Identification

Name
Calcium
Accession Number
DB01373
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Leucovorin Ca Inj (pharm. Bulk Vial) 10mg/mlLiquid10 mgIntravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1992-12-311997-08-14Canada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bakanasan Calcium Citrate PowderPowder63.4 mgOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1995-12-311999-08-03Canada
Biocalth Calcium PowderPowder336 mgOralBiocalth International Corporation2003-05-102006-07-31Canada
Biocalth Calcium SupplementTablet100 mgOralBiocalth International Corporation2002-10-152006-07-31Canada
Bodysmarts With CalciumTablet30 mgOralCadbury Adams Canada Inc.2001-02-192005-07-28Canada
Cal 500 Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralBioforce Canada Inc.1985-12-311997-04-04Canada
Cal Gel Cap 45mgCapsule45 mgOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1977-12-311997-07-31Canada
Cal Supp 500Tablet500 mgOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-06-062006-08-08Canada
Cal Supp 500 - TabTablet500 mgOralVita Health Products Inc1996-10-112008-08-05Canada
Cal-citrusTablet200 mgOralSterimax Inc1996-09-102006-10-20Canada
CalciumTablet500 mgOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.2000-04-042002-07-18Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
7030 Calcium GoldCapsule.99 1/1OralApexel Co., Ltd.2013-03-10Not applicableUs
7030 Calcium PremiumCapsule.99 1/1OralApexel Co., Ltd.2013-03-10Not applicableUs
ENA Actimineral ALiquid803.8 mg/1000mLOralJinju Bio Food2013-06-28Not applicableUs
HANTAI 8030 Ca-D3 GOLDTablet.99 1/1OralApexel Co., Ltd.2015-05-18Not applicableUs
HANTAI 8030 Ca-D3 PremiumTablet.99 1/1OralApexel Co., Ltd.2015-05-18Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
A D Calcium TabCalcium (126 mg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit)TabletOralStar Pharmaceuticals, Llc1979-12-311999-07-21Canada
A-D Calcium CapCalcium (170 mg) + Vitamin A (2500 unit) + Vitamin D (133 unit)CapsuleOralVitalab1990-12-312005-07-12Canada
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaCalcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Folic Acid (0.025 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.1999-02-012006-06-16Canada
Act EtidrocalCalcium (500 mg) + Etidronate disodium (400 mg)TabletOralActavis Pharma Company2008-04-10Not applicableCanada
Acti-cal/mag 2:1 + Zinc and D CapletCalcium (350.0 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Magnesium (175.0 mg) + Zinc (6.0 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-megascorb Crystals PwrCalcium (260 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (2 g)PowderOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Actical Plus Calcium-magnesium-vitamin D3-silicon ChewableCalcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Silicon (2 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.1999-09-302004-07-27Canada
Active Calcium Plus Magnesium, Vitamin D and SiliconCalcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Silicon (2.25 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.2002-07-082007-07-18Canada
Actonel Plus CalciumCalcium (500 mg) + Risedronate sodium (35 mg)TabletOralWarner Chilcott2006-05-182015-11-19Canada
Actonel Sachet KitCalcium (1000 mg) + Cholecalciferol (880 unit) + Risedronate sodium (35 mg)Granule, effervescent; Kit; TabletOralWarner ChilcottNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
SY7Q814VUP
CAS number
7440-70-2
Weight
Average: 40.078
Monoisotopic: 39.962591155
Chemical Formula
Ca
InChI Key
OYPRJOBELJOOCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Ca
IUPAC Name
calcium
SMILES
[Ca]

Pharmacology

Indication

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. It is vital in cell signaling, muscular contractions, bone health, and signalling cascades.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. It plays an important role in signal transduction pathways, where it acts as a second messenger, in neurotransmitter release from neurons, contraction of all muscle cell types, and fertilization. Many enzymes require calcium ions as a cofactor, those of the blood-clotting cascade being notable examples. Extracellular calcium is also important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, as well as proper bone formation.

Mechanism of action

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. More than 500 human proteins are known to bind or transport calcium. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Parathyroid hormone (secreted from the parathyroid gland) regulates the resorption of Ca2+ from bone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast. The currently recommended calcium intake is 1,500 milligrams per day for women not taking estrogen and 800 milligrams per day for women on estrogen. There is close to 300 milligrams of calcium in one cup of fluid milk. Calcium carbonate is currently the best and least expensive form of calcium supplement available.

TargetActionsOrganism
AVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
ligand
Human
ACalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
agonist
Human
ATroponin C, skeletal muscle
agonist
Human
ATroponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
agonist
Human
USpectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1
agonist
Human
UProtein S100-BNot AvailableHuman
UCalpastatinNot AvailableHuman
UCartilage oligomeric matrix proteinNot AvailableHuman
UCalmodulinNot AvailableHuman
UAmiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]Not AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A13Not AvailableHuman
UAlkaline phosphatase, placental typeNot AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A8Not AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A9Not AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A2Not AvailableHuman
UCeruloplasminNot AvailableHuman
UBone morphogenetic protein 4Not AvailableHuman
UMatrix Gla proteinNot AvailableHuman
UProtocadherin-19Not AvailableHuman
UProgrammed cell death protein 6Not AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

The kidney excretes 250 mmol a day in urine, and resorbs 245 mmol, leading to a net loss in the urine of 5 mmol/d.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Phenbenzamine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Azatadine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Loratadine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Terfenadine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Rupatadine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Quifenadine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Betahistine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Mebhydrolin H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Phenindamine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Tolpropamine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Bamipine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Quetiapine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Pimethixene H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Pyrrobutamine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Histapyrrodine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Diphenhydramine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Meclizine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Levocetirizine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Promethazine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Dimetindene H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolic
Phospholipid BiosynthesisMetabolic
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisMetabolic
Riboflavin MetabolismMetabolic
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug action
Mefenamic Acid Action PathwayDrug action
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolic
Dicumarol Action PathwayDrug action
Ardeparin Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
US5667761
General References
  1. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. [PubMed:9278463]
  2. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. [PubMed:16034903]
  3. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. [PubMed:16481635]
  4. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. [PubMed:15885294]
  5. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. [PubMed:15860827]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C00076
PubChem Compound
5460341
PubChem Substance
46506005
ChemSpider
4573905
ChEBI
29320
PharmGKB
PA164712582
Wikipedia
Calcium
ATC Codes
M05BB08 — Zoledronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialA11GB01 — Ascorbic acid (vit c) and calciumM05BB02 — Risedronic acid and calcium, sequentialM05BB04 — Risedronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialM05BB01 — Etidronic acid and calcium, sequentialM05BB05 — Alendronic acid, calcium and colecalciferol, sequentialA11AA02 — Multivitamins and calcium
AHFS Codes
  • 56:04.00 — Antacids and Adsorbents
  • 92:12.00 — Antidotes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
  • 40:12.00 — Replacement Preparations
  • 88:12.00 — Vitamin C
FDA label
Download (25.6 KB)
MSDS
Download (47.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Healthy Volunteers / Test Ferric Hydroxide Adipate as Phosphate Binder in Healthy Subjects1
0RecruitingPreventionBone destruction1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionAdenocarcinomas / Colorectal Adenomas / Colorectal Polyps1
1CompletedPreventionPaclitaxel-induced Neuropathy1
1CompletedTreatmentCalcium Deficiency / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
1CompletedTreatmentHypertensive1
1CompletedTreatmentIron-refractory, Iron-deficiency Anemia (IRIDA)1
1RecruitingPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
1RecruitingTreatmentHead Neck Cancer1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceOpioid Induced Motor Disturbances1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / Hypertensive / Pregnancy Toxemias / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedPreventionDietary Carcinogenesis1
2CompletedPreventionBone destruction1
2CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Sleeplessness1
2CompletedTreatmentHyperparathyroidism, Secondary / Renal Osteodystrophy1
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2CompletedTreatmentBone destruction1
2CompletedTreatmentParathyroid deficiency1
2RecruitingPreventionBone destruction / Osteopenia1
2RecruitingTreatmentBone Metabolism / Primary Hyperparathyroidism1
2RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias1
2RecruitingTreatmentBone destruction / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
2TerminatedTreatmentHypocalcemia1
2Unknown StatusBasic ScienceMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2Unknown StatusPreventionLead Toxicity1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdenocarincoma of Pancreas / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer1
2WithdrawnTreatmentInflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAdenoma benign / Colorectal Cancers / Polyps1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Systolic / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMale Infertility1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Colorectal1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias / Postpartum Depression / Puerperal Disorders1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHemodialysis-dependent patients / Hyperphosphataemia1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchDeficiency, Vitamin D1
3CompletedPreventionBone destruction / Bone Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Colonic Neoplasms / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / Neoplasms, Breast / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Eclampsia / Heart Diseases / HELLP Syndrome / Hypertensive / Pregnancy Toxemias / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionIron Deficiency1
3CompletedPreventionOvarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome1
3CompletedPreventionBone destruction1
3CompletedTreatmentAnemias4
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Peritoneal dialysis therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentHyperphosphataemia / Renal Failure1
3CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
3CompletedTreatmentPaget's Disease of Bone1
3CompletedTreatmentPostpartum Anemia1
3CompletedTreatmentBone destruction2
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHyperphosphataemia1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis3
3RecruitingTreatmentHyperphosphataemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Muscle Cramps1
3TerminatedPreventionDiarrhea1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) Secondary to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) or Gastric Bypass1
4CompletedPreventionBone destruction / Bone Loss / Epilepsies / Fracture Bone1
4CompletedPreventionWe Investigated the Relationship Between Plasma FGF23 Levels and Endothelial Dysfunction in a Sizable Series of Incident Stage 3-4 CKD Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentArteriosclerosis / Calcinosis / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Events / Hemodialysis-dependent patients / Hyperphosphataemia1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias / Kidney Failure,Chronic2
4CompletedTreatmentNutritional Rickets1
4CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)2
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentStage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBone Diseases, Metabolic / Hyperphosphataemia / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
4TerminatedPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentOther Nonspecific Abnormal Serum Enzyme Levels1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnemias1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceIron Bioavailability1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionResidual Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRisperidone-induced Hyperprolactinemia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBone destruction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Mortality1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hemodialysis-dependent patients / Intimal Media Thickness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHIV Seropositive1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntestinal Malabsorption / Pancreatitis, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostpartum Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPremenstrual Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnemia in Pregnancy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Iron Deficiency1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPreeclampsia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnemias / Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHaemodialyzed Patients / Hyperphosphataemia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentImpaired Renal Function1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAnemias1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Insulin Resistance / Insulin Sensitivity1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral.99 1/1
PowderOral
Granule, effervescent; kit; tabletOral
Capsule; liquidOral
TabletOral
PowderOral63.4 mg
PowderOral336 mg
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral30 mg
WaferOral
CapsuleOral150 mg
TabletOral600 mg
TabletOral650 mg
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral400 mg
TabletOral246 mg
CapsuleOral160.0 mg
TabletOral60 mg
TabletOral120 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg
TabletOral84.5 mg
TabletOral84 mg
LiquidOral100 mg
SyrupOral100 mg
SyrupOral110 mg
TabletOral150 mg
TabletOral125 mg
TabletOral266.7 mg
PowderOral216.7 mg
CapsuleOral500 mg
LiquidOral803.8 mg/1000mL
Powder, for solutionOral
TabletOral300 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
CapsuleOral45 mg
TabletOral.99 1/1
TabletOral84.2 mg
TabletOral42.1 mg
LiquidIntravenous10 mg
LiquidOral
Liquid; tabletOral
Granule, effervescentOral
Kit; tabletOral
TabletOral350 mg
TabletOral250 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
TabletOral200 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
SolutionOral1.458 mg
SolutionOral1.667 mg
TabletOral400 mg
LiquidOral400 mg
CapsuleOral600 mg
TabletOral500 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)839°CMSDS
boiling point (°C)1484°CMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-0.57ChemAxon
logS1.08ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as miscellaneous mixed metal/non-metals. These are inorganic compounds containing non-metal as well as metal atoms but not belonging to afore mentioned classes.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Miscellaneous mixed metal/non-metals
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Miscellaneous mixed metal/non-metals
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Miscellaneous mixed metal/non-metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID
Q13936
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
Molecular Weight
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Boda D, Giri J, Henderson D, Eisenberg B, Gillespie D: Analyzing the components of the free-energy landscape in a calcium selective ion channel by Widom's particle insertion method. J Chem Phys. 2011 Feb 7;134(5):055102. doi: 10.1063/1.3532937. [PubMed:21303162]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Shi X, Chen M, Huvos PE, Hardwicke PM: Amino acid sequence of a Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cross-striated part of the adductor muscle of the deep sea scallop: comparison to serca enzymes of other animals. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Jun;120(2):359-74. [PubMed:9787799]
  2. Bonza MC, Martin H, Kang M, Lewis G, Greiner T, Giacometti S, Van Etten JL, De Michelis MI, Thiel G, Moroni A: A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses. J Gen Virol. 2010 Oct;91(Pt 10):2620-9. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.021873-0. Epub 2010 Jun 23. [PubMed:20573858]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site fo...
Gene Name
TNNC2
Uniprot ID
P02585
Uniprot Name
Troponin C, skeletal muscle
Molecular Weight
18121.895 Da
References
  1. Martin SR, Avella G, Adrover M, de Nicola GF, Bullard B, Pastore A: Binding properties of the calcium-activated F2 isoform of Lethocerus troponin C. Biochemistry. 2011 Mar 22;50(11):1839-47. doi: 10.1021/bi102076s. Epub 2011 Feb 10. [PubMed:21250664]
  2. Kreutziger KL, Piroddi N, McMichael JT, Tesi C, Poggesi C, Regnier M: Calcium binding kinetics of troponin C strongly modulate cooperative activation and tension kinetics in cardiac muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Jan;50(1):165-74. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.10.025. Epub 2010 Oct 28. [PubMed:21035455]
  3. Robertson IM, Sun YB, Li MX, Sykes BD: A structural and functional perspective into the mechanism of Ca2+-sensitizers that target the cardiac troponin complex. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Dec;49(6):1031-41. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.08.019. Epub 2010 Aug 27. [PubMed:20801130]
  4. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.064105. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [PubMed:20371872]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Troponin t binding
Specific Function
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site fo...
Gene Name
TNNC1
Uniprot ID
P63316
Uniprot Name
Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
Molecular Weight
18402.36 Da
References
  1. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.064105. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [PubMed:20371872]
  2. Swindle N, Tikunova SB: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutation D145E drastically alters calcium binding by the C-domain of cardiac troponin C. Biochemistry. 2010 Jun 15;49(23):4813-20. doi: 10.1021/bi100400h. [PubMed:20459070]
  3. Parvatiyar MS, Pinto JR, Liang J, Potter JD: Predicting cardiomyopathic phenotypes by altering Ca2+ affinity of cardiac troponin C. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 3;285(36):27785-97. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.112326. Epub 2010 Jun 21. [PubMed:20566645]
  4. Baylor SM, Hollingworth S: Calcium indicators and calcium signalling in skeletal muscle fibres during excitation-contraction coupling. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011 May;105(3):162-79. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2010.06.001. Epub 2010 Jun 25. [PubMed:20599552]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Fodrin, which seems to be involved in secretion, interacts with calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner and is thus candidate for the calcium-dependent movement of the cytoskeleton at the membrane.
Gene Name
SPTBN1
Uniprot ID
Q01082
Uniprot Name
Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1
Molecular Weight
274606.995 Da
References
  1. Wallis CJ, Wenegieme EF, Babitch JA: Characterization of calcium binding to brain spectrin. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 5;267(7):4333-7. [PubMed:1537825]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly-distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each monomer. Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the b...
Gene Name
S100B
Uniprot ID
P04271
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-B
Molecular Weight
10712.985 Da
References
  1. Lee TS, Mane S, Eid T, Zhao H, Lin A, Guan Z, Kim JH, Schweitzer J, King-Stevens D, Weber P, Spencer SS, Spencer DD, de Lanerolle NC: Gene expression in temporal lobe epilepsy is consistent with increased release of glutamate by astrocytes. Mol Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1-2):1-13. [PubMed:17515952]
  2. Marlatt NM, Shaw GS: Amide exchange shows calcium-induced conformational changes are transmitted to the dimer interface of S100B. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7478-87. Epub 2007 May 31. [PubMed:17536784]
  3. Liang J, Luo G, Ning X, Shi Y, Zhai H, Sun S, Jin H, Liu Z, Zhang F, Lu Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Zhang H, Guo X, Wu K, Fan D: Differential expression of calcium-related genes in gastric cancer cells transfected with cellular prion protein. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Jun;85(3):375-83. [PubMed:17612632]
  4. Friel LA, Romero R, Edwin S, Nien JK, Gomez R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kusanovic JP, Tolosa JE, Hassan SS, Espinoza J: The calcium binding protein, S100B, is increased in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation and preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. J Perinat Med. 2007;35(5):385-93. [PubMed:17624933]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Specific inhibition of calpain (calcium-dependent cysteine protease). Plays a key role in postmortem tenderization of meat and have been proposed to be involved in muscle protein degradation in liv...
Gene Name
CAST
Uniprot ID
P20810
Uniprot Name
Calpastatin
Molecular Weight
76572.035 Da
References
  1. Hanna RA, Garcia-Diaz BE, Davies PL: Calpastatin simultaneously binds four calpains with different kinetic constants. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2894-8. Epub 2007 May 25. [PubMed:17543955]
  2. De Tullio R, Averna M, Stifanese R, Parr T, Bardsley RG, Pontremoli S, Melloni E: Multiple rat brain calpastatin forms are produced by distinct starting points and alternative splicing of the N-terminal exons. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Sep 1;465(1):148-56. Epub 2007 May 30. [PubMed:17570336]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protease binding
Specific Function
May play a role in the structural integrity of cartilage via its interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as the collagens and fibronectin. Can mediate the interaction of chondrocy...
Gene Name
COMP
Uniprot ID
P49747
Uniprot Name
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein
Molecular Weight
82859.88 Da
References
  1. Chen FH, Herndon ME, Patel N, Hecht JT, Tuan RS, Lawler J: Interaction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin 5 with aggrecan. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24;282(34):24591-8. Epub 2007 Jun 22. [PubMed:17588949]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Titin binding
Specific Function
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number...
Gene Name
CALM1
Uniprot ID
P0DP23
Uniprot Name
Calmodulin
Molecular Weight
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Sosa V, Carbo R, Guarner V: Participation of glucose transporters on atrial natriuretic peptide-induced glucose uptake by adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes under oxygenation and hypoxia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 30;568(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Apr 30. [PubMed:17537429]
  2. Zhou Z, Yin J, Dou Z, Tang J, Zhang C, Cao Y: The calponin homology domain of Vav1 associates with calmodulin and is prerequisite to T cell antigen receptor-induced calcium release in Jurkat T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23737-44. Epub 2007 Jun 5. [PubMed:17550897]
  3. Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NC, Zothner C, Abou Elloof MM, Wood JM: Hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress disrupts calcium binding on calmodulin: more evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Aug 17;360(1):70-5. Epub 2007 Jun 11. [PubMed:17592724]
  4. Caride AJ, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT, Strehler EE: The plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoform 4a differs from isoform 4b in the mechanism of calmodulin binding and activation kinetics: implications for Ca2+ signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 31;282(35):25640-8. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [PubMed:17595168]
  5. Lo LW, Chen YC, Chen YJ, Wongcharoen W, Lin CI, Chen SA: Calmodulin kinase II inhibition prevents arrhythmic activity induced by alpha and beta adrenergic agonists in rabbit pulmonary veins. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct 1;571(2-3):197-208. Epub 2007 Jun 13. [PubMed:17612522]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tum...
Gene Name
AOC1
Uniprot ID
P19801
Uniprot Name
Amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]
Molecular Weight
85377.1 Da
References
  1. Elmore BO, Bollinger JA, Dooley DM: Human kidney diamine oxidase: heterologous expression, purification, and characterization. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2002 Jun;7(6):565-79. Epub 2002 Feb 13. [PubMed:12072962]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the export of proteins that lack a signal peptide and are secreted by an alternative pathway. Binds two calcium ions per subunit. Binds one copper ion. Binding of one copper ion doe...
Gene Name
S100A13
Uniprot ID
Q99584
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A13
Molecular Weight
11471.095 Da
References
  1. Sivaraja V, Kumar TK, Rajalingam D, Graziani I, Prudovsky I, Yu C: Copper binding affinity of S100A13, a key component of the FGF-1 nonclassical copper-dependent release complex. Biophys J. 2006 Sep 1;91(5):1832-43. Epub 2006 Jun 9. [PubMed:16766622]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALPP
Uniprot ID
P05187
Uniprot Name
Alkaline phosphatase, placental type
Molecular Weight
57953.31 Da
References
  1. Llinas P, Masella M, Stigbrand T, Menez A, Stura EA, Le Du MH: Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: implication for its secondary effect in bones. Protein Sci. 2006 Jul;15(7):1691-700. [PubMed:16815919]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S100A8 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex directs selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of GAPDH and probably multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif; S100A8 seems to contribute to S-nitrosylation site selectivity.
Specific Function
Arachidonic acid binding
Gene Name
S100A8
Uniprot ID
P05109
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A8
Molecular Weight
10834.43 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. Has transnitrosylase activity; in oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox))-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH on 'Cys-247' proposed to transfer the NO moiety from NOS2/iNOS to GAPDH via its own S-nitrosylated Cys-3. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to also direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif.
Specific Function
Antioxidant activity
Gene Name
S100A9
Uniprot ID
P06702
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A9
Molecular Weight
13241.955 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
May function as calcium sensor and modulator, contributing to cellular calcium signaling. May function by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and indirectly play a rol...
Gene Name
S100A2
Uniprot ID
P29034
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A2
Molecular Weight
11116.695 Da
References
  1. Koch M, Bhattacharya S, Kehl T, Gimona M, Vasak M, Chazin W, Heizmann CW, Kroneck PM, Fritz G: Implications on zinc binding to S100A2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Mar;1773(3):457-70. Epub 2006 Dec 19. [PubMed:17239974]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Bento I, Peixoto C, Zaitsev VN, Lindley PF: Ceruloplasmin revisited: structural and functional roles of various metal cation-binding sites. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Feb;63(Pt 2):240-8. Epub 2007 Jan 16. [PubMed:17242517]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Induces cartilage and bone formation. Also act in mesoderm induction, tooth development, limb formation and fracture repair. Acts in concert with PTHLH/PTHRP to stimulate ductal outgrowth during embryonic mammary development and to inhibit hair follicle induction (By similarity).
Specific Function
Bmp receptor binding
Gene Name
BMP4
Uniprot ID
P12644
Uniprot Name
Bone morphogenetic protein 4
Molecular Weight
46554.545 Da
References
  1. Yao Y, Shahbazian A, Bostrom KI: Proline and gamma-carboxylated glutamate residues in matrix Gla protein are critical for binding of bone morphogenetic protein-4. Circ Res. 2008 May 9;102(9):1065-74. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.166124. Epub 2008 Mar 27. [PubMed:18369157]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of bone
Specific Function
Associates with the organic matrix of bone and cartilage. Thought to act as an inhibitor of bone formation.
Gene Name
MGP
Uniprot ID
P08493
Uniprot Name
Matrix Gla protein
Molecular Weight
12353.06 Da
References
  1. Yao Y, Shahbazian A, Bostrom KI: Proline and gamma-carboxylated glutamate residues in matrix Gla protein are critical for binding of bone morphogenetic protein-4. Circ Res. 2008 May 9;102(9):1065-74. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.166124. Epub 2008 Mar 27. [PubMed:18369157]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function
Potential calcium-dependent cell-adhesion protein.
Gene Name
PCDH19
Uniprot ID
Q8TAB3
Uniprot Name
Protocadherin-19
Molecular Weight
126251.425 Da
References
  1. Dibbens LM, Tarpey PS, Hynes K, Bayly MA, Scheffer IE, Smith R, Bomar J, Sutton E, Vandeleur L, Shoubridge C, Edkins S, Turner SJ, Stevens C, O'Meara S, Tofts C, Barthorpe S, Buck G, Cole J, Halliday K, Jones D, Lee R, Madison M, Mironenko T, Varian J, West S, Widaa S, Wray P, Teague J, Dicks E, Butler A, Menzies A, Jenkinson A, Shepherd R, Gusella JF, Afawi Z, Mazarib A, Neufeld MY, Kivity S, Lev D, Lerman-Sagie T, Korczyn AD, Derry CP, Sutherland GR, Friend K, Shaw M, Corbett M, Kim HG, Geschwind DH, Thomas P, Haan E, Ryan S, McKee S, Berkovic SF, Futreal PA, Stratton MR, Mulley JC, Gecz J: X-linked protocadherin 19 mutations cause female-limited epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Nat Genet. 2008 Jun;40(6):776-81. doi: 10.1038/ng.149. Epub 2008 May 11. [PubMed:18469813]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein dimerization activity
Specific Function
Calcium-binding protein required for T-cell receptor-, Fas-, and glucocorticoid-induced cell death. May mediate Ca(2+)-regulated signals along the death pathway (By similarity). Calcium-dependent a...
Gene Name
PDCD6
Uniprot ID
O75340
Uniprot Name
Programmed cell death protein 6
Molecular Weight
21868.32 Da
References
  1. Suzuki H, Kawasaki M, Kakiuchi T, Shibata H, Wakatsuki S, Maki M: Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of N-terminally truncated human ALG-2. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008 Nov 1;64(Pt 11):974-7. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108030297. Epub 2008 Oct 31. [PubMed:18997320]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:28 / Updated on November 22, 2017 12:35