Identification

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Logo pink
Stay in the know!
As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages.
#DrugBankUpdates
Name
Calcium
Accession Number
DB01373
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Calcio
  • Calcium, elemental
  • Elemental calcium
  • Kalzium
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
7030 Calcium GoldCapsule0.99 1/1OralApexel Co., Ltd.2013-03-10Not applicableUs
7030 Calcium PremiumCapsule0.99 1/1OralApexel Co., Ltd.2013-03-10Not applicableUs
Ag-XTablet0.76 1/1OralApexel Co., Ltd.2019-08-02Not applicableUs
Bakanasan Calcium Citrate PowderPowderOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1995-12-311999-08-03Canada
Biocalth Calcium PowderPowderOralBiocalth International Corporation2003-05-102006-07-31Canada
Biocalth Calcium SupplementTabletOralBiocalth International Corporation2002-10-152006-07-31Canada
Bodysmarts With CalciumTabletOralCadbury Adams Canada Inc.2001-02-192005-07-28Canada
Cal 500 Tab 500mgTabletOralBioforce Canada Inc.1985-12-311997-04-04Canada
Cal Gel Cap 45mgCapsuleOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1977-12-311997-07-31Canada
Cal Supp 500TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-06-062006-08-08Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsCalcium (130 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsCalcium (200 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada
A D Calcium TabCalcium (126 mg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit)TabletOralStar Pharmaceuticals, Llc1979-12-311999-07-21Canada
A-D Calcium CapCalcium (170 mg) + Vitamin A (2500 unit) + Vitamin D (133 unit)CapsuleOralVitalab1990-12-312005-07-12Canada
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaCalcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Folic acid (0.025 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Naturally Ltd1999-02-012006-06-16Canada
A/o-26 - CapletCalcium (75 mg) + Beta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Folic acid (.4 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada
Act EtidrocalCalcium (500 mg) + Etidronate disodium (400 mg)TabletOralActavis Pharma Company2008-04-10Not applicableCanada
Acti-cal/mag 2:1 + Zinc and D CapletCalcium (350.0 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Magnesium (175.0 mg) + Zinc (6.0 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-megascorb Crystals PwrCalcium (260 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (2 g)PowderOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Actical Plus Calcium-magnesium-vitamin D3-silicon ChewableCalcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Silicon (2 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.1999-09-302004-07-27Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
7030 Calcium GoldCalcium (0.99 1/1)CapsuleOralApexel Co., Ltd.2013-03-10Not applicableUs
7030 Calcium PremiumCalcium (0.99 1/1)CapsuleOralApexel Co., Ltd.2013-03-10Not applicableUs
Ag-XCalcium (0.76 1/1)TabletOralApexel Co., Ltd.2019-08-02Not applicableUs
B-NexaCalcium (124.1 mg/1) + Folic acid (1.2 mg/1) + Ginger (100 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (40 mg/1)TabletOralUpsher Smith Laboratories2011-12-082014-02-28Us
B-NexaCalcium (124.23 mg/1) + Folic acid (1.22 mg/1) + Ginger (100 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (42 mg/1)TabletOralUpsher Smith Laboratories2012-08-152015-04-30Us
Cavan OneCalcium (150 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (25 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (170 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (260 mg/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (7 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (40 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Linoleic acid (30 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + alpha-Linolenic acid (30 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-10-302011-11-27Us
Cavan-EC SOD DHACalcium (230 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 mg/1) + Zinc (26 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-01-102014-07-15Us
ENA Actimineral ACalcium (803.8 mg/1000mL)LiquidOralJinju Bio Food2013-06-28Not applicableUs
Ferrous SulfateCalcium (20 mg/1) + Ferrous sulfate (65 mg/1)TabletOralMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Focalgin BCalcium (124.23 mg/1) + Folic acid (1.22 mg/1) + Ginger (100 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (42 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMethod Pharmaceuticals2013-11-012015-06-30Us
Categories
UNII
SY7Q814VUP
CAS number
7440-70-2
Weight
Average: 40.078
Monoisotopic: 39.9625909
Chemical Formula
Ca
InChI Key
OYPRJOBELJOOCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Ca
IUPAC Name
calcium
SMILES
[Ca]

Pharmacology

Indication

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. It is vital in cell signaling, muscular contractions, bone health, and signalling cascades.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. It plays an important role in signal transduction pathways, where it acts as a second messenger, in neurotransmitter release from neurons, contraction of all muscle cell types, and fertilization. Many enzymes require calcium ions as a cofactor, those of the blood-clotting cascade being notable examples. Extracellular calcium is also important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, as well as proper bone formation.

Mechanism of action

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. More than 500 human proteins are known to bind or transport calcium. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Parathyroid hormone (secreted from the parathyroid gland) regulates the resorption of Ca2+ from bone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast. The currently recommended calcium intake is 1,500 milligrams per day for women not taking estrogen and 800 milligrams per day for women on estrogen. There is close to 300 milligrams of calcium in one cup of fluid milk. Calcium carbonate is currently the best and least expensive form of calcium supplement available.

TargetActionsOrganism
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
ligand
Humans
ACalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
agonist
Humans
ATroponin C, skeletal muscle
agonist
Humans
ATroponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
agonist
Humans
USpectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1
agonist
Humans
UProtein S100-BNot AvailableHumans
UCalpastatinNot AvailableHumans
UCartilage oligomeric matrix proteinNot AvailableHumans
UCalmodulinNot AvailableHumans
UAmiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]Not AvailableHumans
UProtein S100-A13Not AvailableHumans
UAlkaline phosphatase, placental typeNot AvailableHumans
UProtein S100-A8Not AvailableHumans
UProtein S100-A9Not AvailableHumans
UProtein S100-A2Not AvailableHumans
UCeruloplasminNot AvailableHumans
UBone morphogenetic protein 4Not AvailableHumans
UMatrix Gla proteinNot AvailableHumans
UProtocadherin-19Not AvailableHumans
UProgrammed cell death protein 6Not AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

Learn more
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

The kidney excretes 250 mmol a day in urine, and resorbs 245 mmol, leading to a net loss in the urine of 5 mmol/d.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Sphingolipid MetabolismMetabolic
Folate MetabolismMetabolic
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolic
Riboflavin MetabolismMetabolic
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Acetylsalicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug action
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug action
Bromfenac Action PathwayDrug action
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug action
Mefenamic Acid Action PathwayDrug action
Oxaprozin Action PathwayDrug action
Naproxen Action PathwayDrug action
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolic
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDisease
PhenylketonuriaDisease
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)Disease
Phenprocoumon Action PathwayDrug action
Heparin Action PathwayDrug action
Ardeparin Action PathwayDrug action
Bivalirudin Action PathwayDrug action
Streptokinase Action PathwayDrug action
Reteplase Action PathwayDrug action
Tranexamic Acid Action PathwayDrug action
Aprotinin Action PathwayDrug action
Alprenolol Action PathwayDrug action
Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Gaucher DiseaseDisease
Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast CellsSignaling
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with (S)-Warfarin.
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium is combined with 1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2.
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl DiphosphateCalcium can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
AbciximabThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with Abciximab.
AcebutololThe therapeutic efficacy of Acebutolol can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium.
AcenocoumarolThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with Acenocoumarol.
AcetyldigitoxinCalcium may increase the arrhythmogenic and cardiotoxic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
US5667761
General References
  1. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. [PubMed:9278463]
  2. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. [PubMed:16034903]
  3. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. [PubMed:16481635]
  4. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. [PubMed:15885294]
  5. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. [PubMed:15860827]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C00076
PubChem Compound
5460341
PubChem Substance
46506005
ChemSpider
4573905
ChEBI
29320
PharmGKB
PA164712582
Wikipedia
Calcium
ATC Codes
M05BB01 — Etidronic acid and calcium, sequentialA11AA02 — Multivitamins and calciumM05BB08 — Zoledronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialA11GB01 — Ascorbic acid (vit c) and calciumM05BB02 — Risedronic acid and calcium, sequentialM05BB04 — Risedronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialM05BB05 — Alendronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequential
AHFS Codes
  • 56:04.00 — Antacids and Adsorbents
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
  • 40:12.00 — Replacement Preparations
  • 88:12.00 — Vitamin C
FDA label
Download (25.6 KB)
MSDS
Download (47.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedScreeningAdenomatous Polyp of Colon / Colorectal Cancers / Neoplasms, Colorectal1
0CompletedTreatmentHIV Seropositivity1
0RecruitingDiagnosticPotential Applications for Heart Failure / Volume Overload1
0RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer / Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacologic Actions1
1CompletedPreventionAdenocarcinomas / Colorectal Adenomas / Colorectal Polyps1
1CompletedPreventionBreast Cancer Prevention / Mammographic Density1
1CompletedPreventionPaclitaxel-induced Neuropathy1
1CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
1CompletedTreatmentCalcium Deficiency / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Digestive System Neoplasm1
1CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Pancreas Adenocarcinoma1
1CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Colon Carcinoma / Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma / Stage IVA Colon Cancer / Stage IVA Rectal Cancer / Stage IVB Colon Cancer / Stage IVB Rectal Cancer1
1Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAdvanced Colorectal Carcinoma / Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v81
1RecruitingDevice FeasibilityColorectal Cancer Stage IV1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Cancers / Advanced Malignant Neoplasm / Recurrent Malignant Neoplasm / Refractory Malignant Neoplasm1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm / Refractory Malignant Solid Neoplasm / Refractory Ovarian Carcinoma / Refractory Pancreatic Carcinoma / Stage II Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage III Ovarian Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage III Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIIA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIIB Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IIIC Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IV Ovarian Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Ovarian Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v81
1RecruitingTreatmentAstrocytoma, Grade IV / Glioblastomas1
1RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
1RecruitingTreatmentSkin Laxity1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic / Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceOpioid Induced Motor Disturbances1
1, 2CompletedPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Radiation Toxicity1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas of the Gastroesophageal Junction / Biliary System Disorder / BRCA1 Gene Mutation / Brca2 Gene Mutation / Homologous Recombination Deficiency / Metastatic Biliary Tract Carcinoma / Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma / Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma / PALB2 Gene Mutation / Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v71
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas of the Gastroesophageal Junction / Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach Stage II / Stage IB Gastric Cancer / Stage IB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage II Gastric Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIA Gastric Cancer / Stage IIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIB Gastric Cancer / Stage IIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer / Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer / Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v71
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Solid Tumors1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBorderline Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma1
1, 2TerminatedDiagnosticKidney Diseases / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentRenal Insufficiency,Chronic1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Adult L1 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Adult L2 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Philadelphia Chromosome Negative1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Cholangiocarcinoma / Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma / BCLC Stage C Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma / BCLC Stage D Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma / Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma / Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma / Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer / Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma / Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma / Stage II Gallbladder Cancer / Stage III Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer / Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer / Stage IV Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Stage IV Distal Bile Duct Cancer / Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer / Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer / Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancer (MCRC)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic / Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v71
2CompletedBasic ScienceWhole Body Catabolisme Induced by Glucocorticoids1
2CompletedDiagnosticGastric Acid-related Diseases / Healthy Volunteers1
2CompletedDiagnosticGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Heart Disease / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pregnancy Toxemias / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedPreventionNutrition / Physical Activity1
2CompletedPreventionOsteoporosis1
2CompletedSupportive CareEarly Breast Cancer / Joint Pain / Musculoskeletal Complications / Pain / Recurrent Breast Cancer / Stage II Breast Cancer / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer / Stage IIIB Breast Cancer / Stage IIIC Breast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Resectable Pancreatic Cancers / Resectable Pancreatic Carcinoma / Stage I Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer / Stage II Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentBone Loss / Osteoporosis / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentCarcinoma, Colorectal1
2CompletedTreatmentCaries1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Nervous System Tumor, Pediatric1
2CompletedTreatmentDentinal Hypersensitivity1
2CompletedTreatmentDentine Hypersensitivity1
2CompletedTreatmentDrug-induced Tardive Dyskinesia1
2CompletedTreatmentHypercalcemia / Hyperparathyroidism1
2CompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis2
2CompletedTreatmentRectal Adenocarcinoma / Stage II Rectal Cancer / Stage II Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage III Rectal Cancer / Stage III Rectal Cancer AJCC v71
2CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Extragonadal Seminoma / Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage III Testicular Cancer / Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma / Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor1
2CompletedTreatmentParathyroid deficiency1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Language Disorders2
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Bridging1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD) / Tremor1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)1
2RecruitingPreventionDense Breasts1
2RecruitingPreventionOsteopenia / Osteoporosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / KMT2A Gene Rearrangement / Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia (MPAL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Leukemias / Philadelphia Chromosome Negative / Recurrent B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Refractory B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / CRLF2 Positive / Leukemias / Recurrent Ph-Like Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Refractory Ph-Like Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentBone Metabolism / Primary Hyperparathyroidism1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeuroendocrine Carcinomas1
2RecruitingTreatmentOsteoporosis / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
2RecruitingTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentUlcerative Colitis1
2SuspendedTreatmentRectal Adenocarcinoma / Stage II Rectal Cancer / Stage II Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage III Rectal Cancer / Stage III Rectal Cancer AJCC v71
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus / Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus / Adenocarcinomas of the Gastroesophageal Junction / Stage II Esophageal Cancer / Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer / Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentHypocalcemia1
2TerminatedTreatmentPrimary Breast Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentRecurrent Colorectal Carcinoma / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdenocarincoma of Pancreas / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer1
2, 3CompletedPreventionNausea / Vomiting1
2, 3CompletedPreventionThalassaemic disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAdult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMen Infertility1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionCognitively Normal Older Adults / Family History of Alzheimer's Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Subjective Cognitive Decline1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Colorectal1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHypercalcemia Due to Sarcoidosis / Sarcoidosis1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3Active Not RecruitingOtherColorectal Cancers1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Adult B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage I B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage II B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Childhood B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Down Syndrome (DS) / Hypodiploid B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Intrachromosomal Amplification of Chromosome 21 / Philadelphia Chromosome Positive / Stage I B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage II B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Ann Arbor Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Central Nervous System Leukemia / Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy / Neurotoxicity Syndrome / Osteonecrosis / Pain / Ph-Like Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Testicular Leukemia / Therapy-Related Toxicity / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChoriocarcinoma / FIGO Stage I Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor / FIGO Stage II Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor / FIGO Stage III Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor / Hydatidiform Mole1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma / Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma / Lynch Syndrome / Stage IIA Colon Cancer / Stage IIA Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIB Colon Cancer / Stage IIB Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIC Colon Cancer / Stage IIC Colon Cancer AJCC v71
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Membranous Nephropathy1
3CompletedDiagnosticKidney Diseases1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchDeficiency, Vitamin D1
3CompletedPreventionBone Diseases / Cardiovascular Heart Disease / Colonic Neoplasms / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / Neoplasms, Breast / One to five years postmenopausal / Osteoporosis1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Heart Disease / Eclampsia / Heart Diseases / HELLP Syndrome / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pregnancy Toxemias / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionOsteopenia / Osteoporosis1
3CompletedPreventionOsteoporosis2
3CompletedPreventionOvarian Hyperstimulation1
3CompletedPreventionOvarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome1
3CompletedPreventionRisperidone-induced Hyperprolactinemia1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia (AUL) / Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Ann Arbor Stage II Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage III Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage IV Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Ann Arbor Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Stage II Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage III Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / T Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Colon / Colon Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIA Colon Cancer / Stage IIA Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIB Colon Cancer / Stage IIB Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIC Colon Cancer / Stage IIC Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Colon Cancer / Stage IIIA Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Colon Cancer / Stage IIIB Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Colon Cancer / Stage IIIC Colon Cancer AJCC v71
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Heart Disease / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent / Heart Diseases / Insulin Resistance1
3CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
3CompletedTreatmentDistal (Calf) Deep-vein Thrombosis1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis4
3CompletedTreatmentPaget's Disease of Bone1
3CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Atrial Fibrillation1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionOsteoporosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / BCR-ABL1 Fusion Protein Expression / Minimal Residual Disease / Philadelphia Chromosome Positive / T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Blasts More Than 25 Percent of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells / Central Nervous System Leukemia / Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia (MPAL) / Testicular Leukemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Blasts More Than 25 Percent of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Central Nervous System Leukemia / Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy / Neurotoxicity Syndrome / Osteonecrosis / Pain / Testicular Leukemia / Therapy-Related Toxicity / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentColon Adenocarcinoma / DNA Repair Disorder / Lynch Syndrome / Microsatellite Instability / Stage III Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Colon Cancer / Stage IIIA Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Colon Cancer / Stage IIIB Colon Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Colon Cancer / Stage IIIC Colon Cancer AJCC v71
3RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Adenocarcinoma / High-Frequency Microsatellite Instability / Mismatch Repair Deficiency / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v71
3RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Adenocarcinoma / RAS Wild Type / Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v71
3RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Muscle Cramps1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
3RecruitingTreatmentOvulation induction therapy1
3TerminatedPreventionAdenomatous Polyps1
3TerminatedSupportive CareNeuropathy / Pain / Recurrent Breast Carcinoma / Stage IV Breast Cancer1
3Unknown StatusPreventionFall / Fracture Bone1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoporosis1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionRheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedNot AvailableColonoscopy Preparation1
4CompletedNot AvailableCrohn's Disease (CD) / Low Bone Mineral Density1
4CompletedNot AvailableOsteopenia1
4CompletedNot AvailableParoxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (PAF)1
4CompletedNot AvailablePostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
4CompletedPreventionBenign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Heart Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Atherosclerosis / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedPreventionDepression / Postpartum Depression1
4CompletedPreventionKidney Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentAtrial Fibrillation (AF)1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Events / Hemodialysis Treatment / Hyperphosphataemia1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedTreatmentColles' Fracture1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Kidney Insufficiency, Chronic / Vasodilation1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
4CompletedTreatmentMalar Deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentNutritional Rickets1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis1
4CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)3
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4CompletedTreatmentTachycardia, Supraventricular1
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionBariatric Surgery Candidate1
4RecruitingPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Stroke / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
4RecruitingPreventionPreterm Labor Without Delivery1
4RecruitingTreatmentHyperuricemia1
4TerminatedTreatmentWound Healing1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAtrial Fibrillation (AF)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBlood Pressures1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoporosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentProteinuria1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Anal Fissures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDeficiency, Vitamin D / Osteopenia / Osteoporosis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableErectile Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHypertension Resistant To Conventional Therapy / Myocardial Infarction / Stroke / Systemic Arterial Hypertension1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherOral Mucositis Due to Radiation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D / Muscle Weakness1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOsteoporosis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionResidual Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hemodialysis Treatment1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHIV Seropositive1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeart Failure / Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntestinal Malabsorption / Pancreatitis, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPremenstrual Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRemineralization1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTransplant Bone Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentImpaired kidney function1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableDigital Ulcer / Raynaud's Phenomenon / Sclerosis, Progressive Systemic1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionBone Density1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCardiovascular Primary Prevention Strategy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionThyroid Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareHyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticMetastatic Cancers / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDiarrhea / Malignancies1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPreeclampsia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Insulin Resistance / Insulin Sensitivity1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Braintree Laboratories Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Fresenius Kabi AB
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Particle Dynamics Co.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandoz
  • Scora SA
  • SPI Pharma Sas
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral0.99 1/1
PowderOral
Granule, effervescent; kit; tabletOral
Capsule; liquidOral
PowderOral
Granule, effervescentOral
WaferOral
TabletOral500 mg
SyrupOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
KitOral
LiquidOral803.8 mg/1000mL
Powder, for solutionOral
TabletOral0.76 1/1
TabletOral0.99 1/1
TabletOral
Tablet, coatedOral
LiquidOral
Kit; tabletOral
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Liquid; tabletOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
SolutionOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)839°CMSDS
boiling point (°C)1484°CMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-0.57ChemAxon
logS1.08ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID
Q13936
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
Molecular Weight
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Boda D, Giri J, Henderson D, Eisenberg B, Gillespie D: Analyzing the components of the free-energy landscape in a calcium selective ion channel by Widom's particle insertion method. J Chem Phys. 2011 Feb 7;134(5):055102. doi: 10.1063/1.3532937. [PubMed:21303162]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Shi X, Chen M, Huvos PE, Hardwicke PM: Amino acid sequence of a Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cross-striated part of the adductor muscle of the deep sea scallop: comparison to serca enzymes of other animals. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Jun;120(2):359-74. [PubMed:9787799]
  2. Bonza MC, Martin H, Kang M, Lewis G, Greiner T, Giacometti S, Van Etten JL, De Michelis MI, Thiel G, Moroni A: A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses. J Gen Virol. 2010 Oct;91(Pt 10):2620-9. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.021873-0. Epub 2010 Jun 23. [PubMed:20573858]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site fo...
Gene Name
TNNC2
Uniprot ID
P02585
Uniprot Name
Troponin C, skeletal muscle
Molecular Weight
18121.895 Da
References
  1. Martin SR, Avella G, Adrover M, de Nicola GF, Bullard B, Pastore A: Binding properties of the calcium-activated F2 isoform of Lethocerus troponin C. Biochemistry. 2011 Mar 22;50(11):1839-47. doi: 10.1021/bi102076s. Epub 2011 Feb 10. [PubMed:21250664]
  2. Kreutziger KL, Piroddi N, McMichael JT, Tesi C, Poggesi C, Regnier M: Calcium binding kinetics of troponin C strongly modulate cooperative activation and tension kinetics in cardiac muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Jan;50(1):165-74. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.10.025. Epub 2010 Oct 28. [PubMed:21035455]
  3. Robertson IM, Sun YB, Li MX, Sykes BD: A structural and functional perspective into the mechanism of Ca2+-sensitizers that target the cardiac troponin complex. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Dec;49(6):1031-41. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.08.019. Epub 2010 Aug 27. [PubMed:20801130]
  4. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.064105. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [PubMed:20371872]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Troponin t binding
Specific Function
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site fo...
Gene Name
TNNC1
Uniprot ID
P63316
Uniprot Name
Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
Molecular Weight
18402.36 Da
References
  1. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.064105. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [PubMed:20371872]
  2. Swindle N, Tikunova SB: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutation D145E drastically alters calcium binding by the C-domain of cardiac troponin C. Biochemistry. 2010 Jun 15;49(23):4813-20. doi: 10.1021/bi100400h. [PubMed:20459070]
  3. Parvatiyar MS, Pinto JR, Liang J, Potter JD: Predicting cardiomyopathic phenotypes by altering Ca2+ affinity of cardiac troponin C. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 3;285(36):27785-97. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.112326. Epub 2010 Jun 21. [PubMed:20566645]
  4. Baylor SM, Hollingworth S: Calcium indicators and calcium signalling in skeletal muscle fibres during excitation-contraction coupling. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 May;105(3):162-79. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2010.06.001. Epub 2010 Jun 25. [PubMed:20599552]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Fodrin, which seems to be involved in secretion, interacts with calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner and is thus candidate for the calcium-dependent movement of the cytoskeleton at the membrane.
Gene Name
SPTBN1
Uniprot ID
Q01082
Uniprot Name
Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1
Molecular Weight
274606.995 Da
References
  1. Wallis CJ, Wenegieme EF, Babitch JA: Characterization of calcium binding to brain spectrin. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 5;267(7):4333-7. [PubMed:1537825]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each monomer. Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the b...
Gene Name
S100B
Uniprot ID
P04271
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-B
Molecular Weight
10712.985 Da
References
  1. Lee TS, Mane S, Eid T, Zhao H, Lin A, Guan Z, Kim JH, Schweitzer J, King-Stevens D, Weber P, Spencer SS, Spencer DD, de Lanerolle NC: Gene expression in temporal lobe epilepsy is consistent with increased release of glutamate by astrocytes. Mol Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1-2):1-13. [PubMed:17515952]
  2. Marlatt NM, Shaw GS: Amide exchange shows calcium-induced conformational changes are transmitted to the dimer interface of S100B. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7478-87. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17536784]
  3. Liang J, Luo G, Ning X, Shi Y, Zhai H, Sun S, Jin H, Liu Z, Zhang F, Lu Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Zhang H, Guo X, Wu K, Fan D: Differential expression of calcium-related genes in gastric cancer cells transfected with cellular prion protein. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Jun;85(3):375-83. [PubMed:17612632]
  4. Friel LA, Romero R, Edwin S, Nien JK, Gomez R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kusanovic JP, Tolosa JE, Hassan SS, Espinoza J: The calcium binding protein, S100B, is increased in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation and preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. J Perinat Med. 2007;35(5):385-93. [PubMed:17624933]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Specific inhibition of calpain (calcium-dependent cysteine protease). Plays a key role in postmortem tenderization of meat and have been proposed to be involved in muscle protein degradation in liv...
Gene Name
CAST
Uniprot ID
P20810
Uniprot Name
Calpastatin
Molecular Weight
76572.035 Da
References
  1. Hanna RA, Garcia-Diaz BE, Davies PL: Calpastatin simultaneously binds four calpains with different kinetic constants. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2894-8. Epub 2007 May 25. [PubMed:17543955]
  2. De Tullio R, Averna M, Stifanese R, Parr T, Bardsley RG, Pontremoli S, Melloni E: Multiple rat brain calpastatin forms are produced by distinct starting points and alternative splicing of the N-terminal exons. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Sep 1;465(1):148-56. Epub 2007 May 30. [PubMed:17570336]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protease binding
Specific Function
May play a role in the structural integrity of cartilage via its interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as the collagens and fibronectin. Can mediate the interaction of chondrocy...
Gene Name
COMP
Uniprot ID
P49747
Uniprot Name
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein
Molecular Weight
82859.88 Da
References
  1. Chen FH, Herndon ME, Patel N, Hecht JT, Tuan RS, Lawler J: Interaction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin 5 with aggrecan. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24;282(34):24591-8. Epub 2007 Jun 22. [PubMed:17588949]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Titin binding
Specific Function
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number...
Gene Name
CALM1
Uniprot ID
P0DP23
Uniprot Name
Calmodulin
Molecular Weight
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Sosa V, Carbo R, Guarner V: Participation of glucose transporters on atrial natriuretic peptide-induced glucose uptake by adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes under oxygenation and hypoxia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 30;568(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Apr 30. [PubMed:17537429]
  2. Zhou Z, Yin J, Dou Z, Tang J, Zhang C, Cao Y: The calponin homology domain of Vav1 associates with calmodulin and is prerequisite to T cell antigen receptor-induced calcium release in Jurkat T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23737-44. Epub 2007 Jun 5. [PubMed:17550897]
  3. Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NC, Zothner C, Abou Elloof MM, Wood JM: Hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress disrupts calcium binding on calmodulin: more evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Aug 17;360(1):70-5. Epub 2007 Jun 11. [PubMed:17592724]
  4. Caride AJ, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT, Strehler EE: The plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoform 4a differs from isoform 4b in the mechanism of calmodulin binding and activation kinetics: implications for Ca2+ signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 31;282(35):25640-8. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [PubMed:17595168]
  5. Lo LW, Chen YC, Chen YJ, Wongcharoen W, Lin CI, Chen SA: Calmodulin kinase II inhibition prevents arrhythmic activity induced by alpha and beta adrenergic agonists in rabbit pulmonary veins. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct 1;571(2-3):197-208. Epub 2007 Jun 13. [PubMed:17612522]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tum...
Gene Name
AOC1
Uniprot ID
P19801
Uniprot Name
Amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]
Molecular Weight
85377.1 Da
References
  1. Elmore BO, Bollinger JA, Dooley DM: Human kidney diamine oxidase: heterologous expression, purification, and characterization. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2002 Jun;7(6):565-79. Epub 2002 Feb 13. [PubMed:12072962]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the export of proteins that lack a signal peptide and are secreted by an alternative pathway. Binds two calcium ions per subunit. Binds one copper ion. Binding of one copper ion doe...
Gene Name
S100A13
Uniprot ID
Q99584
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A13
Molecular Weight
11471.095 Da
References
  1. Sivaraja V, Kumar TK, Rajalingam D, Graziani I, Prudovsky I, Yu C: Copper binding affinity of S100A13, a key component of the FGF-1 nonclassical copper-dependent release complex. Biophys J. 2006 Sep 1;91(5):1832-43. Epub 2006 Jun 9. [PubMed:16766622]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALPP
Uniprot ID
P05187
Uniprot Name
Alkaline phosphatase, placental type
Molecular Weight
57953.31 Da
References
  1. Llinas P, Masella M, Stigbrand T, Menez A, Stura EA, Le Du MH: Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: implication for its secondary effect in bones. Protein Sci. 2006 Jul;15(7):1691-700. [PubMed:16815919]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S100A8 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex directs selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of GAPDH and probably multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif; S100A8 seems to contribute to S-nitrosylation site selectivity.
Specific Function
Arachidonic acid binding
Gene Name
S100A8
Uniprot ID
P05109
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A8
Molecular Weight
10834.43 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. Has transnitrosylase activity; in oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox))-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH on 'Cys-247' proposed to transfer the NO moiety from NOS2/iNOS to GAPDH via its own S-nitrosylated Cys-3. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to also direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif.
Specific Function
Antioxidant activity
Gene Name
S100A9
Uniprot ID
P06702
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A9
Molecular Weight
13241.955 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
May function as calcium sensor and modulator, contributing to cellular calcium signaling. May function by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and indirectly play a rol...
Gene Name
S100A2
Uniprot ID
P29034
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A2
Molecular Weight
11116.695 Da
References
  1. Koch M, Bhattacharya S, Kehl T, Gimona M, Vasak M, Chazin W, Heizmann CW, Kroneck PM, Fritz G: Implications on zinc binding to S100A2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Mar;1773(3):457-70. Epub 2006 Dec 19. [PubMed:17239974]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Bento I, Peixoto C, Zaitsev VN, Lindley PF: Ceruloplasmin revisited: structural and functional roles of various metal cation-binding sites. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Feb;63(Pt 2):240-8. Epub 2007 Jan 16. [PubMed:17242517]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Induces cartilage and bone formation. Also act in mesoderm induction, tooth development, limb formation and fracture repair. Acts in concert with PTHLH/PTHRP to stimulate ductal outgrowth during embryonic mammary development and to inhibit hair follicle induction (By similarity).
Specific Function
Bmp receptor binding
Gene Name
BMP4
Uniprot ID
P12644
Uniprot Name
Bone morphogenetic protein 4
Molecular Weight
46554.545 Da
References
  1. Yao Y, Shahbazian A, Bostrom KI: Proline and gamma-carboxylated glutamate residues in matrix Gla protein are critical for binding of bone morphogenetic protein-4. Circ Res. 2008 May 9;102(9):1065-74. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.166124. Epub 2008 Mar 27. [PubMed:18369157]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of bone
Specific Function
Associates with the organic matrix of bone and cartilage. Thought to act as an inhibitor of bone formation.
Gene Name
MGP
Uniprot ID
P08493
Uniprot Name
Matrix Gla protein
Molecular Weight
12353.06 Da
References
  1. Yao Y, Shahbazian A, Bostrom KI: Proline and gamma-carboxylated glutamate residues in matrix Gla protein are critical for binding of bone morphogenetic protein-4. Circ Res. 2008 May 9;102(9):1065-74. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.166124. Epub 2008 Mar 27. [PubMed:18369157]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function
Potential calcium-dependent cell-adhesion protein.
Gene Name
PCDH19
Uniprot ID
Q8TAB3
Uniprot Name
Protocadherin-19
Molecular Weight
126251.425 Da
References
  1. Dibbens LM, Tarpey PS, Hynes K, Bayly MA, Scheffer IE, Smith R, Bomar J, Sutton E, Vandeleur L, Shoubridge C, Edkins S, Turner SJ, Stevens C, O'Meara S, Tofts C, Barthorpe S, Buck G, Cole J, Halliday K, Jones D, Lee R, Madison M, Mironenko T, Varian J, West S, Widaa S, Wray P, Teague J, Dicks E, Butler A, Menzies A, Jenkinson A, Shepherd R, Gusella JF, Afawi Z, Mazarib A, Neufeld MY, Kivity S, Lev D, Lerman-Sagie T, Korczyn AD, Derry CP, Sutherland GR, Friend K, Shaw M, Corbett M, Kim HG, Geschwind DH, Thomas P, Haan E, Ryan S, McKee S, Berkovic SF, Futreal PA, Stratton MR, Mulley JC, Gecz J: X-linked protocadherin 19 mutations cause female-limited epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Nat Genet. 2008 Jun;40(6):776-81. doi: 10.1038/ng.149. Epub 2008 May 11. [PubMed:18469813]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein dimerization activity
Specific Function
Calcium-binding protein required for T-cell receptor-, Fas-, and glucocorticoid-induced cell death. May mediate Ca(2+)-regulated signals along the death pathway (By similarity). Calcium-dependent a...
Gene Name
PDCD6
Uniprot ID
O75340
Uniprot Name
Programmed cell death protein 6
Molecular Weight
21868.32 Da
References
  1. Suzuki H, Kawasaki M, Kakiuchi T, Shibata H, Wakatsuki S, Maki M: Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of N-terminally truncated human ALG-2. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008 Nov 1;64(Pt 11):974-7. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108030297. Epub 2008 Oct 31. [PubMed:18997320]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:28 / Updated on December 05, 2019 06:10