Identification

Name
Halothane
Accession Number
DB01159  (APRD00598, EXPT01754, DB02330)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. nitrous oxide is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-Bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane
  • 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-bromo-2-chloroethane
  • 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-chloro-2-bromoethane
  • 2-Bromo-2-Chloro-1,1,1-Trifluoroethane
  • 2,2,2-Trifluoro-1-chloro-1-bromoethane
  • Bromochlorotrifluoroethane
  • Ftorotan
  • Halotano
  • Halothane
  • Halothanum
  • Narcotane
  • Phthorothanum
  • Rhodialothan
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Fluothane AnestheticLiquidRespiratory (inhalation)Ayerst Laboratories1958-12-311996-09-10Canada
Fluothane Liq Inh 1000mg/gmLiquid1 gRespiratory (inhalation)Wyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-311997-08-14Canada
HalothaneSolution99.99 %Respiratory (inhalation)Bimeda Mtc Animal Health Inc1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Halothane Liq 99.9%Liquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Halocarbon Laboratories, A Division Of Halocarbon Products Corp.1971-12-312010-06-14Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
HalothaneInhalant250 mL/250mLRespiratory (inhalation)Hospira, Inc.1975-05-302012-07-26Us
International/Other Brands
Fluothane (Ayerst) / Halotan (Jugoremedija) / Narcotan (Zentiva)
Categories
UNII
UQT9G45D1P
CAS number
151-67-7
Weight
Average: 197.382
Monoisotopic: 195.890225001
Chemical Formula
C2HBrClF3
InChI Key
BCQZXOMGPXTTIC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2HBrClF3/c3-1(4)2(5,6)7/h1H
IUPAC Name
2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)(F)C(Cl)Br

Pharmacology

Indication

For the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia

Pharmacodynamics

Halothane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It reduces the blood pressure and frequently decreases the pulse rate and depresses respiration. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.

Mechanism of action

Halothane causes general anaethesia due to its actions on multiple ion channels, which ultimately depresses nerve conduction, breathing, cardiac contractility. Its immobilizing effects have been attributed to its binding to potassium channels in cholinergic neurons. Halothane's effect are also likely due to binding to NMDA and calcium channels, causing hyperpolarization.

TargetActionsOrganism
APotassium channel subfamily K member 3
binder
Human
APotassium channel subfamily K member 9
binder
Human
UCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1
inhibitor
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
antagonist
Human
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
allosteric modulator
Human
URhodopsin
other
Human
UG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2
inhibitor
Human
UG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1
inhibitor
Human
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
inhibitor
Human
UIntermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4
inhibitor
Human
UATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
other/unknown
Human
UCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
other/unknown
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
other/unknown
Human
UGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2
other/unknown
Human
UNeuropeptide S receptor
other/unknown
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Halothane is metabolized in the liver, primarily by CYP2E1, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4 and CYP2A6.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Toxic effects of halothane include malignant hyperthermia and hepatitis.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Halothane can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Acebutolol.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Acepromazine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patents 2,849,502, 2,921,098, 2,959,624, 3,082,263.

General References
  1. Bovill JG: Inhalation anaesthesia: from diethyl ether to xenon. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(182):121-42. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_6. [PubMed:18175089]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015290
KEGG Drug
D00542
KEGG Compound
C07515
PubChem Compound
3562
PubChem Substance
46506589
ChemSpider
3441
BindingDB
50112212
ChEBI
5615
ChEMBL
CHEMBL931
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000692
PharmGKB
PA449845
IUPHAR
2401
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
HLT
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Halothane
ATC Codes
N01AB01 — Halothane
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.16 — Inhalation Anesthetics
MSDS
Download (55.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Halocarbon Laboratories
  • Hospira Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1 g
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)250 mL/250mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)99.99 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Halothane liquid0.24USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)50-50.5U.S. Patents 2,849,502, 2,921,098, 2,959,624, 3,082,263.
boiling point (°C)50.2 °CPhysProp
water solubility4070 mg/L (at 25 °C)HORVATH,AL ET AL. (1999)
logP2.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-1.71ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.81 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.5ALOGPS
logP2.12ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity24.63 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9895
Caco-2 permeable+0.6141
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.9007
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9628
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.945
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9183
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8374
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8031
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7086
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6027
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7607
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.943
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6841
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9545
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8808
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.711
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9741
Rat acute toxicity1.7199 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9686
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9034
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.57 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-014j-2900000000-e961932e23eafc2cc0a5
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organofluorides. These are compounds containing a chemical bond between a carbon atom and a fluorine atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organohalogen compounds
Class
Organofluorides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Organofluorides
Alternative Parents
Organochlorides / Organobromides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Alkyl fluorides / Alkyl chlorides / Alkyl bromides
Substituents
Hydrocarbon derivative / Organofluoride / Organochloride / Organobromide / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Alkyl chloride / Alkyl bromide / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
haloalkane (CHEBI:5615)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
S100 protein binding
Specific Function
pH-dependent, voltage-insensitive, background potassium channel protein. Rectification direction results from potassium ion concentration on either side of the membrane. Acts as an outward rectifie...
Gene Name
KCNK3
Uniprot ID
O14649
Uniprot Name
Potassium channel subfamily K member 3
Molecular Weight
43517.665 Da
References
  1. Lazarenko RM, Willcox SC, Shu S, Berg AP, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Talley EM, Chen X, Bayliss DA: Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;30(22):7691-704. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1655-10.2010. [PubMed:20519544]
  2. Pandit JJ, Buckler KJ: Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degrees of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell intracellular Ca2+ response to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:201-4. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-5692-7_40. [PubMed:20217349]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
pH-dependent, voltage-insensitive, background potassium channel protein.
Gene Name
KCNK9
Uniprot ID
Q9NPC2
Uniprot Name
Potassium channel subfamily K member 9
Molecular Weight
42263.485 Da
References
  1. Lazarenko RM, Willcox SC, Shu S, Berg AP, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Talley EM, Chen X, Bayliss DA: Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;30(22):7691-704. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1655-10.2010. [PubMed:20519544]
  2. Pandit JJ, Buckler KJ: Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degrees of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell intracellular Ca2+ response to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:201-4. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-5692-7_40. [PubMed:20217349]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activati...
Gene Name
KCNMA1
Uniprot ID
Q12791
Uniprot Name
Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
137558.115 Da
References
  1. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [PubMed:10794813]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [PubMed:8968191]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID
O60391
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B
Molecular Weight
112990.98 Da
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [PubMed:8968191]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of sub...
Gene Name
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID
Q12879
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
Molecular Weight
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [PubMed:8968191]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Allosteric modulator
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schofield CM, Trudell JR, Harrison NL: Alanine-scanning mutagenesis in the signature disulfide loop of the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit: critical residues for activation and modulation. Biochemistry. 2004 Aug 10;43(31):10058-63. [PubMed:15287733]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other
General Function
Photoreceptor activity
Specific Function
Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a ...
Gene Name
RHO
Uniprot ID
P08100
Uniprot Name
Rhodopsin
Molecular Weight
38892.335 Da
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [PubMed:10913255]
  2. Keller C, Grimm C, Wenzel A, Hafezi F, Reme C: Protective effect of halothane anesthesia on retinal light damage: inhibition of metabolic rhodopsin regeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Feb;42(2):476-80. [PubMed:11157886]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This potassium channel may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose and/or neurotransmitters acting through G-protein-coupled receptors. Inward rectifier potassium channels are...
Gene Name
KCNJ6
Uniprot ID
P48051
Uniprot Name
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2
Molecular Weight
48450.96 Da
References
  1. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [PubMed:15175324]
  2. Hara K, Yamakura T, Sata T, Harris RA: The effects of anesthetics and ethanol on alpha2 adrenoceptor subtypes expressed with G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2005 Nov;101(5):1381-8. [PubMed:16243998]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their...
Gene Name
KCNJ3
Uniprot ID
P48549
Uniprot Name
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1
Molecular Weight
56602.84 Da
References
  1. Weigl LG, Schreibmayer W: G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels are targets for volatile anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Aug;60(2):282-9. [PubMed:11455015]
  2. Yamakura T, Lewohl JM, Harris RA: Differential effects of general anesthetics on G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying and other potassium channels. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jul;95(1):144-53. [PubMed:11465552]
  3. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [PubMed:15175324]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID
P03886
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
Molecular Weight
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. [PubMed:12411515]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein phosphatase binding
Specific Function
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium (PubMed:26148990). Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. Requi...
Gene Name
KCNN4
Uniprot ID
O15554
Uniprot Name
Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4
Molecular Weight
47695.12 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [PubMed:10794813]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport comp...
Gene Name
ATP5D
Uniprot ID
P30049
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity...
Gene Name
GNG2
Uniprot ID
P59768
Uniprot Name
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
7850.03 Da
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [PubMed:10913255]
  2. Zang WJ, Yu XJ, Zang YM: [Effect of halothane on the muscarinic potassium current of the heart]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2000 Apr;52(2):175-8. [PubMed:11961592]
  3. Yoshimura H, Jones KA, Perkins WJ, Warner DO: Dual effects of hexanol and halothane on the regulation of calcium sensitivity in airway smooth muscle. Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr;98(4):871-80. [PubMed:12657848]
  4. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5' triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. [PubMed:12826849]
  5. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [PubMed:15175324]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Vasopressin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for neuropeptide S (NPS) (PubMed:16790440). Promotes mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores (PubMed:16790440). Inhibits cell growth in response to NPS binding (PubMe...
Gene Name
NPSR1
Uniprot ID
Q6W5P4
Uniprot Name
Neuropeptide S receptor
Molecular Weight
42686.28 Da
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [PubMed:10913255]
  2. Ishizawa Y, Pidikiti R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: G protein-coupled receptors as direct targets of inhaled anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):945-52. [PubMed:11961111]
  3. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5' triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. [PubMed:12826849]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [PubMed:19442086]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Spracklin DK, Hankins DC, Fisher JM, Thummel KE, Kharasch ED: Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the principal catalyst of human oxidative halothane metabolism in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):400-11. [PubMed:9103523]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [PubMed:19442086]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [PubMed:19442086]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Raunio H, Rautio A, Gullsten H, Pelkonen O: Polymorphisms of CYP2A6 and its practical consequences. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;52(4):357-63. [PubMed:11678779]
  4. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]

Carriers

Details
1. Serum albumin
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 18, 2018 10:50