Risedronic acid

Identification

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Name
Risedronic acid
Accession Number
DB00884  (APRD00410, DB02782)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Alendronic acid is a bisphosphonate that is used for the treatment of some forms of osteoperosis and Paget's disease[Label][1]. It functions by preventing resorption of bone[Label][1].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Acide risédroniqe
  • Acido risedronico
  • Acidum risedronicum
  • Risedronate
  • Risedronic acid
  • Risedronsäure
External IDs
NE-58095
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Risedronate sodiumOFG5EXG60L115436-72-1DRFDPXKCEWYIAW-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Risedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrateHU2YAQ274O329003-65-8HYFDYHPNTXOPPO-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Risedronate sodium monohydrateF67L43UT5C353228-19-0KLQNARDFMJRXSF-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ActonelTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-15Not applicableUs
ActonelTablet, film coated35 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-09-16Not applicableUs
ActonelTablet, film coated150 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-10-05Not applicableUs
ActonelTablet30 mgOralAllergan Pharma Co.1999-09-07Not applicableCanada
ActonelTablet5 mgOralAllergan Pharma Co.2000-07-25Not applicableCanada
ActonelTablet35 mgOralAllergan Pharma Co.2002-12-10Not applicableCanada
ActonelTablet150 mgOralAllergan Pharma Co.2008-12-01Not applicableCanada
ActonelTablet75 mgOralWarner Chilcott2007-08-132016-08-05Canada
ActonelTablet, film coated150 mg/1OralWarner Chilcott2008-04-22Not applicableUs
ActonelTablet, film coated75 mg/1OralWarner Chilcott2007-04-162010-03-31Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-risedronateTablet35 mgOralApotex Corporation2010-11-10Not applicableCanada
Apo-risedronateTablet150 mgOralApotex Corporation2012-05-17Not applicableCanada
Auro-risedronateTablet35 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2013-07-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-risedronateTablet5 mgOralAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-risedronateTablet30 mgOralAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-risedronateTablet150 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2016-04-13Not applicableCanada
Dom-risedronateTablet35 mgOralDominion Pharmacal2011-04-19Not applicableCanada
Jamp-risedronateTablet35 mgOralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-10-04Not applicableCanada
Mylan-risedronateTablet150 mgOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2013-09-30Not applicableCanada
Mylan-risedronateTablet35 mgOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2011-06-16Not applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (129 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (21 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2008-04-22Not applicableUs
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (4.3 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (0.7 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2000-04-14Not applicableUs
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (30.1 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (4.9 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2002-05-17Not applicableUs00430 0472 03 nlmimage10 08400400
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (129 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (21 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2008-04-22Not applicableUs
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (25.8 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (4.2 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan1998-03-27Not applicableUs
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (64.5 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (10.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2007-04-162010-03-31Us
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (25.8 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (4.2 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan1998-03-27Not applicableUs
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (64.5 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (10.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2007-04-162010-03-31Us
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (4.3 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (0.7 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2000-04-14Not applicableUs
ActonelRisedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate (30.1 mg/1) + Risedronate sodium monohydrate (4.9 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAllergan2002-05-17Not applicableUs00430 0472 03 nlmimage10 08400400
International/Other Brands
Benet (Takeda ) / Ridron
Categories
UNII
KM2Z91756Z
CAS number
105462-24-6
Weight
Average: 283.1123
Monoisotopic: 283.001074735
Chemical Formula
C7H11NO7P2
InChI Key
IIDJRNMFWXDHID-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C7H11NO7P2/c9-7(16(10,11)12,17(13,14)15)4-6-2-1-3-8-5-6/h1-3,5,9H,4H2,(H2,10,11,12)(H2,13,14,15)
IUPAC Name
[1-hydroxy-1-phosphono-2-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid
SMILES
OC(CC1=CN=CC=C1)(P(O)(O)=O)P(O)(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Risedronic acid is indicated for the treatment of osteoperosis in men, treatment of Paget's disease, treatment and prevention of osteoperosis in postmenopausal women, and treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoperosis[Label].

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Risedronate is a pyridine-based bisphosphonate that inhibits bone resorption caused by osteoclasts[Label].

Mechanism of action

Risedronatic acid binds to bone hydroxyapatite[Label]. Bone resorption causes local acidification, releasing risedronic acid which is that taken into osteoclasts by fluid-phase endocytosis[1]. Endocytic vesicles are acidified, releasing risedronic acid to the cytosol of osteoclasts where they induce apoptosis through inhbition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase[1]. Inhibition of osteoclasts results in decreased bone resorption[1].

TargetActionsOrganism
AFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthase
inhibitor
Humans
AHydroxylapatite
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

Oral bioavailability is 0.63% and maximum absorption is approximately 1 hour after dosing[Label]. Administration half and hour before a meal reduces bioavailability by 55% compared to fasting and dosing 1 hour before a meal reduces bioavailability by 30%[Label].

Volume of distribution

13.8 L/kg[Label].

Protein binding

~24%[Label].

Metabolism

Risedronic acid is not likely not metabolized before elimination[Label]. The P-C-P group of bisphosphonates is resistant to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis preventing metabolism of the molecule[1].

Route of elimination

Risedronate is excreted by the kidneys and the unabsorbed dose is eliminated in the feces[Label].

Half life

The initial half life of risedronic acid is approximately 1.5 hours[2], with a terminal half life of 561 hours[Label].

Clearance

Mean renal clearance was 52mL/min and mean total clearance was 73mL/min[Label].

Toxicity

In clinical trials, over 10% of patients experienced back pain, arthralgia, abdominal pain, and dyspepsia[Label]. Less commonly, patients experience angioedema, generalized rash, bullous skin reactions, iritis, and uveitis[Label].

Patients experiencing an overdose may experience a decrease in serum calcium and phosphorus[Label]. Patients can be given milk or antacids to bind the drug and reduce its absorption[Label]. In more severe cases, patients may require gastric lavage and intravenous calcium[Label]. A lethal dose in rats is equivalent to 320 to 620 times the human dose based on surface area[Label].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Risedronate Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Risedronic acid.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Risedronic acid.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Risedronic acid.
AcipimoxThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Risedronic acid is combined with Acipimox.
AcyclovirThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Acyclovir is combined with Risedronic acid.
AdefovirThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Adefovir is combined with Risedronic acid.
Adefovir DipivoxilThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia can be increased when Adefovir Dipivoxil is combined with Risedronic acid.
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Alclofenac is combined with Risedronic acid.
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Alendronic acid is combined with Risedronic acid.
AlmasilateThe serum concentration of Risedronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Almasilate.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Srinivasa Rao V.N Divvela, Lenin Racha, Sivakumaran Meenakshisunderam, Ramesh Dandala, "Process for the preparation of risedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate." U.S. Patent US20070173484, issued July 26, 2007.

US20070173484
General References
  1. Russell RG, Watts NB, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ: Mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: similarities and differences and their potential influence on clinical efficacy. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Jun;19(6):733-59. doi: 10.1007/s00198-007-0540-8. [PubMed:18214569]
  2. Thompson Micromedex (2004). Usp Vol I Drug Info Health Vol: Volume I (USP DI: v.1 Drug Information for the Health Care Professional) (24th ed., pp. 2475). Thompson PDR. [ISBN:1563634635]
  3. Risedronate Sodium Tablet MSDS [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015022
KEGG Drug
D08484
KEGG Compound
C08233
PubChem Compound
5245
PubChem Substance
46507526
ChemSpider
5055
BindingDB
12576
ChEBI
8869
ChEMBL
CHEMBL923
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000658
PharmGKB
PA451255
HET
RIS
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Risedronate
ATC Codes
M05BB07 — Risedronic acid and colecalciferolM05BB02 — Risedronic acid and calcium, sequentialM05BB04 — Risedronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialM05BA07 — Risedronic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 92:24.00 — Bone Resorption Inhibitors
PDB Entries
1rqj / 1yhl / 1yq7 / 1yv5 / 2o1o / 2qis / 4kpd / 4kqs / 4n9u / 4ng6
show 6 more
FDA label
Download (229 KB)
MSDS
Download (69.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableBioavailability1
1CompletedNot AvailableNon-lactating / One to five years postmenopausal / Surgically Sterile1
1CompletedNot AvailableOsteopenia / Osteoporosis1
1CompletedNot AvailableOsteoporosis1
1, 2CompletedOtherCognitive Changes / Memory Losses / Postmenopausal Syndrome1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRenal Transplant Osteodystrophy1
2CompletedBasic ScienceOsteogenesis Imperfecta1
2CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)2
2CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Women1
2CompletedTreatmentOne to five years postmenopausal1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLung Tumors1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInvolutional Osteoporosis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInvolutional Osteoporosis1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentFibrous Dysplasia of Bone1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteopenia1
3CompletedDiagnosticCancer, Breast / Osteoporosis1
3CompletedPreventionOsteopenia1
3CompletedPreventionPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
3CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionSpinal Cord Injury, Acute1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Osteoporosis1
3CompletedSupportive CareOsteoporosis / Prostate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO) / Vertebral Fractures1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Menopause / Osteopenia1
3CompletedTreatmentGlucocorticoid-induced Ostepor / Steroid-induced Osteopor / Steroid-induced Osteopor, Glucocorticoid-induced Ostepor / Steroid-induced Osteopor., Glucocorticoid-induced Ostepor1
3CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteogenesis Imperfecta1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis7
3CompletedTreatmentOther Osteoporosis1
3CompletedTreatmentPaget's Disease of Bone2
3CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)5
3CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Women Osteoporosis1
3CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis1
3TerminatedPreventionMetastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer1
3TerminatedTreatmentProsthesis Loosening1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Osteoporosis1
4CompletedNot AvailableCrohn's Disease (CD) / Low Bone Mineral Density1
4CompletedNot AvailableOsteoporosis1
4CompletedPreventionBone Loss / Cancer, Breast / Osteoporosis1
4CompletedPreventionBone Loss / Epilepsies / Fracture Bone / Osteoporosis1
4CompletedPreventionCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Muscular Dystrophy / Osteoporosis1
4CompletedPreventionPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
4CompletedTreatmentBone Loss1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentColles' Fracture1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis4
4CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)7
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBariatric Surgery Candidate / Bone Loss / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss1
4RecruitingTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur / Osteoporotic Fractures1
4TerminatedPreventionPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
4TerminatedTreatmentOsteoporosis2
4Unknown StatusPreventionPeriodontal Diseases1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoporosis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN) / Osteopenia / Osteoporosis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdenocarcinomas / Esophageal Cancers / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOsseous Paget's Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOsteoporosis2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHip Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOsteoporosis1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableAtypical Femoral Fractures / Bisphosphonate Therapy / Osteoporosis1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentOsteopenia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Warner chilcott co llc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Procter & Gamble
Packagers
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Norwich Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Procter & Gamble
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Warner Chilcott Co. Inc.
  • WC Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral75 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, film coatedOral150 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral35 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral75 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral35 mg
Granule, effervescent; kit; tabletOral
Kit
TabletOral150 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
TabletOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral35 mg/1
TabletOral30 mg
TabletOral35 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Kit; tabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Actonel 150 mg tablet125.1USD tablet
Actonel 4 35 mg tablet Disp Pack119.43USD disp
Actonel 75 mg tablet54.83USD tablet
Actonel 30 mg tablet29.32USD tablet
Actonel 35 mg tablet28.75USD tablet
Actonel 5 mg tablet4.13USD tablet
Actonel with calcium tablet3.92USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6096342No2000-08-012011-11-22Us
CA2294595No2001-08-212018-07-17Canada
CA2399976No2007-03-272021-02-01Canada
US7192938Yes2007-03-202023-11-06Us
US7718634Yes2010-05-182023-11-06Us
US6165513Yes2000-12-262018-12-10Us
US5994329Yes1999-11-302019-01-17Us
US6015801Yes2000-01-182019-01-17Us
US6432932Yes2002-08-132019-01-17Us
US6465443Yes2002-10-152019-02-14Us
US7645459No2010-01-122028-01-09Us
US7645460No2010-01-122028-01-09Us
US8246989No2012-08-212026-01-16Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)252-262https://www.greenstonellc.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/MSDS/RISEDRONATE%20SODIUM%20TABLETS%20MSDS_0.pdf
boiling point (°C)692.3https://www.greenstonellc.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/MSDS/RISEDRONATE%20SODIUM%20TABLETS%20MSDS_0.pdf
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.4 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.75ALOGPS
logP-3.3ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area148.18 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity57.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9357
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9172
Caco-2 permeable-0.6795
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6846
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9582
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor1.0
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9542
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8452
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8162
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7208
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8778
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8792
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9062
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8777
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9068
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.989
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7663
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8386
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5058
Rat acute toxicity2.1053 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9095
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9303
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as bisphosphonates. These are organic compounds containing two phosphonate groups linked together through a carbon atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic phosphonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Bisphosphonates
Direct Parent
Bisphosphonates
Alternative Parents
Pyridines and derivatives / Organic phosphonic acids / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organophosphorus compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Bisphosphonate / Pyridine / Heteroaromatic compound / Organophosphonic acid / Azacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
pyridines (CHEBI:8869)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis which catalyzes the formation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor for several classes of essential metabolites including sterols, dolichols, carotenoids...
Gene Name
FDPS
Uniprot ID
P14324
Uniprot Name
Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase
Molecular Weight
48275.03 Da
References
  1. Bergstrom JD, Bostedor RG, Masarachia PJ, Reszka AA, Rodan G: Alendronate is a specific, nanomolar inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000 Jan 1;373(1):231-41. [PubMed:10620343]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Coxon FP, Ebetino FH, Mules EH, Seabra MC, McKenna CE, Rogers MJ: Phosphonocarboxylate inhibitors of Rab geranylgeranyl transferase disrupt the prenylation and membrane localization of Rab proteins in osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo. Bone. 2005 Sep;37(3):349-58. [PubMed:16006204]
  4. Dunford JE, Thompson K, Coxon FP, Luckman SP, Hahn FM, Poulter CD, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ: Structure-activity relationships for inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase in vitro and inhibition of bone resorption in vivo by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Feb;296(2):235-42. [PubMed:11160603]
  5. Ortiz-Gomez A, Jimenez C, Estevez AM, Carrero-Lerida J, Ruiz-Perez LM, Gonzalez-Pacanowska D: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase is a cytosolic enzyme in Leishmania major promastigotes and its overexpression confers resistance to risedronate. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Jul;5(7):1057-64. [PubMed:16835450]
  6. Russell RG, Xia Z, Dunford JE, Oppermann U, Kwaasi A, Hulley PA, Kavanagh KL, Triffitt JT, Lundy MW, Phipps RJ, Barnett BL, Coxon FP, Rogers MJ, Watts NB, Ebetino FH: Bisphosphonates: an update on mechanisms of action and how these relate to clinical efficacy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov;1117:209-57. [PubMed:18056045]
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
References
  1. Jahnke W, Henry C: An in vitro assay to measure targeted drug delivery to bone mineral. ChemMedChem. 2010 May 3;5(5):770-6. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201000016. [PubMed:20209564]
  2. Nancollas GH, Tang R, Phipps RJ, Henneman Z, Gulde S, Wu W, Mangood A, Russell RG, Ebetino FH: Novel insights into actions of bisphosphonates on bone: differences in interactions with hydroxyapatite. Bone. 2006 May;38(5):617-27. Epub 2005 Jul 20. [PubMed:16046206]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Valenti MT, Giannini S, Donatelli L, Zanatta M, Bertoldo F, Sella S, Vilei MT, Ossi E, Realdi G, Lo Cascio V, Dalle Carbonare L: The effect of risedronate on osteogenic lineage is mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 gene upregulation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(4):R163. doi: 10.1186/ar3122. Epub 2010 Aug 25. [PubMed:20738860]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 18, 2019 06:15