Identification

Name
Arformoterol
Accession Number
DB01274
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Arformoterol is a bronchodilator. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing. Arformoterol inhalation is used to prevent bronchoconstriction in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The use of arformoterol is pending revision due to safety concerns in regards to an increased risk of severe exacerbation of asthma symptoms, leading to hospitalization as well as death in some patients using long acting beta agonists for the treatment of asthma.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (-)-Formoterol
  • (R,R)-formoterol
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Arformoterol tartrate5P8VJ2I235200815-49-2FCSXYHUNDAXDRH-OKMNHOJOSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BrovanaSolution15 ug/2mLRespiratory (inhalation)Sunovion2007-04-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
F91H02EBWT
CAS number
67346-49-0
Weight
Average: 344.4049
Monoisotopic: 344.173607266
Chemical Formula
C19H24N2O4
InChI Key
BPZSYCZIITTYBL-YJYMSZOUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H24N2O4/c1-13(9-14-3-6-16(25-2)7-4-14)20-11-19(24)15-5-8-18(23)17(10-15)21-12-22/h3-8,10,12-13,19-20,23-24H,9,11H2,1-2H3,(H,21,22)/t13-,19+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
N-{2-hydroxy-5-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-{[(2R)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]amino}ethyl]phenyl}formamide
SMILES
COC1=CC=C(C[[email protected]@H](C)NC[[email protected]](O)C2=CC(NC=O)=C(O)C=C2)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

A bronchodilator used for the long term, symptomatic treatment of reversible bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Arformoterol, the active (R,R)-enantiomer of formoterol, is a selective long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist (beta2-agonist) that has two-fold greater potency than racemic formoterol (which contains both the (S,S) and (R,R)-enantiomers). The (S,S)-enantiomer is about 1,000-fold less potent as a β2-agonist than the (R,R)-enantiomer. Arformoterol seems to have little or no effect on β1-adrenergic receptors.

Mechanism of action

While it is recognized that β2-receptors are the predominant adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and β1-receptors are the predominant receptors in the heart, data indicate that there are also β2-receptors in the human heart comprising 10% to 50% of the total beta-adrenergic receptors. The precise function of these receptors has not been established, but they raise the possibility that even highly selective β2-agonists may have cardiac effects. The pharmacologic effects of β2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs, including arformoterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of proinflammatory mediators from cells, especially from mast cells. In vitro tests show that arformoterol is an inhibitor of the release of mast cell mediators, such as histamine and leukotrienes, from the human lung. Arformoterol also inhibits histamine-induced plasma albumin extravasation in anesthetized guinea pigs and inhibits allergen-induced eosinophil influx in dogs with airway hyper-response.

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

The binding of arformoterol to human plasma proteins in vitro was 52-65% at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL of radiolabeled arformoterol.

Metabolism

Arformoterol was almost entirely metabolized following oral administration of 35 mcg of radiolabeled arformoterol in eight healthy subjects. Direct conjugation of arformoterol with glucuronic acid was the major metabolic pathway. O-Desmethylation is a secondary route catalyzed by the CYP enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.

Route of elimination

After administration of a single oral dose of radiolabeled arformoterol to eight healthy male subjects, 63% of the total radioactive dose was recovered in urine and 11% in feces within 48 hours. Direct glucuronidation of arformoterol is mediated by several UGT enzymes and is the primary elimination route.

Half life

In COPD patients given 15 mcg inhaled arformoterol twice a day for 14 days, the mean terminal half-life of arformoterol was 26 hours.

Clearance
  • renal cl=8.9 L/hr [Healthy male subjects]
Toxicity

A death was reported in dogs after a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg (approximately 4500 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). As with all inhaled sympathomimetic medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololAcebutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololAlprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmineptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amineptine is combined with Arformoterol.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmiodaroneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
AnagrelideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AprepitantThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.Approved
AsenapineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.Approved
AtenololAtenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
AtomoxetineAtomoxetine may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.Approved
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arformoterol is combined with Atosiban.Approved, Investigational
AzithromycinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Azithromycin.Approved
BedaquilineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.Approved
BendroflumethiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benmoxin is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
Benzylpenicilloyl PolylysineArformoterol may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine as a diagnostic agent.Approved
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Arformoterol can be decreased when used in combination with Betahistine.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.Approved
BisoprololBisoprolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
BopindololBopindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brofaromine is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
BucindololBucindolol may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Investigational
BumetanideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bumetanide.Approved
BunazosinBunazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Investigational
BupranololBupranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.Approved
CabergolineCabergoline may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.Approved
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caroxazone is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
CarvedilolCarvedilol may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololCeliprolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChloroquineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CimetidineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CiprofloxacinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Cisapride.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
CloranololCloranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clozapine.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved
CrizotinibArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Crizotinib.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
CyclopenthiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.Approved
DibenzepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dibenzepin is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DisopyramideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DofetilideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.Approved
DolasetronArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dolasetron.Approved
DomperidoneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Domperidone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
DronedaroneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Droperidol.Approved, Vet Approved
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Eliglustat.Approved
Ergoloid mesylateErgoloid mesylate may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.Approved
ErgonovineErgonovine may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.Approved
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.Approved
ErythromycinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsmirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmirtazapine is combined with Arformoterol.Investigational
EsmololEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
Etacrynic acidArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Etacrynic acid.Approved
EtravirineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
FlecainideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flecainide.Approved, Withdrawn
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furazolidone is combined with Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
Gadobenic acidArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.Approved
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GemifloxacinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GoserelinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.Approved
GranisetronArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Granisetron.Approved, Investigational
HaloperidolArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Haloperidol.Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Harmaline is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydracarbazine is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
IbutilideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.Approved
IloperidoneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Iloperidone.Approved
ImipramineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndapamideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndoraminIndoramin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Withdrawn
IprindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iprindole is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproclozide is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LabetalolLabetalol may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LenvatinibArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.Approved
LeuprolideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofepramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofepramine is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
LopinavirArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arformoterol is combined with Loxapine.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebanazine is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
MepindololMepindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Experimental
MethadoneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Methadone.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethyclothiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Methyclothiazide.Approved
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylene blue is combined with Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
MethylergometrineMethylergometrine may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.Approved
MetolazoneArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.Approved
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MoxifloxacinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
NebivololNebivolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NilotinibArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Octamoxin is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
OfloxacinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ondansetron.Approved
OpipramolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opipramol is combined with Arformoterol.Investigational
OxprenololOxprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
PaliperidoneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pargyline is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pazopanib.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Arformoterol can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenbutololPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
PentamidineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pentamidine.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerflutrenArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pheniprazine is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxypropazine is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pimozide.Approved
PiretanideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Piretanide.Experimental
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirlindole is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pivhydrazine is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
PolythiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PrazosinPrazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved
PrimaquineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcainamideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.Approved
PromazineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropafenoneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
QuetiapineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quetiapine.Approved
QuinethazoneArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Quinethazone.Approved
QuinidineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.Approved
QuinineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RitonavirThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Arformoterol.Withdrawn
SaquinavirArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinSilodosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SotalolArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.Approved
SpironolactoneSpironolactone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved
StiripentolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
TamsulosinTamsulosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
TelavancinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.Approved
TelithromycinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telithromycin.Approved
TerazosinTerazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TertatololTertatolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Experimental
TetrabenazineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Tetrabenazine.Approved
ThioridazineArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
TianeptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tianeptine is combined with Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TimololTimolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Toloxatone is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
TopiramateThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TorasemideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Torasemide.Approved
ToremifeneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Toremifene.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Arformoterol.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrichlormethiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Experimental
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Arformoterol.Approved
UrapidilUrapidil may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Arformoterol.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.Approved
VemurafenibArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ziprasidone.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Vaman Vaishali Haldavanekar, Mangesh Prabhu, Dharmaraj Ramachandra Rao, Rajendra Narayanrao Kankan, "Process for the Synthesis of Arformoterol." U.S. Patent US20110166237, issued July 07, 2011.

US20110166237
General References
  1. Hanania NA, Donohue JF, Nelson H, Sciarappa K, Goodwin E, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: The safety and efficacy of arformoterol and formoterol in COPD. COPD. 2010 Feb;7(1):17-31. doi: 10.3109/15412550903499498. [PubMed:20214460]
  2. Donohue JF, Hanania NA, Sciarappa KA, Goodwin E, Grogan DR, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: Arformoterol and salmeterol in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a one year evaluation of safety and tolerance. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2008 Apr;2(2):37-48. doi: 10.1177/1753465808089455. [PubMed:19124357]
  3. Cazzola M, Matera MG, Lotvall J: Ultra long-acting beta 2-agonists in development for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Jul;14(7):775-83. [PubMed:16022567]
  4. Panettieri RA Jr, MacIntyre N, Sims M, Kerwin E, Fogarty C, Noonan M, Claus R, Andrews WT: Comparison of the efficacy and safety of arformoterol 15 microg twice daily and arformoterol 30 microg once daily in COPD: a single-dose, multicenter, randomized, modified-blind, two-way crossover study. Clin Ther. 2009 Aug;31(8):1716-23. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.08.012. [PubMed:19808130]
  5. Kharidia J, Fogarty CM, Laforce CF, Maier G, Hsu R, Dunnington KM, Curry L, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study comparing arformoterol tartrate inhalation solution and racemic formoterol dry powder inhaler in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;21(4):657-62. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2008.03.003. Epub 2008 Apr 7. [PubMed:18501650]
  6. Baumgartner RA, Hanania NA, Calhoun WJ, Sahn SA, Sciarappa K, Hanrahan JP: Nebulized arformoterol in patients with COPD: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):261-78. [PubMed:17472819]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB15399
PubChem Compound
3083544
PubChem Substance
46506392
ChemSpider
2340731
BindingDB
50151720
ChEBI
408174
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1363
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000943
PharmGKB
PA164743977
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
3CompletedTreatmentBronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Bronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema2
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
3WithdrawnPreventionExercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)1
4CompletedTreatmentBronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)3
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute Asthma1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Bronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)15 ug/2mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Brovana 15 mcg/2 ml solution3.41USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5795564No1995-04-032012-04-03Us
US6814953No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7348362No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7462645No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7473710No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7541385No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US6667344No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US6040344No1996-11-122016-11-12Us
US8110706No2001-11-092021-11-09Us
US7465756No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US6720453No2001-11-092021-11-09Us
US6472563No2001-11-092021-11-09Us
US7145036No2001-11-092021-11-09Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0416 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.91ALOGPS
logP1.06ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.81ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.82 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity97.87 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.56 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8991
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8026
Caco-2 permeable-0.6916
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.747
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8773
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8561
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8818
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.714
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7086
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5556
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6609
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8994
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8757
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8442
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7517
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8704
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.992
Rat acute toxicity2.4047 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9611
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6602
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenethylamines
Direct Parent
Amphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenylpropanes / Anilides / Phenoxy compounds / N-arylamides / Methoxybenzenes / Anisoles / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Alkyl aryl ethers / Aralkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides
show 9 more
Substituents
Amphetamine or derivatives / Phenylpropane / Anilide / Phenoxy compound / Anisole / Phenol ether / N-arylamide / Methoxybenzene / Alkyl aryl ether / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
show 23 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
N-[2-hydroxy-5-(1-hydroxy-2-\{[1-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]amino\}ethyl)phenyl]formamide (CHEBI:408174)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Authors unspecified: Arformoterol: (R,R)-eformoterol, (R,R)-formoterol, arformoterol tartrate, eformoterol-sepracor, formoterol-sepracor, R,R-eformoterol, R,R-formoterol. Drugs R D. 2004;5(1):25-7. [PubMed:14725487]
  2. Op't Holt TB: Inhaled beta agonists. Respir Care. 2007 Jul;52(7):820-32. [PubMed:17594727]
  3. Matera MG, Cazzola M: ultra-long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists: an emerging therapeutic option for asthma and COPD? Drugs. 2007;67(4):503-15. [PubMed:17352511]
  4. Cazzola M, Hanania NA, Matera MG: Arformoterol tartrate in the treatment of COPD. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2010 Apr;4(2):155-62. doi: 10.1586/ers.10.16. [PubMed:20406080]
  5. Cazzola M, Matera MG, Lotvall J: Ultra long-acting beta 2-agonists in development for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Jul;14(7):775-83. [PubMed:16022567]
  6. Kharidia J, Fogarty CM, Laforce CF, Maier G, Hsu R, Dunnington KM, Curry L, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study comparing arformoterol tartrate inhalation solution and racemic formoterol dry powder inhaler in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;21(4):657-62. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2008.03.003. Epub 2008 Apr 7. [PubMed:18501650]
  7. Baumgartner RA, Hanania NA, Calhoun WJ, Sahn SA, Sciarappa K, Hanrahan JP: Nebulized arformoterol in patients with COPD: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):261-78. [PubMed:17472819]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910]

Drug created on May 16, 2007 14:28 / Updated on November 09, 2017 02:58