Identification

Name
Racepinephrine
Accession Number
DB11124
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Racepinephrine is a racemic mixture consisting of d-Epinephrine and l-Epinephrine enantiomers. Epinephrine is a non-selective α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonist. It is a bronchodilator used in the temporary relief of mild symptoms of intermittent asthma including wheezing, tightness of chest and shortness of breath. It is an active ingredient in oral inhalation over-the-counter products as racepinephrine hydrochloride.

Synonyms
Not Available
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Racepinephrine hydrochloride336096P2WE329-63-5ATADHKWKHYVBTJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
S2Solution2.25 %Respiratory (inhalation)Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corporation1998-10-02Not applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AsthmanefrinSolution11.25 mg/.5mLRespiratory (inhalation)Nephron Sc, Inc.2012-08-01Not applicableUs
Epi-MistAerosol, spray.594 mg/.12mLRespiratory (inhalation)Drnaturalhealing Inc2015-05-15Not applicableUs
S2Solution11.25 mg/.5mLRespiratory (inhalation)Cardinal Health2000-01-01Not applicableUs
S2Solution11.25 mg/.5mLRespiratory (inhalation)Nephron Sc, Inc.2000-01-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
GR0L9S3J0F
CAS number
329-65-7
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for temporary relief of mild symptoms of intermittent asthma.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Epinephrine acts on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. When given subcutaneously or intramuscularly, epinephrine has a rapid onset and short duration of action [FDA Label]. Epinephrine induces bronchial smooth muscle relaxation to relieve respiratory distress in asthma. In a clinical trial of paediatric patients with bronchiolitis, administration of aerosolized racemic epinephrine via inhalation resulted in improved clinical symptoms such as wheezing and retractions [1]. The clinical efficacy of racemic epinephrine was comparable to that of salbutamol or albuterol, which are commonly used bronchodilators [1, 2].

Mechanism of action

Epinephrine is a non-selective agonist at α- and β-adrenergic receptors, which are all G-protein-coupled receptors. The main therapeutic effect of epinephrine arises from its agonist action on β2-adrenergic receptors, which activate adenylyl cyclase and increase intracellular cyclic AMP production. Epinephrine causes smooth muscle relaxation on various tissues, including bronchial smooth muscles [3]. As a result, epinephrine serves to alleviate bronchospasm, wheezing and tightness of chest that may occur during asthmatic attacks [FDA Label]. Via its relaxer effects on the smooth muscle of the stomach, intestine, uterus and urinary bladder, epinephrine may also alleviate pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema and may relieve gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms associated with anaphylaxis.

Epinephrine also acts on the α-adrenergic receptors on vascular smooth muscles, particularly in the skin and splanchnic vascular beds, to cause constriction. Epinephrine is thought to reduce capillary leakage by constricting precapillary arterioles, reducing hydrostatic pressure and consequently bronchial mucosal edema [1].

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-2B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-2C adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
ABeta-1 adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
ABeta-3 adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

To refer to the pharmacokinetic data of L-epinephrine, refer to the drug entry for Epinephrine.

Volume of distribution

To refer to the pharmacokinetic data of L-epinephrine, refer to the drug entry for Epinephrine.

Protein binding

To refer to the pharmacokinetic data of L-epinephrine, refer to the drug entry for Epinephrine.

Metabolism

To refer to the pharmacokinetic data of L-epinephrine, refer to the drug entry for Epinephrine.

Route of elimination

To refer to the pharmacokinetic data of L-epinephrine, refer to the drug entry for Epinephrine.

Half life

To refer to the pharmacokinetic data of L-epinephrine, refer to the drug entry for Epinephrine.

Clearance

To refer to the pharmacokinetic data of L-epinephrine, refer to the drug entry for Epinephrine.

Toxicity

Oral LD50 of racepinephrine hydrochloride in mouse is 90 mg/kg [MSDS].

Overdosage of epinephrine may cause extremely elevated arterial pressure, which may further lead to cerebrovascular hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients. Peripheral vascular constriction in conjunction with cardiac stimulation may produce pulmonary oedema. Treatment consists of rapidly acting vasodilators or alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs and/or respiratory support. Transient bradycardia followed by tachycardia may also be observed, and may be accompanied by potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. remature ventricular contractions may appear within one minute after injection and may be followed by multifocal ventricular tachycardia (prefibrillation rhythm). Subsidence of the ventricular effects may be followed by atrial tachycardia and occasionally by atrioventricular block. In case of arrhythmias, treatment should involve administration of a beta­ adrenergic blocking drug such as propranolol. Overdosage may also produce extreme pallor and coldness of the skin, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure, which should each be treated with suitable corrective measures [FDA Label].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is combined with Racepinephrine.Experimental
AcebutololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Acemetacin can be decreased when used in combination with Racepinephrine.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololAlprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Withdrawn
AmineptineAmineptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
AmitriptylinoxideAmitriptylinoxide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
AmoxapineAmoxapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ArotinololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Arotinolol.Investigational
AtenololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Atenolol.Approved
AtomoxetineAtomoxetine may increase the hypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Atosiban.Approved, Investigational
AzosemideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Azosemide.Investigational
BefunololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BendroflumethiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benmoxin is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Illicit
Benzylpenicilloyl PolylysineRacepinephrine may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine as a diagnostic agent.Approved
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Racepinephrine can be decreased when used in combination with Betahistine.Approved, Investigational
BetaxololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BevantololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BisoprololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BopindololBopindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brofaromine is combined with Racepinephrine.Experimental
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
BucindololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BufuralolRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumetanideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bumetanide.Approved
BunazosinBunazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Investigational
BupranololBupranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
ButriptylineButriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
CabergolineCabergoline may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
Calcium carbimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium carbimide is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Withdrawn
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caroxazone is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
CarvedilolRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Racepinephrine.Illicit, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
ClenbuterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clenbuterol is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClomipramineClomipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CloranololCloranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental
CyclopenthiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
DesipramineDesipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
DibenzepinDibenzepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
DimetacrineDimetacrine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Withdrawn
DobutamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dobutamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
DopamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
DosulepinDosulepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
DoxepinDoxepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Doxofylline.Approved, Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the tachycardic activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Illicit
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the tachycardic activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
EpanololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EphedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ephedrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EpitizideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Epitizide.Experimental
Ergoloid mesylateErgoloid mesylate may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
ErgonovineErgonovine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
EsmololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.Approved
Etacrynic acidRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Etacrynic acid.Approved, Investigational
EtilefrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etilefrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
FenoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoterol is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
FenozoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Fenozolone.Experimental
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furazolidone is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Harmaline is combined with Racepinephrine.Experimental
HyaluronidaseHyaluronidase may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydracarbazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
HydroxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroxyamphetamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
ImipramineImipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
IndapamideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndenololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndoraminIndoramin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
IprindoleIprindole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproclozide is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
IsoprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoprenaline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxsuprine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Withdrawn
LabetalolRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipineRacepinephrine may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LandiololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the hypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
LofepramineLofepramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental
LorpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Racepinephrine can be increased when used in combination with Lorpiprazole.Approved
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebanazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
MefenorexThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Mefenorex.Experimental
MelitracenMelitracen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental, Investigational
MephentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mephentermine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
MepindololMepindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental
MetaraminolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaraminol is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methamphetamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Illicit
MethoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
MethyclothiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Methyclothiazide.Approved
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylene blue is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
MethylergometrineMethylergometrine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
MetolazoneRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Racepinephrine can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MidodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midodrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
MirtazapineMirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moclobemide is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the tachycardic activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
NadololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Nadolol.Approved
NebivololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
NorepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norepinephrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
NortriptylineNortriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
NylidrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nylidrin is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Octamoxin is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
OpipramolOpipramol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Investigational
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orciprenaline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
OxprenololOxprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pargyline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
Patent BlueThe therapeutic efficacy of Racepinephrine can be decreased when used in combination with Patent Blue.Approved
PenbutololPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pheniprazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
PhenmetrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenmetrazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Illicit
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxypropazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
PhentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Illicit
PhenylephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
PhenylpropanolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylpropanolamine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PindololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
PiretanideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Piretanide.Approved
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirlindole is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pivhydrazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
Platelet Activating FactorRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PractololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Practolol.Approved
PrazosinPrazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
PrenalterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Prenalterol.Experimental
ProcarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procarbazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
ProcaterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaterol is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
PropranololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
PseudoephedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Pseudoephedrine.Approved
QuinethazoneRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Quinethazone.Approved
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
RitodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritodrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Racepinephrine.Withdrawn
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SilodosinSilodosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
SotalolRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Sotalol.Approved
SpironolactoneSpironolactone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
SynephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Synephrine is combined with Racepinephrine.Experimental
TalinololRacepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinTamsulosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the hypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
TerazosinTerazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
TerbutalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbutaline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
TertatololTertatolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental
TetryzolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetryzoline is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
TianeptineTianeptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
TimololTimolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Toloxatone is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved
TorasemideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Torasemide.Approved
TramazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Tramazoline.Investigational
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Racepinephrine.Approved, Investigational
TretoquinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Tretoquinol.Experimental
TrichlormethiazideRacepinephrine may increase the hypokalemic activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Experimental
TrimipramineTrimipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
TyramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tyramine is combined with Racepinephrine.Investigational, Nutraceutical
UrapidilUrapidil may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Racepinephrine.Investigational
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Langley JM, Smith MB, LeBlanc JC, Joudrey H, Ojah CR, Pianosi P: Racemic epinephrine compared to salbutamol in hospitalized young children with bronchiolitis; a randomized controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN46561076]. BMC Pediatr. 2005 May 5;5(1):7. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-5-7. [PubMed:15876347]
  2. Reijonen T, Korppi M, Pitkakangas S, Tenhola S, Remes K: The clinical efficacy of nebulized racemic epinephrine and albuterol in acute bronchiolitis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995 Jun;149(6):686-92. [PubMed:7767427]
  3. 14. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 174-175, 181-182). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911128
Wikipedia
Racepinephrine
FDA label
Download (625 KB)
MSDS
Download (59.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionDysphonia / Postoperative pain / Swallowing Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Aerosol, sprayRespiratory (inhalation).594 mg/.12mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)11.25 mg/.5mL
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)2.25 %
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)157MSDS
water solubilitySolubleMSDS
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID
P35368
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
56835.375 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine...
Gene Name
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID
P18089
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49565.8 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID
P18825
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49521.585 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID
P25100
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
60462.205 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. Beta-3 is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis.
Gene Name
ADRB3
Uniprot ID
P13945
Uniprot Name
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
43518.615 Da

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on May 02, 2018 01:30