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Identification
NameLinagliptin
Accession NumberDB08882
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionLinagliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of type II diabetes [Wikipedia]. Two pharmacological characteristics that sets linagliptin apart from other DPP-4 inhibitors is that it has a non-linear pharmacokinetic profile and is not primarily eliminated by the renal system. FDA approved on May 2, 2011.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(R)-8-(3-Aminopiperidin-1-yl)-7-but-2-ynyl-3-methyl-1-(4-methylquinazolin-2-ylmethyl)-3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione
BI 1356
BI-1356
Tradjenta
Trajenta
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
TradjentaTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-05-09Not applicableUs
TradjentaTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralCardinal Health2011-05-09Not applicableUs
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee2011-09-13Not applicableCanada
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
TrajentaTablet, film coated5 mgOralBoehringer Ingelheim International Gmb H2011-08-24Not applicableEu
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
GlyxambiBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
JentaduetoPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Jentadueto XRBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII3X29ZEJ4R2
CAS number668270-12-0
WeightAverage: 472.5422
Monoisotopic: 472.23352218
Chemical FormulaC25H28N8O2
InChI KeyLTXREWYXXSTFRX-QGZVFWFLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C25H28N8O2/c1-4-5-13-32-21-22(29-24(32)31-12-8-9-17(26)14-31)30(3)25(35)33(23(21)34)15-20-27-16(2)18-10-6-7-11-19(18)28-20/h6-7,10-11,17H,8-9,12-15,26H2,1-3H3/t17-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
8-[(3R)-3-aminopiperidin-1-yl]-7-(but-2-yn-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-[(4-methylquinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CC#CCN1C(=NC2=C1C(=O)N(CC1=NC3=C(C=CC=C3)C(C)=N1)C(=O)N2C)N1CCC[C@@H](N)C1
Pharmacology
IndicationLinagliptin is used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsLinagliptin is a more potent inhibitor of DPP-4 than other drugs that belong to the same class with an IC50 of 1 nM. In comparison, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and vildagliptin have an IC50 of 19, 50, and 62 nM respectively. A dose of 2.5 and 5 mg reduces the activity of DPP-4 by 72.7% and 86.1% from baseline respectively in healthy male subjects. In diabetes patients, a dose of 5 and 10 mg inhibits >90% of DPP-4. Linagliptin is also selectively inhibits DPP-4 as indicated by the lack of DPP-8 or DPP-9 inhibition at therapeutic exposures in vitro.
Mechanism of actionLinagliptin is a competitive and reversible dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 enzyme inhibitor that slows the breakdown of insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 for better glycemic control in diabetes patients. GLP and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones that increase the production and release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells and decrease the release of glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells. This results in a overall decrease in glucose production in the liver and increase an of insulin in a glucose-dependent manner.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP27487 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionCmax, 5 mg, healthy subjects = 8.32 nmol/L; Tmax, 5 mg, healthy subjects = 1.75 hours; AUC(0-24 hours), 5 mg, healthy subjects = 119 nmol · h/L; Bioavailability, healthy subjects = 30%. When a dose of 5 mg once daily is given, steady state is achieved by the third dose. Although a high fat meal reduces Cmax and increases AUC, this interaction with food is not clinically significant. Linagliptin may be administered with or without food.
Volume of distribution

Vd = 1110 L

Protein binding70-80% protein bound, the extent to which is concentration dependent. Because of the propensity of linagliptin to bind to plasma protein, it has a long terminal half-life and a non-linear pharmacokinetic profile. In contrast, other DPP-4 inhibitors have linear pharmacokinetic profiles which makes linagliptin unique.
Metabolism

Linagliptin is not extensively metabolized, 90% of dose is excreted unchanged. The small portion of drug that is metabolized, the main metabolite is CD 1790 and is pharmacologically inactive. Glucuronidation forms some of its other minor metabolites.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Linagliptin
Not Available
CD 1790Details
Route of eliminationLinagliptin is eliminated via the feces/enteroheptic system (80%) and urine (5%). This is unlike other DPP-4 inhibitors which are primarily eliminated by the renal system.
Half lifeTerminal half life = 131 hours. Because of this long half-life, inhibition of DPP-4 activity is sustained which indicates that once-daily dosing is appropriate. Effective half-life for accumulation of drug is 12 hours when multiple oral doses of 5 mg are given.
Clearance

Renal clearance, steady state = 70 mL/min

ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbacavirThe serum concentration of Abacavir can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.Approved
AcetohexamideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.Withdrawn
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.Approved
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinThe serum concentration of Alfuzosin can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
AlprazolamThe serum concentration of Alprazolam can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Experimental
AmineptineThe serum concentration of Amineptine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Illicit, Withdrawn
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.Approved
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.Approved
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.Approved, Withdrawn
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
BepridilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Bosutinib.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.Approved
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.Approved
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.Approved
CabergolineThe serum concentration of Cabergoline can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CandoxatrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Linagliptin can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.Approved
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.Approved
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe serum concentration of Cisapride can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clarithromycin can be decreased when used in combination with Linagliptin.Approved
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Vet Approved
ClotrimazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Vet Approved
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.Approved
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe serum concentration of Cyclobenzaprine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Cyclophosphamide.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.Approved
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.Approved
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.Approved
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of Delavirdine can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Desipramine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.Approved
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.Approved
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DienestrolThe serum concentration of Dienestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.Approved
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Digoxin.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe serum concentration of Dihydroergotamine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be decreased when combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DisopyramideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DosulepinThe serum concentration of Dosulepin can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Doxepin can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.Approved
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnfuvirtideThe serum concentration of Enfuvirtide can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
Ergoloid mesylateThe serum concentration of Ergoloid mesylate can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Ergonovine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Ergotamine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EsmirtazapineThe serum concentration of Esmirtazapine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Investigational
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Estramustine can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.Approved, Vet Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe serum concentration of Estrogens, esterified can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Estrone.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Etacrynic acid.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol diacetate.Approved
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.Approved, Investigational
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.Approved
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FentanylThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.Approved
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.Approved
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GarlicThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Garlic.Approved
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.Approved, Investigational
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GlibornurideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glibornuride.Withdrawn
GliclazideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.Approved
GlimepirideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.Approved
GlipizideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.Approved
GliquidoneLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliquidone.Approved
GlisoxepideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glisoxepide.Approved
GlyburideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.Approved
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.Experimental
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.Approved
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HexestrolThe serum concentration of Hexestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Withdrawn
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroflumethiazide.Approved
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.Approved
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.Approved
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.Approved, Investigational
Insulin AspartLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.Approved
Insulin DetemirLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.Approved
Insulin GlargineLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.Approved
Insulin GlulisineLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.Approved
Insulin HumanLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
Insulin LisproLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.Approved
Insulin PorkLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Pork.Approved
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LanreotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Lanreotide.Approved
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.Approved
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Linagliptin.Approved, Nutraceutical
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.Approved
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LosartanThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.Approved
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
MecaserminLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.Approved, Investigational
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MestranolThe serum concentration of Mestranol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.Approved
MethallenestrilThe serum concentration of Methallenestril can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Experimental
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineThe serum concentration of Mirtazapine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MorphineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NateglinideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Nefazodone can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.Approved
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.Approved
NortriptylineThe serum concentration of Nortriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
OctreotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Octreotide.Approved, Investigational
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OmapatrilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OpipramolThe serum concentration of Opipramol can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Investigational
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PasireotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Pasireotide.Approved
PentamidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Pentamidine.Approved
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
PiperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Piperazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Polythiazide.Approved
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.Approved
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.Approved
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.Approved
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropranololThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Protriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Quinethazone.Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.Approved
RepaglinideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.Approved, Investigational
RescinnamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.Approved
RiociguatThe serum concentration of Riociguat can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe serum concentration of Sildenafil can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SpiraprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
St. John's WortThe metabolism of Linagliptin can be increased when combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SulfadiazineLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.Approved
SulfisoxazoleLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe serum concentration of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
TacrineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.Experimental
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.Withdrawn
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.Investigational
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.Approved, Investigational
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
TianeptineThe serum concentration of Tianeptine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TolazamideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.Approved
TolbutamideLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.Approved
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.Approved
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TriazolamThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Trimipramine can be increased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.Approved, Vet Approved
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.Approved, Investigational
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.Approved, Investigational
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Although a high fat meal reduces Cmax and increases AUC, this interaction with food is not clinically significant
References
Synthesis Reference

Pietro ALLEGRINI, Emanuele ATTOLINO, Marco ARTICO, “PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF LINAGLIPTIN.” U.S. Patent US20120165525, issued June 28, 2012.

US20120165525
General References
  1. Forst T, Pfutzner A: Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor with a unique pharmacological profile, and efficacy in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Jan;13(1):101-10. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2012.642863. [PubMed:22149370 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10BH05A10BD19A10BD11
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.05
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (353 KB)
MSDSDownload (104 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9513
Caco-2 permeable-0.5842
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.774
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5185
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7716
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6658
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.803
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7335
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7013
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9273
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8474
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9176
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8163
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5548
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8562
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5444
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8587
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9966
Rat acute toxicity2.7553 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6109
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8116
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2435730 No2011-03-292022-02-21Canada
CA2496249 No2012-01-242023-08-18Canada
US6303661 No1997-04-242017-04-24Us
US6890898 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7078381 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7407955 No2003-08-122023-08-12Us
US7459428 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7579449 No2005-11-052025-11-05Us
US7713938 No2007-04-152027-04-15Us
US8119648 No2003-08-122023-08-12Us
US8178541 No2003-08-122023-08-12Us
US8551957 No2009-10-192029-10-19Us
US8673927 No2007-05-042027-05-04Us
US8846695 No2010-06-042030-06-04Us
US8853156 No2011-03-052031-03-05Us
US8883805 No2005-11-262025-11-26Us
US9155705 No2010-05-212030-05-21Us
US9173859 No2007-05-042027-05-04Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility<1 mg/mL MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0502 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.62ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area113.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity133.43 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability51.24 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Quinazoline
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Pyrimidone
  • 3-aminopiperidine
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Piperidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Tertiary amine
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Cell surface glycoprotein receptor involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T-cell activation. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding at least ADA, CAV1, IGF2R, and PTPRC. Its binding to CAV1 and CARD11 induces T-cell proliferation and NF-kappa-B activation in a T-cell receptor/CD3-dependent manner. Its interaction with ADA also ...
Gene Name:
DPP4
Uniprot ID:
P27487
Molecular Weight:
88277.935 Da
References
  1. Forst T, Pfutzner A: Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor with a unique pharmacological profile, and efficacy in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Jan;13(1):101-10. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2012.642863. [PubMed:22149370 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
Comments
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Drug created on May 21, 2013 16:46 / Updated on December 08, 2016 02:41