthwashBuccalSage Products LLC2016-02-03Not applicableCanada
Denticare Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse 0.12%MouthwashBuccalAmd Medicom Inc1999-11-26Not applicableCanada
Gelato ChlorohexidineRinse0.5448 g/454gDentalMycone Dental Supply Co., Inc Dba Keystone Industries And Deepak Products Inc.2010-03-312011-11-23Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralXttrium Laboratories, Inc.2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralHenry Schein, Inc.2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Acclean Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Oral RinseLiquid1.2 mg/1mLOralHenry Schein, Inc.2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Apo-chlorhexidine Oral RinseLiquidOralApotex Corporation2000-08-29Not applicableCanada
Chlorhexidine GluconanteRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralAmd Medicom Inc.2006-06-02Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralPatterson Dental Supply Inc.2017-06-30Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralDen-mat Holdings, Llc2009-06-18Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralAtlantic Biologicals Corps2010-06-01Not applicableUs
Chlorhexidine GluconateRinse1.2 mg/1mLOralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-10-22Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Akilgeld Hand SanitizerGelTopicalDelta Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Akilspray Hand SanitizerSprayTopicalDelta Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Anti-bac HandSoap0.45 g/100mLTopicalFujian Jinghua Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.2020-04-25Not applicableUs
Antibacterial Protective HandLotion.0045 g/.9gTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antibacterial Protective HandLotion.07075 g/14.15gTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antimicrobial Foam HandwashLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalGOJO Industries, Inc.2018-04-01Not applicableUs
Antimicrobial Skin CleanserLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalGOJO Industries, Inc.2008-03-01Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Body CleanserClothTopicalSage Products LLC2006-02-14Not applicableCanada
Antiseptic Cleanser SolutionSolutionTopicalNiagara Pharmaceuticals Inc.1996-08-202016-05-12Canada
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesSwab0.0002 mg/1mgTopicalGuangdong Comfort Medical Products Co., Ltd.2017-07-17Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
(Fruli) Quick-Dry Disposable Hand SanitizerChlorhexidine gluconate (0.5 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (70 mL/100mL)LiquidTopicalShandong Zhuojian Medical Technology Co., Ltd.2020-05-01Not applicableUs
(Qiqing) Chlorhexidine Gluconate Alcohol DisinfectantChlorhexidine gluconate (0.45 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (75 mL/100mL)LiquidTopicalQingdao precision medical technology co., LTD. Zibo branch2020-05-01Not applicableUs
3M AvagardChlorhexidine gluconate (8.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (506.3 mg/1mL)LotionTopical3M Company2001-06-14Not applicableUs
3M SoluPrepChlorhexidine gluconate (20 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)SolutionTopical3M Company2018-10-08Not applicableUs
3M SoluPrepChlorhexidine gluconate (20 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)SolutionTopical3M Company2018-10-08Not applicableUs
3m Soluprep SpongeChlorhexidine gluconate (2 %) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 %)SpongeTopical3 M Pharmaceuticals2013-09-11Not applicableCanada
Alcohol Antibacterial WipesChlorhexidine acetate (0.1 g/100a) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.1 g/100a) + Ethanol (15 g/100a)ClothTopicalKunming Ansheng Industry & Trade Co., Ltd.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Alcohol Disinfectant WipesChlorhexidine acetate (1 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (1 mg/1) + Ethanol (750 mg/1)ClothTopicalKunming Ansheng Industry & Trade Co., Ltd.2020-06-17Not applicableUs
Avagard ChgChlorhexidine gluconate (1 %) + Ethanol (61 %)LotionTopical3 M Pharmaceuticals2003-07-02Not applicableCanada
B-good Hand and Skin Disinfecting AgentChlorhexidine gluconate (4 mg/100mL) + Ethanol (10 mL/100mL)SolutionTopicalHONNES SAGLIK VE ENDUSTRIYEL URUNLERI ANONIM SIRKETI2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Anti-bac HandChlorhexidine acetate (0.45 g/100mL)SoapTopicalFujian Jinghua Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.2020-04-25Not applicableUs
Antibacterial Protective HandChlorhexidine gluconate (.0045 g/.9g)LotionTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antibacterial Protective HandChlorhexidine gluconate (.07075 g/14.15g)LotionTopicalHANOVER PEN CORP dba HPC Global2013-02-01Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesChlorhexidine gluconate (0.0002 mg/1mg)SwabTopicalGuangdong Comfort Medical Products Co., Ltd.2017-07-17Not applicableUs
Antiseptic Cleansing WipesChlorhexidine gluconate (0.0002 mg/1mg)SwabTopicalFoshan Flying Medical Products Co., Ltd.2012-12-27Not applicableUs
Bei Ling Tong Bao Er Zheng Yuan Antibacterial CreamsChlorhexidine acetate (0.03 g/15g)CreamTopicalJilin Mancaotang Health Management Group Co Ltd2018-11-202019-10-21Us
Disinfectant Fabric WashChlorhexidine acetate (0.5 g/1L)LiquidTopicalSwashes (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Disinfectant Wet TissuesChlorhexidine acetate (0.2 g/100mL)ClothTopicalSwashes (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Dr. Zheng s acteriostatic gelChlorhexidine acetate (0.55 g/500g)GelExtracorporealGuangzhou Yuxiao Biological Products Co., Ltd.2020-04-11Not applicableUs
Ezy-TMChlorhexidine gluconate (2 g/100g)ClothTopicalJiangxi Sencen Hygienic Products Co., Ltd.2011-07-122016-07-12Us

Categories

ATC Codes
R02AA05 — ChlorhexidineS03AA04 — ChlorhexidineD08AC52 — Chlorhexidine, combinationsD08AC02 — ChlorhexidineS01AX09 — ChlorhexidineD09AA12 — ChlorhexidineB05CA02 — ChlorhexidineA01AB03 — ChlorhexidineS02AA09 — Chlorhexidine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Chlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Biguanides / Aryl chlorides / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Biguanide / Carboximidamide / Chlorobenzene / Guanidine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monochlorobenzenes, biguanides (CHEBI:3614)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
R4KO0DY52L
CAS number
55-56-1
InChI Key
GHXZTYHSJHQHIJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H30Cl2N10/c23-15-5-9-17(10-6-15)31-21(27)33-19(25)29-13-3-1-2-4-14-30-20(26)34-22(28)32-18-11-7-16(24)8-12-18/h5-12H,1-4,13-14H2,(H5,25,27,29,31,33)(H5,26,28,30,32,34)
IUPAC Name
N-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-3-(6-{N-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)carbamimidamidomethanimidoyl]amino}hexyl)carbamimidamidomethanimidamide
SMILES
ClC1=CC=C(NC(=N)NC(=N)NCCCCCCNC(=N)NC(=N)NC2=CC=C(Cl)C=C2)C=C1

References

Synthesis Reference

Rose, F.L. and Swain, G.; US. Patent 2,684,924; July 27, 1954; assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.

US2684924
General References
  1. McBain AJ, Bartolo RG, Catrenich CE, Charbonneau D, Ledder RG, Gilbert P: Effects of a chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash on the vitality and antimicrobial susceptibility of in vitro oral bacterial ecosystems. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Aug;69(8):4770-6. [PubMed:12902270]
  2. Karpinski TM, Szkaradkiewicz AK: Chlorhexidine--pharmaco-biological activity and application. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Apr;19(7):1321-6. [PubMed:25912596]
  3. Betcher DL, Burnham N: Chlorhexidine. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 1990 Apr;7(2):82-3. doi: 10.1177/104345429000700227. [PubMed:2363891]
  4. Kuyyakanond T, Quesnel LB: The mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Dec 15;100(1-3):211-5. [PubMed:1335944]
  5. Hjeljord LG, Rolla G, Bonesvoll P: Chlorhexidine-protein interactions. J Periodontal Res Suppl. 1973;12:11-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1973.tb02158.x. [PubMed:4269593]
  6. Radford JR, Homer KA, Naylor MN, Beighton D: Inhibition of human subgingival plaque protease activity by chlorhexidine. Arch Oral Biol. 1992 Apr;37(4):245-8. doi: 10.1016/0003-9969(92)90045-a. [PubMed:1520091]
  7. Mohammadi Z, Abbott PV: The properties and applications of chlorhexidine in endodontics. Int Endod J. 2009 Apr;42(4):288-302. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01540.x. Epub 2009 Feb 7. [PubMed:19220510]
  8. Sharp G, Green S, Rose M: Chlorhexidine-induced anaphylaxis in surgical patients: a review of the literature. ANZ J Surg. 2016 Apr;86(4):237-43. doi: 10.1111/ans.13269. Epub 2015 Sep 11. [PubMed:26361890]
  9. Lim KS, Kam PC: Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008 Jul;36(4):502-12. doi: 10.1177/0310057X0803600404. [PubMed:18714617]
  10. Health Canada Product Monograph: Peridex (chlorhexidine gluconate) oral rinse [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Peridex (chlorhexidine gluconate) oral rinse [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Avagard (chlorhexidine/ethyl alcohol) topical solution [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Pre-Scrub (chlorhexidine gluconate) topical scrub [Link]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: ChloraPrep One-Step (chlorhexidine/isopropyl alcohol) topical swab [Link]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Chlorhexidine gluconate topical cloth [Link]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: PerioChip (chlorhexidine gluconate) chip for oral insertion [Link]
  17. CaymanChem: Chlorhexidine MSDS [Link]
  18. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care (2009) [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015016
KEGG Drug
D07668
KEGG Compound
C06902
PubChem Compound
9552079
PubChem Substance
46506388
ChemSpider
2612
BindingDB
50170723
RxNav
2358
ChEBI
3614
ChEMBL
CHEMBL790
ZINC
ZINC000014768621
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001326
PharmGKB
PA164776863
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Chlorhexidine
AHFS Codes
  • 34:00.00 — Dental Agents
  • 52:04.92 — Miscellaneous Anti-infectives
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives
FDA label
Download (56 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionArrhythmia / Heart Failure1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionImpacted Third Molar Tooth2
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionIntravenous Drug Abuse, S Aureus Colonization1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionPropionibacterium Acnes1
4CompletedNot AvailableAntimicrobial Effectiveness2
4CompletedNot AvailableArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedNot AvailableThis Study Evaluated the Effectiveness of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse on Subgingival Microbiota1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchHuman Microbiome2
4CompletedOtherSurgical Preparation of the Vagina1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Xttrium laboratories inc
  • Sage products inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • John o butler co
  • Novex pharma
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • 3m co
  • Colgate oral pharmaceuticals inc
  • Soapco inc
  • Ecolab inc
  • Regent medical americas llc
  • Johnson and johnson medical inc
  • Matrix medical corp
  • Kw griffen co
  • Becton dickinson and co
  • Kendall co
  • Becton dickinson surgical system
  • Molnlycke health care
  • Pharmaseal div baxter healthcare corp
  • Dexcel pharma technologies ltd
Packagers
  • 3M Health Care
  • Adrian Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Aplicare Inc.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • AR Medicom Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Cao Group Inc.
  • Colgate Oral
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Dental Technologies Inc.
  • DENTSPLY International
  • Dexcel Ltd.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Germiphene Corp.
  • Henry Schein Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Johnson & Johnson Healthcare
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Molnlycke Health
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nord Ost Corp.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Raz Co. Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Sage Products Inc.
  • Stoma Health Products
  • Sunstar Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Xactdose Inc.
  • Xttrium Laboratories
  • Zila Therapeutics Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical
SpongeTopical
SoapTopical0.45 g/100mL
LotionTopical.0045 g/.9g
LotionTopical.07075 g/14.15g
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
SwabTopical0.0002 mg/1mg
LotionTopical
LiquidTopical4 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100g
LiquidOral
DressingTopical
LiquidTopical40 mg/1mL
SpongeTopical40 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical40 g/1000mL
CreamTopical0.03 g/15g
SolutionTopical.04 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical0.04 mg/1mL
SprayTopical
GelTopical4 g/100mL
LiquidOral0.12 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.12 mg/1mL
RinseOral1.2 mg/1mL
LiquidBuccal1.2 [iU]/1mL
LiquidBuccal1.2 mg/1mL
Liquid; mouthwashOral
SolutionTopical0.75 mg/100mL
LiquidTopical
LiquidDental1.2 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical0.5 g/1L
ClothTopical0.2 g/100mL
GelExtracorporeal0.55 g/500g
SolutionTopical4 g/100mL
SpongeTopical
SolutionTopical4 %
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidOphthalmic
ClothTopical2 g/100g
LiquidTopical4 g/100mL
RinseDental0.5448 g/454g
GelTopical
ClothTopical
LiquidTopical
SwabTopical
AerosolTopical
SolutionTopical213 g/1000mL
SolutionTopical
LiquidCutaneous; Infiltration
GelUrethral
LiquidTopical0.02 g/10mL
LiquidExtracorporeal
KitOral
ConcentrateIrrigation2.36 mL/236mL
ClothTopical0.127 g/100g
CreamTopical
SwabTopical
RinseDental1.2 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical
MouthwashBuccal
Liquid; mouthwashBuccal
Insert, extended releasePeriodontal2.5 mg/1
LiquidOral1.2 mg/1mL
MouthwashBuccal0.12 %
RinseBuccal1.2 mg/1mL
SolutionBuccal0.12 %
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionTopical1 mg/25mL
Kit; solutionDental
LiquidBuccal
LotionTopical.283 g/56.6g
LotionTopical2.1508 g/430.16g
SolutionTopical
KitBuccal; Oral
KitBuccal
GelTopical
ClothTopical500 mg/1
LiquidTopical2 g/100mL
CreamTopical
SolutionTopical.75 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical4 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical40 mg/1mL
SoapTopical24 mg/3g
SoapTopical48 mg/3g
KitOral; Topical
KitBuccal; Topical
KitTopical
SoapTopical
Liquid; spongeTopical
AerosolTopical
ClothTopical
Solution; spongeTopical
ShampooTopical
SprayTopical
KitBuccal1.2 [iU]/1mL
LiquidTopical0.01 g/10mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Peridex 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle23.99USD bottle
Periogard 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle15.99USD bottle
Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.12% Solution 473ml Bottle14.0USD bottle
Biopatch dressing4.21USD each
Hibistat towelette0.43USD each
Chlorhexidine gluc 20% soln0.16USD ml
Hibiclens 4% liquid0.04USD ml
Peridex 0.12% liquid0.04USD ml
Chlorhexidine 2% scrub0.03USD ml
Chlorhexidine 0.12% rinse0.02USD ml
Dynahex 4% liquid0.02USD ml
Dynahex 2% liquid0.01USD ml
Periogard 0.12% oral rinse0.01USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US7422388No2008-09-092027-04-25Us
US6536975No2003-03-252020-11-10Us
US6729786No2004-05-042023-03-14Us
US7241065No2007-07-102023-03-14Us
US5690958No1997-11-252016-09-30Us
US6991394No2006-01-312024-01-31Us
US7182536No2007-02-272023-12-30Us
US5538353No1996-07-232015-08-25Us
US5772346No1998-06-302017-04-22Us
US7081246No2006-07-252016-08-03Us
US5897031No1999-04-272016-06-21Us
USD468424No2003-01-072017-01-07Us
US7066916No2006-06-272024-02-17Us
US7595021No2009-09-292023-05-12Us
US7717889No2010-05-182025-02-27Us
US7935093No2011-05-032027-10-02Us
US7427574No2008-09-232026-04-25Us
US8623935No2014-01-072029-07-26Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility800 mg/L (at 20 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.08HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995), ionized pH 5
pKa10.8 (at 25 °C)HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0261 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.71ALOGPS
logP4.51ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area167.58 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity181.71 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability54.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8984
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7872
Caco-2 permeable+0.5231
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6016
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5733
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9175
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7955
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7033
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6218
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6532
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8025
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6847
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.927
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5065
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.59
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6532
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.857
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9896
Rat acute toxicity1.7711 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.5579
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5661
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-2900000000-77fb2c1a85c1b39d8e91
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00yi-2912000000-109a5810a9e5d36f3105

Targets

1. Bacterial outer membrane
Kind
Group
Organism
Bacteria
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Incorporation into and destabilization
References
  1. Zorko M, Jerala R: Alexidine and chlorhexidine bind to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid and prevent cell activation by antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Oct;62(4):730-7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn270. Epub 2008 Jul 16. [PubMed:18635521]
  2. Kuyyakanond T, Quesnel LB: The mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Dec 15;100(1-3):211-5. [PubMed:1335944]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Hjeljord LG, Rolla G, Bonesvoll P: Chlorhexidine-protein interactions. J Periodontal Res Suppl. 1973;12:11-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1973.tb02158.x. [PubMed:4269593]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 12, 2020 21:57

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