Identification

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Name
Acyclovir
Accession Number
DB00787  (APRD00567, EXPT00406, DB05347)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Acyclovir is a nucleotide analog antiviral used to treat herpes simplex, Varicella zoster, herpes zoster, herpes labialis, and acute herpetic keratitis10,11,12,13,14,15. Acyclovir is generally used first line in the treatment of these viruses and some products are indicated for patients as young as 6 years old.13

Acyclovir was granted FDA approval on 29 March 1982.12

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aciclovir
  • Aciclovirum
  • Acycloguanosine
  • Acyclovir
External IDs
NSC-645011
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Acyclovir sodium927L42J56369657-51-8RMLUKZWYIKEASN-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcyclovirTablet200 mgOralSanis Health Inc2010-04-052014-08-01Canada
AcyclovirCapsule200 mg/1OralBoscogen, Inc.2004-08-012010-12-10Us
AcyclovirTablet400 mgOralSanis Health Inc2010-04-052017-07-31Canada
AcyclovirTablet800 mgOralSanis Health Inc2010-04-052014-08-01Canada
Acyclovir Sodium for InjectionPowder, for solutionIntravenousAbbott1998-02-112007-07-31Canada
Acyclovir Sodium for InjectionPowder, for solutionIntravenousAbbott1998-02-112007-07-31Canada
Acyclovir Sodium for InjectionPowder, for solutionIntravenousNovopharm Limited1998-02-042018-05-08Canada
Acyclovir Sodium for InjectionPowder, for solutionIntravenousNovopharm Limited1998-02-042005-08-10Canada
Acyclovir Sodium InjectionSolutionIntravenousIvax Pharmaceuticals IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Acyclovir Sodium InjectionSolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi1998-05-08Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcyclovirTablet400 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2013-11-29Not applicableUs50436 077720180907 15195 zv2t24
AcyclovirTablet400 mg/1OralApotex Corporation2007-06-09Not applicableUs60505 530620180907 15195 3ufbew
AcyclovirTablet800 mg/1OralRed Pharm Drug, Inc.2006-03-13Not applicableUs
AcyclovirSuspension200 mg/5mLOralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-07-27Not applicableUs
AcyclovirCapsule200 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply1999-01-262017-01-02Us
AcyclovirTablet800 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2009-10-22Not applicableUs
AcyclovirCapsule200 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2013-09-27Not applicableUs
AcyclovirTablet400 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2007-06-09Not applicableUs50436 695120180907 15195 1gjx185
AcyclovirCapsule200 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.1997-04-232019-12-31Us0093 894020180907 15195 sfeirh
AcyclovirOintment50 mg/1gTopicalBurel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2019-05-09Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcyclovirOintment50 mg/1gTopicalOASIS TRADING2018-11-15Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
XereseAcyclovir (5 %) + Hydrocortisone (1 %)CreamTopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2013-07-26Not applicableCanada
XereseAcyclovir (50 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone (10 mg/1g)CreamTopicalBausch Health US, LLC2009-07-31Not applicableUs
XereseAcyclovir (50 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone (10 mg/1g)CreamTopicalMeda Pharmaceuticals Ltd2010-07-152013-02-28Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcyclovirAcyclovir (50 mg/1g)OintmentTopicalOASIS TRADING2018-11-15Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Zovir
Categories
UNII
X4HES1O11F
CAS number
59277-89-3
Weight
Average: 225.2046
Monoisotopic: 225.086189243
Chemical Formula
C8H11N5O3
InChI Key
MKUXAQIIEYXACX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H11N5O3/c9-8-11-6-5(7(15)12-8)10-3-13(6)4-16-2-1-14/h3,14H,1-2,4H2,(H3,9,11,12,15)
IUPAC Name
2-amino-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6,9-dihydro-3H-purin-6-one
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)C2=C(N1)N(COCCO)C=N2

Pharmacology

Indication

An acyclovir topical cream is indicated to treat recurrent herpes labialis in immunocompetent patients 12 years and older.10 Acyclovir oral tablets, capsules, and suspensions are indicated to treat herpes zoster, genital herpes, and chickenpox.11 An acyclovir topical ointment is indicated to treat initial genital herpes and limited non-life-threatening mucocutaneous herpes simplex in immunocompromised patients.12 An acyclovir cream with hydrocortisone is indicated to treat recurrent herpes labialis, and shortening lesion healing time in patients 6 years and older.13 An acyclovir buccal tablet is indicated for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis.14 An acyclovir ophthalmic ointment is indicated to treat acute herpetic keratitis.15

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Acyclovir is a nucleoside analog that inhibits the action of viral DNA polymerase and DNA replication of different herpesvirus.10,11,12,13,14,15 Acyclovir has a wide therapeutic window as overdose is rare in otherwise healthy patients.11

Mechanism of action

Acyclovir is becomes acyclovir monophosphate due to the action of viral thymidine kinase.5 Acyclovir monophosphate is converted to the diphosphate form by guanylate kinase.1 Acyclovir diphosphate is converted to acyclovir triphosphate by nucleoside diphosphate kinase, pyruvate kinase, creatine kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and adenylosuccinate synthetase.1,7 Acyclovir triphosphate has higher affinity for viral DNA polymerase than cellular DNA polymerase and incorporates into the DNA where the missing 2' and 3' carbons causes DNA chain termination.5 In other cases acyclovir triphosphate competes so strongly for viral DNA polymerase that other bases cannot associate with the enzyme, inactivating it.5

TargetActionsOrganism
AThymidine kinase
potentiator
ADNA polymerase catalytic subunit
inhibitor
HHV-1
ADNA polymerase catalytic subunit
inhibitor
HHV-3
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

Learn more
Absorption

The oral bioavailability of acyclovir is 10-20% but decreases with increasing doses.11 Acyclovir ointment is <0.02-9.4% absorbed.12 Acyclovir buccal tablets and ophthalmic ointment are minimally absorbed.14,15 The bioavailability of acyclovir is not affected by food.11

Acyclovir has a mean Tmax of 1.1±0.4 hours, mean Cmax of 593.7-656.5ng/mL, and mean AUC of 2956.6-3102.5h*ng/mL.9

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of acyclovir is 0.6L/kg.6

Protein binding

Acyclovir is 9-33% protein bound in plasma.6,11

Metabolism

Acyclovir is <15% oxidized to 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase and 1% 8-hydroxylated to 8-hydroxy-acyclovir by aldehyde oxidase.4

Acyclovir is becomes acyclovir monophosphate due to the action of viral thymidine kinase.5 Acyclovir monophosphate is converted to the diphosphate form by guanylate kinase.1 Acyclovir diphosphate is converted to acyclovir triphosphate by nucleoside diphosphate kinase, pyruvate kinase, creatine kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and adenylosuccinate synthetase.1,7

Route of elimination

The majority of acyclovir is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug.4,14 90-92% of the drug can be excreted unchanged through glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.5 <2% of the drug is recovered in feces and <0.1% is expired as CO2.8

Half life

The clearance of acyclovir varies from 2.5-3 hours depending on the creatinine clearance of the patient.5 The plasma half life of acyclovir during hemodialysis is approximately 5 hours.11 The mean half life in patients from 7 months to 7 years old is 2.6 hours.11

Clearance

The renal clearance of acyclovir is 248mL/min/1.73m2.8 The total clearance in neonates if 105-122mL/min/1.73m2.8

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include agitation, coma, seizures, lethargy, and precipitation in renal tubules.11 These symptoms are more common in patients given high doses without monitoring of fluid and electrolyte balance or reduced kidney function.11,4,6 In the case of an overdose, treat with symptomatic and supportive care.13

Affected organisms
  • Human Herpes Virus
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
9-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
9-MethylguanineThe metabolism of 9-Methylguanine can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
AbacavirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Acyclovir can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbemaciclibThe excretion of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Acyclovir can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
  • Increase liquid intake.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference
US4294831
General References
  1. O'Brien JJ, Campoli-Richards DM: Acyclovir. An updated review of its antiviral activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1989 Mar;37(3):233-309. [PubMed:2653790]
  2. Gunness P, Aleksa K, Bend J, Koren G: Acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity: the role of the acyclovir aldehyde metabolite. Transl Res. 2011 Nov;158(5):290-301. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2011.07.002. Epub 2011 Aug 3. [PubMed:22005269]
  3. Morrel EM, Spruance SL, Goldberg DI: Topical iontophoretic administration of acyclovir for the episodic treatment of herpes labialis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinic-initiated trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Aug 15;43(4):460-7. Epub 2006 Jul 3. [PubMed:16838235]
  4. Smith JP, Weller S, Johnson B, Nicotera J, Luther JM, Haas DW: Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir and its metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and systemic circulation after administration of high-dose valacyclovir in subjects with normal and impaired renal function. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Mar;54(3):1146-51. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00729-09. Epub 2009 Dec 28. [PubMed:20038622]
  5. King DH: History, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology of acyclovir. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Jan;18(1 Pt 2):176-9. doi: 10.1016/s0190-9622(88)70022-5. [PubMed:2828440]
  6. Sadjadi SA, Regmi S, Chau T: Acyclovir Neurotoxicity in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient: Report of a Case and Review of the Pharmacokinetics of Acyclovir. Am J Case Rep. 2018 Dec 9;19:1459-1462. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.911520. [PubMed:30531673]
  7. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]
  8. Laskin OL: Clinical pharmacokinetics of acyclovir. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1983 May-Jun;8(3):187-201. doi: 10.2165/00003088-198308030-00001. [PubMed:6342900]
  9. Yuen KH, Peh KK, Billa N, Chan KL, Toh WT: Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of acyclovir tablet preparation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1998 Feb;24(2):193-6. doi: 10.3109/03639049809085607. [PubMed:15605452]
  10. FDA Approved Drug Products: Zovirax Topical Cream [Link]
  11. FDA Drug Approval Package: Zovirax Oral Capsules, Oral Tablets, Oral Suspension [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Zovirax Topical Ointment [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Xerese Topical Cream With Hydrocortisone [Link]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: Sitavig Buccal Tablets [Link]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Avaclyr Ophthalmic Ointment [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014925
KEGG Drug
D00222
KEGG Compound
C06810
PubChem Compound
2022
PubChem Substance
46506002
ChemSpider
1945
BindingDB
50021776
ChEBI
2453
ChEMBL
CHEMBL184
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000157
PharmGKB
PA448045
HET
AC2
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Aciclovir
ATC Codes
J05AB01 — AciclovirD06BB03 — AciclovirS01AD03 — AciclovirD06BB53 — Aciclovir, combinations
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.06 — Antivirals
  • 08:18.32 — Nucleosides and Nucleotides
PDB Entries
1pwy / 2ki5 / 3mjr / 4da7 / 5i3c
MSDS
Download (37 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProgressive Multiple Sclerosis1
1CompletedNot AvailableInfection NOS1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAcute and Chronic Inflammation / Autoimmune Diseases / Disorder of Pleura and Pleural Cavity / Disorder of Synovium / Felty's Syndrome / Rheumatoid Arthritis / Rheumatoid Nodules / Sjögren's Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex Virus / Neonatal Sepsis1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentProgressive Multiple Sclerosis2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Undifferentiated Leukemia (AUL) / B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / L1 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / L2 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKidney Diseases / Transplantation, Kidney1
2CompletedPreventionCritical Illness1
2CompletedPreventionHerpes simplex of the genitals / Ulcers1
2CompletedTreatmentChickenpox / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHerpes Labialis3
2CompletedTreatmentHerpes simplex of the genitals / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHerpesvirus 2, Human / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer1
2SuspendedSupportive CareStem Cell Transplant Complications1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHIV-1 and HSV-2 Coinfection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Ulcers1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentMenière's Disease1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentHerpes Simplex1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDrug Use for Unapproved Schedule1
3CompletedNot AvailableVZV Infection After Bone Marrow Transplantation1
3CompletedPreventionCytomegalovirus / Transplantation, Bone Marrow1
3CompletedPreventionHerpes simplex of the genitals / HIV Seronegativity / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedPreventionHerpes Labialis1
3CompletedPreventionHerpes Simplex, Genital / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)1
3CompletedSupportive CareHerpes Simplex1
3CompletedSupportive CareMalignancies1
3CompletedTreatmentChickenpox / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentGenital Herpes1
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Labialis5
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex4
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex / Keratitis, Herpetic / Ocular Herpes Simplex1
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Zoster1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infections, Cytomegalovirus1
3RecruitingPreventionCMV Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHerpes Simplex1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentKeratitis, Herpetic / Ocular Herpes Simplex1
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableGenital Herpes1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentViral Pneumonia1
4CompletedPreventionHerpes / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedTreatmentGenital Herpes2
4CompletedTreatmentGenital Herpes / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHerpes Simplex Virus Keratitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentGenital Herpes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHerpes Zoster1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentReccurent Herpes Labialis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGenital Herpes1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDermatologic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCytomegalovirus Retinitis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFacial Paralysis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGenital Herpes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Oral hairy leukoplakia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUlcers of Female Genital Organs1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableChildren; Infection / Newborn; Infection1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMeningitis, Aseptic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentUveitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Belcher pharmaceuticals inc
  • Dava pharmaceuticals inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Lek pharmaceutical and chemical co dd
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Stason industrial corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Carlsbad technology inc
  • Mylan laboratories inc
  • Abbott laboratories
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Apothecary Shop Wholesale
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • BTA Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlsbad Technology Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • DSM Corp.
  • East Coast Medical Network Inc.
  • Eczacibasi Health Products Co.
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • Goldline Laboratories Inc.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Heritage Pharmaceuticals
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Meridian Medical Technologies Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Pharmpak Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Roxane Labs
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stason Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Xactdose Inc.
  • Yung Shin Pharmaceutical Industry Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral200 mg/1
CapsuleOral400 mg/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous1 g/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous1000 mg/20mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous1000 mg/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous500 mg/10mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous500 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 mg/1mL
OintmentCutaneous50 mg/1g
SuspensionOral200 mg/5mL
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral200 mg/1
TabletOral400 mg
TabletOral400 mg/1
TabletOral400.00 mg/1
TabletOral800 mg/1
TabletOral800 mg
TabletOral800.00 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntravenous1000 mg/20mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/10mL
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
OintmentTopical
KitNot applicable
TabletOral
TabletBuccal50 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseBuccal50 mg/1
CreamTopical
CreamTopical5 %
CreamTopical50 mg/1g
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous50 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical5 %
OintmentTopical50 mg/1g
Powder, for solutionIntravenous1 g
Powder, for solutionIntravenous500 mg
SuspensionOral200 mg
CapsuleOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zovirax 200 mg/5ml Suspension 473ml Bottle264.95USD bottle
Zovirax 5% Ointment 15 gm Tube191.56USD tube
Zovirax 5% Cream 5 gm Tube165.07USD tube
Zovirax 5% Cream 2 gm Tube69.44USD tube
Zovirax 5% cream30.22USD g
Zovirax 800 mg tablet11.83USD tablet
Zovirax 400 mg tablet6.09USD tablet
Zovirax 800 mg Tablet5.71USD tablet
Acyclovir 800 mg tablet3.81USD tablet
Zovirax 200 mg capsule3.08USD capsule
Acyclovir 800 mg Tablet2.99USD tablet
Apo-Acyclovir 800 mg Tablet2.99USD tablet
Mylan-Acyclovir 800 mg Tablet2.99USD tablet
Novo-Acyclovir 800 mg Tablet2.99USD tablet
Nu-Acyclovir 800 mg Tablet2.99USD tablet
Ratio-Acyclovir 800 mg Tablet2.99USD tablet
Zovirax 400 mg Tablet2.9USD tablet
Acyclovir 400 mg tablet2.26USD tablet
Acyclovir 400 mg Tablet1.63USD tablet
Apo-Acyclovir 400 mg Tablet1.63USD tablet
Mylan-Acyclovir 400 mg Tablet1.63USD tablet
Novo-Acyclovir 400 mg Tablet1.63USD tablet
Nu-Acyclovir 400 mg Tablet1.63USD tablet
Ratio-Acyclovir 400 mg Tablet1.63USD tablet
Zovirax 200 mg Tablet1.44USD tablet
Acyclovir 200 mg capsule1.01USD capsule
Acyclovir 200 mg Tablet0.81USD tablet
Apo-Acyclovir 200 mg Tablet0.81USD tablet
Mylan-Acyclovir 200 mg Tablet0.81USD tablet
Novo-Acyclovir 200 mg Tablet0.81USD tablet
Ratio-Acyclovir 200 mg Tablet0.81USD tablet
Acyclovir 200 mg/5ml Suspension0.3USD ml
Zovirax 40 mg/ml Suspension0.28USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2098108No2001-07-032012-01-29Canada
USRE39264No2006-09-052016-08-02Us
US6514980No2003-02-042019-01-24Us
US7223387No2007-05-292021-07-24Us
US8747896No2014-06-102027-06-03Us
US8791127No2014-07-292027-03-23Us
US8592434No2013-11-262030-06-16Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)255 °Chttp://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.1945.html
boiling point (°C)595http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.1945.html
water solubility1.41mg/mL at 25°CAvaclyr Ophthalmic Ointment FDA label
logP-1.76http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.1945.html
Caco2 permeability-6.15ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.52 and 9.35Avaclyr Ophthalmic Ointment FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.08 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.95ALOGPS
logP-1ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.02ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area114.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity54.63 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.51 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-59599385810ae2952ce5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0290000000-9410504409e66bcd08f9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uyi-1900000000-0930eb38cecf2a197001
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-05nf-4900000000-10d8c1e33c5d46d6ff80
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-05mo-9600000000-e25ed55283d7d66d80c5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0390000000-079dc309c9ffbbde3375
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-201a17a51960fdc3bcef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-6c63ec4268a52381191c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-1900000000-20fdfa17569c6b2f479f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-2900000000-4f7a822e6652ec471aee
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-69b23ed6f334f4571ecc
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udr-2910100000-2b1624536b0084ca299c

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hypoxanthines. These are compounds containing the purine derivative 1H-purin-6(9H)-one. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazopyrimidines
Sub Class
Purines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent
Hypoxanthines
Alternative Parents
6-oxopurines / Pyrimidones / Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / N-substituted imidazoles / Vinylogous amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds
show 2 more
Substituents
6-oxopurine / Hypoxanthine / Aminopyrimidine / Pyrimidone / N-substituted imidazole / Pyrimidine / Azole / Imidazole / Heteroaromatic compound / Vinylogous amide
show 13 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
oxopurine, 2-aminopurines (CHEBI:2453)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Not Available
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Thymidine kinase activity
Specific Function
In latent infection, may allow the virus to be reactivated and to grow in cells lacking a high concentration of phosphorylated nucleic acid precursors, such as nerve cells that do not replicate the...
Gene Name
TK
Uniprot ID
P03176
Uniprot Name
Thymidine kinase
Molecular Weight
40971.555 Da
References
  1. Bennett MS, Wien F, Champness JN, Batuwangala T, Rutherford T, Summers WC, Sun H, Wright G, Sanderson MR: Structure to 1.9 A resolution of a complex with herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase of a novel, non-substrate inhibitor: X-ray crystallographic comparison with binding of aciclovir. FEBS Lett. 1999 Jan 25;443(2):121-5. [PubMed:9989588]
Kind
Protein
Organism
HHV-1
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna-dna hybrid ribonuclease activity
Specific Function
Replicates viral genomic DNA. The replication complex is composed of six viral proteins: the DNA polymerase, processivity factor, primase, primase-associated factor, helicase, and ssDNA-binding pro...
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P04293
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
136419.66 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Sergerie Y, Boivin G: Hydroxyurea enhances the activity of acyclovir and cidofovir against herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant strains harboring mutations in the thymidine kinase and/or the DNA polymerase genes. Antiviral Res. 2008 Jan;77(1):77-80. Epub 2007 Sep 17. [PubMed:17913252]
  4. Suzuki M, Okuda T, Shiraki K: Synergistic antiviral activity of acyclovir and vidarabine against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus. Antiviral Res. 2006 Nov;72(2):157-61. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16797734]
  5. Liu S, Knafels JD, Chang JS, Waszak GA, Baldwin ET, Deibel MR Jr, Thomsen DR, Homa FL, Wells PA, Tory MC, Poorman RA, Gao H, Qiu X, Seddon AP: Crystal structure of the herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 30;281(26):18193-200. Epub 2006 Apr 24. [PubMed:16638752]
Kind
Protein
Organism
HHV-3
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna-dna hybrid ribonuclease activity
Specific Function
Replicates viral genomic DNA. The replication complex is composed of six viral proteins: the DNA polymerase, processivity factor, primase, primase-associated factor, helicase, and ssDNA-binding pro...
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P09252
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
134046.615 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Sergerie Y, Boivin G: Hydroxyurea enhances the activity of acyclovir and cidofovir against herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant strains harboring mutations in the thymidine kinase and/or the DNA polymerase genes. Antiviral Res. 2008 Jan;77(1):77-80. Epub 2007 Sep 17. [PubMed:17913252]
  4. Suzuki M, Okuda T, Shiraki K: Synergistic antiviral activity of acyclovir and vidarabine against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus. Antiviral Res. 2006 Nov;72(2):157-61. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16797734]
  5. Liu S, Knafels JD, Chang JS, Waszak GA, Baldwin ET, Deibel MR Jr, Thomsen DR, Homa FL, Wells PA, Tory MC, Poorman RA, Gao H, Qiu X, Seddon AP: Crystal structure of the herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 30;281(26):18193-200. Epub 2006 Apr 24. [PubMed:16638752]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
HHV-1
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thymidine kinase activity
Specific Function
In latent infection, may allow the virus to be reactivated and to grow in cells lacking a high concentration of phosphorylated nucleic acid precursors, such as nerve cells that do not replicate the...
Gene Name
TK
Uniprot ID
Q9QNF7
Uniprot Name
Thymidine kinase
Molecular Weight
40896.475 Da
References
  1. King DH: History, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology of acyclovir. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Jan;18(1 Pt 2):176-9. doi: 10.1016/s0190-9622(88)70022-5. [PubMed:2828440]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Guanylate kinase activity
Specific Function
Essential for recycling GMP and indirectly, cGMP.
Gene Name
GUK1
Uniprot ID
Q16774
Uniprot Name
Guanylate kinase
Molecular Weight
21725.41 Da
References
  1. O'Brien JJ, Campoli-Richards DM: Acyclovir. An updated review of its antiviral activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1989 Mar;37(3):233-309. [PubMed:2653790]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
The paper referencing these enzymes does not specify which nucleoside diphosphate kinase is responsible for this action.
General Function
Ribosomal small subunit binding
Specific Function
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-sit...

Components:
References
  1. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
The papers referencing these enzymes do not specify which pyruvate kinase is responsible for this action.
General Function
Pyruvate kinase activity
Specific Function
Plays a key role in glycolysis.

Components:
References
  1. O'Brien JJ, Campoli-Richards DM: Acyclovir. An updated review of its antiviral activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1989 Mar;37(3):233-309. [PubMed:2653790]
  2. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
The papers referencing these enzymes do not specify which creatine kinase is responsible for this action.
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...

Components:
References
  1. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
The papers referencing these enzymes do not specify which phosphoglycerate kinase is responsible for this action.
General Function
Phosphoglycerate kinase activity
Specific Function
In addition to its role as a glycolytic enzyme, it seems that PGK-1 acts as a polymerase alpha cofactor protein (primer recognition protein).

Components:
References
  1. O'Brien JJ, Campoli-Richards DM: Acyclovir. An updated review of its antiviral activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1989 Mar;37(3):233-309. [PubMed:2653790]
  2. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
The paper referencing these enzymes does not specify which Succinyl-CoA synthetase is responsible for this action.
General Function
Succinate-coa ligase (adp-forming) activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA.

Components:
References
  1. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
The paper referencing these enzymes does not specify which Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase is responsible for this action.
General Function
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.
Specific Function
Gtp binding

Components:
References
  1. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
The paper referencing these enzymes does not specify which Adenylosuccinate Synthetase is responsible for this action.
General Function
Phosphate ion binding
Specific Function
Component of the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC), which interconverts IMP and AMP to regulate the nucleotide levels in various tissues, and which contributes to glycolysis and ammoniagenesis. Catalyz...

Components:
References
  1. Miller WH, Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir diphosphate by cellular enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 1;31(23):3879-84. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90305-7. [PubMed:7159465]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Abdelhameed AS, Bakheit AH, Almutairi FM, AlRabiah H, Kadi AA: Biophysical and In Silico Studies of the Interaction between the Anti-Viral Agents Acyclovir and Penciclovir, and Human Serum Albumin. Molecules. 2017 Nov 5;22(11). pii: molecules22111906. doi: 10.3390/molecules22111906. [PubMed:29113080]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. [PubMed:11861798]
  2. Shugarts S, Benet LZ: The role of transporters in the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs. Pharm Res. 2009 Sep;26(9):2039-54. doi: 10.1007/s11095-009-9924-0. Epub 2009 Jun 30. [PubMed:19568696]
  3. Boxberger KH, Hagenbuch B, Lampe JN: Common drugs inhibit human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1)-mediated neurotransmitter uptake. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Jun;42(6):990-5. doi: 10.1124/dmd.113.055095. Epub 2014 Mar 31. [PubMed:24688079]
  4. Wagner DJ, Hu T, Wang J: Polyspecific organic cation transporters and their impact on drug intracellular levels and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep;111:237-246. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.06.002. Epub 2016 Jun 16. [PubMed:27317943]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. [PubMed:11861798]
  2. Wada S, Tsuda M, Sekine T, Cha SH, Kimura M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Rat multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (rOAT1) transports zidovudine, acyclovir, and other antiviral nucleoside analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Sep;294(3):844-9. [PubMed:10945832]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. [PubMed:11861798]
  2. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. [PubMed:12358729]
  3. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. Plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism.
Gene Name
SLC10A2
Uniprot ID
Q12908
Uniprot Name
Ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter
Molecular Weight
37713.405 Da
References
  1. Tolle-Sander S, Lentz KA, Maeda DY, Coop A, Polli JE: Increased acyclovir oral bioavailability via a bile acid conjugate. Mol Pharm. 2004 Jan 12;1(1):40-8. [PubMed:15832499]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfat...
Gene Name
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID
Q96FL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1
Molecular Weight
61921.585 Da
References
  1. Nies AT, Damme K, Schaeffeler E, Schwab M: Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012 Dec;8(12):1565-77. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2012.722996. Epub 2012 Sep 13. [PubMed:22970772]
  2. Xu Y, Liu X, Wang Y, Zhou N, Peng J, Gong L, Ren J, Luo C, Luo X, Jiang H, Chen K, Zheng M: Combinatorial Pharmacophore Modeling of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion Transporter 1 Inhibitors: a Theoretical Perspective for Understanding Multiple Inhibitory Mechanisms. Sci Rep. 2015 Sep 2;5:13684. doi: 10.1038/srep13684. [PubMed:26330298]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Drug transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acy...
Gene Name
SLC47A2
Uniprot ID
Q86VL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 2
Molecular Weight
65083.915 Da
References
  1. Nies AT, Damme K, Schaeffeler E, Schwab M: Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012 Dec;8(12):1565-77. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2012.722996. Epub 2012 Sep 13. [PubMed:22970772]
  2. Yonezawa A, Inui K: Importance of the multidrug and toxin extrusion MATE/SLC47A family to pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics/toxicodynamics and pharmacogenomics. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;164(7):1817-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01394.x. [PubMed:21457222]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 22, 2019 18:27