Identification

Name
Propofol
Accession Number
DB00818  (APRD01201, EXPT02558, DB05893)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Propofol is an intravenous anaesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. IV administration of propfol is used to induce unconsciousness after which anaesthesia may be maintained using a combination of medications. Recovery from propofol-induced anaesthesia is generally rapid and associated with less frequent side effects (e.g. drowsiness, nausea, vomiting) than with thiopental, methohexital, and etomidate. Propofol may be used prior to diagnostic procedures requiring anaesthesia, in the management of refractory status epilepticus, and for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia prior to and during surgeries.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2,6-Bis(1-methylethyl)phenol
  • 2,6-Diisopropylphenol
  • Disoprivan
  • Disoprofol
  • Propofol
  • Propofolum
External IDs
ICI 35-868 / ICI 35,868 / ICI 35868 / ICI-35868 / ICI35,868
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act PropofolEmulsion10 mgIntravenousActavis Pharma Company2015-11-20Not applicableCanada
DiprivanInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2009-11-13Not applicableUs
DiprivanInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-03-01Not applicableUs
DiprivanInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousAstra Zeneca Lp1996-06-242010-10-31Us
Diprivan 1%Emulsion1 %IntravenousAspen Pharmacare Canada Inc.1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-10-072018-05-18Us
PropofolEmulsion10 mgIntravenousBaxter LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Propofol InjectionEmulsion10 mgIntravenousFresenius Kabi2015-06-01Not applicableCanada
Propofol InjectionEmulsion10 mgIntravenousNovopharm Limited2000-07-052013-04-01Canada
Propofol InjectionEmulsion10 mgIntravenousHospira, Inc.1998-02-05Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PMS-propofolEmulsion10 mgIntravenousPharmascience Inc2002-03-01Not applicableCanada
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-07-01Not applicableUs
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2018-04-11Not applicableUs
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2007-06-212015-11-30Us
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousActavis Pharma Company2016-01-07Not applicableUs
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2007-06-212016-03-31Us
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2014-08-21Not applicableUs
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2005-04-192013-07-02Us
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2006-04-03Not applicableUs
PropofolInjection, emulsion10 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2007-06-212016-04-30Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Anesthesia S/I-40Propofol (10 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl Alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)KitRX PHARMA-PACK, INC.2017-08-24Not applicableUs
Anesthesia S/I-50Propofol (10 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl Alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)KitRX PHARMA-PACK, INC.2017-06-16Not applicableUs
Anesthesia S/I-60Propofol (10 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl Alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL)KitRX PHARMA-PACK, INC.2017-06-16Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Anepol (Ha Na Pharm) / Anespro (Behrens) / Anesvan (Chi Sheng) / Critifol (Abbott) / Diprivan / Disoprivan (AstraZeneca) / Dormofol (Actavis) / Fresofol (Boryung) / Gobbifol (Gobbi) / Hipnolam (AC Farma) / Hypro (Celon) / IV-Pro (Claris Lifesciences) / Lipuro (B. Braun Medical) / Oleo-Lax (Fada) / Plofed (Warsaw Pharmaceutical Works) / Profol (Biogalenic) / Profolen (Blausiegel) / Propofabb (Hospira) / Propofil (Alvia) / Propogen (Genepharm) / Propolipid (Fresenius) / Propovan (Bharat Serums) / Propoven (Fresenius) / Provive (AFT) / Rapinovet / Recofol (Bayer) / Safol (Novell) / Trivam (Hana Pharm) / Troypofol (Troikaa) / Unifol (Claris Lifesciences)
Categories
UNII
YI7VU623SF
CAS number
2078-54-8
Weight
Average: 178.2707
Monoisotopic: 178.135765198
Chemical Formula
C12H18O
InChI Key
OLBCVFGFOZPWHH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H18O/c1-8(2)10-6-5-7-11(9(3)4)12(10)13/h5-9,13H,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
2,6-bis(propan-2-yl)phenol
SMILES
CC(C)C1=CC=CC(C(C)C)=C1O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia and for management of refractory status epilepticus.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Propofol is a sedative-hypnotic agent for use in the induction and maintenance of anesthesia or sedation. Intravenous injection of a therapeutic dose of propofol produces hypnosis rapidly with minimal excitation, usually within 40 seconds from the start of an injection (the time for one arm-brain circulation).

Mechanism of action

The action of propofol involves a positive modulation of the inhibitory function of the neurotransmitter gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through GABA-A receptors.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
potentiator
Human
USodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
USodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
Absorption

Rapid - time to onset of unconsciousness is 15-30 seconds, due to rapid distribution from plasma to the CNS. Distribution is so rapid that peak plasma concentrations cannot be readily measured. Duration of action is 5-10 minutes.

Volume of distribution
  • 60 L/kg [healthy adults]
Protein binding

95 to 99%, primarily to serum albumin and hemoglobin

Metabolism

Hepatically metabolized mainly by glucuronidation at the C1-hydroxyl. Hydroxylation of the benzene ring to 4-hydroxypropofol may also occur via CYP2B6 and 2C9 with subsequent conjugation to sulfuric and/or glucuronic acid. Hydroxypropofol has approximately 1/3 of hypnotic activity of propofol.

Route of elimination

It is chiefly eliminated by hepatic conjugation to inactive metabolites which are excreted by the kidney.

Half life

Initial distribution phase t1/2α=1.8-9.5 minutes. Second redistirubtion phase t1/2β=21-70 minutes. Terminal elimination phase t1/2γ=1.5-31 hours.

Clearance
  • 23 - 50 mL/kg/min
  • 1.6 - 3.4 L/min [70 Kg adults]
Toxicity

Overdosage may increase pharmacologic and adverse effects or cause death.

IV LD50=53 mg/kg (mice), 42 mg/kg (rats). Oral LD50 (as a solution in soybean oil)=1230 mg/kg (mice), 600 mg/kg (rats)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Propofol.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Propofol.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Propofol.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Propofol.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Propofol.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

John R. Carpenter, "Propofol-based anesthetic and method of making same." U.S. Patent US6150423, issued May, 1977.

US6150423
General References
  1. Vasile B, Rasulo F, Candiani A, Latronico N: The pathophysiology of propofol infusion syndrome: a simple name for a complex syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Sep;29(9):1417-25. Epub 2003 Aug 6. [PubMed:12904852]
  2. Ke JJ, Zhan J, Feng XB, Wu Y, Rao Y, Wang YL: A comparison of the effect of total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil and inhalational anaesthesia with isoflurane on the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008 Jan;36(1):74-8. [PubMed:18326136]
  3. Hong JY, Kang YS, Kil HK: Anaesthesia for day case excisional breast biopsy: propofol-remifentanil compared with sevoflurane-nitrous oxide. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008 Jun;25(6):460-7. doi: 10.1017/S026502150800375X. Epub 2008 Feb 26. [PubMed:18298873]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014956
KEGG Drug
D00549
KEGG Compound
C07523
PubChem Compound
4943
PubChem Substance
46504991
ChemSpider
4774
BindingDB
50058046
ChEBI
44915
ChEMBL
CHEMBL526
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000662
PharmGKB
PA451141
HET
PFL
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Propofol
ATC Codes
N01AX10 — Propofol
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.92 — Miscellaneous General Anesthetics
PDB Entries
1e7a / 3f33 / 3p50 / 5muo / 5mur / 5mvm / 5mvn / 5mzr
FDA label
Download (168 KB)
MSDS
Download (71.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Enrolling by InvitationDiagnosticLaparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery1
0Enrolling by InvitationPreventionFemur Head Necrosis1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy2
1CompletedBasic ScienceAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
1CompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedDiagnosticAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchDyssomnias / Sleep Disorder / Sleeplessness1
1CompletedOtherObesity, Morbid1
1CompletedTreatmentAmnesia-Memory Loss / Memory Losses1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentInflammatory Reaction2
1CompletedTreatmentLactating Women1
1CompletedTreatmentMonitored anesthesia care sedation1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceElectroencephalography1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Renal Failure1
1TerminatedTreatmentAnesthesia Intubation Complications / Other Preterm Infants / Premature Birth of Newborn / Propofol Overdose1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1, 2CompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBrain Injury / Intracranial Pressure1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Reperfusion Injury / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRadical Mastectomy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionInflammatory Lung Injury / Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury / Postoperative Pulmonary Complications1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentComplications1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1, 2WithdrawnOtherActive Emergence From General Anesthesia1
2CompletedNot AvailableArterial Hypotension1
2CompletedNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
2CompletedOtherSedation therapy1
2CompletedPreventionStrabismus1
2CompletedTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Drug / Neonatal Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Coronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hysterectomy / Ketamine / Morphine1
2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesic Rebound Headache / Chronic Daily Headache / Headache, Intractable / Headaches Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Desflurane / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Total Intravenous Anesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Ischemic Coronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Gastrointestinal Polypectomy1
2CompletedTreatmentInduction of General Anaesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Orthopedic Procedures / Total Hip Prosthesis1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation and Anesthesia for Adult Colonoscopy Procedures1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
2CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthesia Awareness1
2RecruitingPreventionCholangitis / Pancreatitis1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentSubarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH)1
2TerminatedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Malignant1
2WithdrawnSupportive CarePatients With "ASA 3" Designation / Patients With ASA 3 Designation1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Hypoperfusion / Intubation, Endotracheal / Premedication1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIntubation, Endotracheal / Premedication1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPain NOS1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Injury1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentTraumas1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionRefractory Epilepsy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAwake Fiberoptic Nasal Intubation1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
2, 3WithdrawnSupportive CareLeukemias1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Breast1
3CompletedNot AvailableSedation therapy1
3CompletedDiagnosticCancer, Breast1
3CompletedOtherSedation therapy1
3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy2
3CompletedPreventionCranitomy Surgery1
3CompletedPreventionLaryngospasm1
3CompletedSupportive CareRespiratory Insufficiency1
3CompletedTreatmentAbscess Incision and Drainage / Electrical Cardioversion / Emergency Department Procedural Sedation / Fractures Reduction1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Craniotomy / Neurosurgery1
3CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia With Use of LMA (Laryngeal Mask Airway)1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebral Aneurysms / Cerebral Arterial Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentContinuous Sedation in Initially Sedated Adults in ICU1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Coronary Artery Disease / General Anesthetic Drug Allergy1
3CompletedTreatmentElective Caesarean Section Surgeries1
3CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Elective Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneral Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneral Anaesthesia / Induction of Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
3CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Intravenous Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
3CompletedTreatmentSedation to be Moderate for a Diagnostic Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Polypectomy1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic End-Stage Renal Disease / Severe Acute Kidney Failure / Transplantation, Renal1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Puncture1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAppendicitis Acute / Inguinal Hernias1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSedation in Critically Ill Patients1
3RecruitingPreventionDelirium / Impaired Cognition / Sepsis1
3RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia / Children / Heart Diseases / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
3RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentColonic Diseases1
3RecruitingTreatmentIntravenous Anesthesia1
3RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
3RecruitingTreatmentSedation or Anesthesia1
3RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentBone Marrow Diseases / Pain NOS1
3TerminatedTreatmentSafety and Efficacy of Sedation Medications1
3TerminatedTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage, Aneurysmal1
3TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
3TerminatedTreatmentRefractory seizure disorders1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentIntubation, Endotracheal1
3WithdrawnNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherCardiac Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAlcohol Drinking / Dexmedetomidine / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy / Propofol / Sedation, Conscious / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnesthesia, Intratracheal / Hernia / Intravenous Anesthesia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionLong-Term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDelirium1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDriving Performance After Minor Ambulatory Surgery / Minor Surgical Procedures With Monitored Anesthesia Care1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOxygenation During One Lung Ventilation1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedNot AvailableDigestive System Diseases / Disorientation1
4CompletedNot AvailableDisorders of Gallbladder, Biliary Tract and Pancrease1
4CompletedNot AvailableFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedNot AvailableIdiopathic Scoliosis / Neuromuscular Dystrophy / Spine Deformity1
4CompletedNot AvailableInflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedNot AvailablePatients Requiring Ambulatory Surgery Under General Anesthesia1
4CompletedNot AvailableShoulder Pain1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Loss of Consciousness1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAortic Diseases / Valvular Heart Disease1
4CompletedBasic ScienceConsciousness, Level Altered1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic SciencePropofol-anaesthesia Via Target-controlled Infusion1
4CompletedDiagnosticAlteration of Cognitive Function / Gastrointestinal Dysfunction1
4CompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia1
4CompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy / Electroencephalography/ Drug Effect1
4CompletedDiagnosticPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
4CompletedDiagnosticUGT1A1*28 Polymorphism1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAnesthesia Intubation Complications1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedOtherHeart Septal Defects, Atrial / Heart Valve Disease1
4CompletedPreventionAirway Complication of Anaesthesia / Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Palonosetron / Ponv1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Rhinosinusitis1
4CompletedPreventionCognitive Impairments1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionDegenerative Arthritis1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedPreventionElective Orthopedic Surgery1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionEndovascular Repair of Aortic Aneurysm / Endovascular Treatment of Arteriosclerosis Obliterans of Lower Extremities1
4CompletedPreventionHeart Valve Disease1
4CompletedPreventionHemodynamics Instability / Renal Function Disorder1
4CompletedPreventionInduction of Anaesthesia1
4CompletedPreventionNausea and vomiting1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Cognitive Functions1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4CompletedPreventionPregnancy1
4CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
4CompletedPreventionSupratentorial Neoplasms1
4CompletedPreventionTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) / Tourniquet-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionUpper Respiratory Infections1
4CompletedScreeningAnaesthesia therapy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
4CompletedScreeningHemodynamics / Side Effects1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m22
4CompletedSupportive CareCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedSupportive CareDNA Damage / Patients in Good Health / Types of General Anesthesia1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Adult1
4CompletedSupportive CareEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedSupportive CareHypothermia1
4CompletedSupportive CareHysterectomy (MeSH nr: E04.950.300.399)1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntravenous Anesthetic Interaction "Unrecognized Condition" / Intravenous Anesthetic Interaction Unrecognized Condition1
4CompletedSupportive CareIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Polyps1
4CompletedSupportive CareNausea / Tiredness1
4CompletedSupportive CareParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedSupportive CarePatients in Good Health1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareRobotic Thyroidectomy1
4CompletedSupportive CareTranscervical Resection of Endometrium / Transcervical Resection of Fibroids / Transcervical Resection of Polyp1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal / Aneurysms / Aortic Diseases / General Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentAbnormal Respiratory Airway Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentAgeing / Induction of Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAmbulatory Surgery / Anaesthesia therapy / Energy Expenditure / Food Intake1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy4
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis / BMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBrain Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentBronchoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentCarotid Stenosis1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Injection / Pain NOS2
4CompletedTreatmentComplications1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Mitral Valve Regurgitation1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Valvular Heart Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation / Delayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDelayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder; Mental, Sedative / General Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorders of Gallbladder, Biliary Tract and Pancreas1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Safety / Procedural Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Usage1
4CompletedTreatmentEfficacy and Safety of Mivacurium Chloride for Pediatric Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentElective Laparoscopic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Moderate Sedation / Propofol / Target Controlled Infusion (TCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Sedation therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Sedation therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentFemale Breast Carcinoma1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentGynecological Disease / Healthy Adults1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHypnosis1
4CompletedTreatmentHypoxemia1
4CompletedTreatmentHysterectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentHysteroscopic Surgery / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4CompletedTreatmentInduction of Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Undescended Testis1
4CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentLung Function1
4CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
4CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPediatric Rigid Bronchoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentPharmacodynamic Interaction1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Sleep Quality1
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation2
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Resection1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy6
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentSepsis / Shock, Septic / Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Apnea, Obstructive1
4CompletedTreatmentStrokes / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
4CompletedTreatmentSubfertility1
4CompletedTreatmentSupraglottic Airways for General Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedTreatmentThoracic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentTopical Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareHemodynamics Instability1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CarePostoperative; Dysfunction Following Cardiac Surgery1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareSmooth muscle relaxation prior to radiological procedures1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Morbidity / Children1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplications / Delirium / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceMicrocirculation1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticGlycogen Synthase Kinase 31
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium in Old Age1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareColonoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Depression / Ketamine1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Electroconvulsive Therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDelirium2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDelirium / Hemodynamics Instability1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGynecology / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfertility, Female / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / This is a Pharmacokinetics Study (no Specific Condition is Studied)1
4RecruitingNot AvailableGeneral Surgery1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthesia; Bariatric Surgery1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceConsciousness / Loss of Consciousness1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceGeneral Surgery / Renal Cancers1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceGeneral Surgery / Thoracic Diseases1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceSevere Sepsis1
4RecruitingDiagnosticBispectral Index / Induction of anesthesia therapy / Target Controlled Infusion (TCI)1
4RecruitingDiagnosticLiver Diseases1
4RecruitingOtherAnaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingOtherChildren / Propofol1
4RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Anaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingPreventionCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo / General Anesthetic Drug Adverse Reaction1
4RecruitingPreventionIntra-abdominal and Intrapelvic Surgery / Intra-abdominal Surgery1
4RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4RecruitingPreventionSublingual Microcirculation1
4RecruitingPreventionVascular Surgery1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAcute Subdural Hematoma1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia, Conduction / Drug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia, Intravenous; Surgery, Plastic1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia; Adverse Effect1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBariatrics / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Bypass, Gastric / Endoscopy / Sleep Apnea Syndromes1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBehaviors / Cognitive Change1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCognition Disorders in Old Age1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColonic Neoplasms / Neoplasms, Breast / Rectal Neoplasms1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColonoscopy (Ambulatory Patients)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Agitation / Respiratory Failure / Sepsis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Rejection in Kidney Transplantation / Delayed Graft Function / Renal Outcome After Kidney Transplantation1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Chronic Rhinosinusitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAmnestic / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium / Dementias1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Delirium / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentArteriovenous Fistulas1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Arrest / Hypothermia1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Propofol / Sevoflurane1
4RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Deep Sedation / Ventilators, Mechanical1
4RecruitingTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hemodialysis Complication1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeadaches / Hydrocephaly / Neoplasms, Abdominal / Neurofibromatoses / Seizures Disorders / Spine Deformity / Tumors1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntra-Abdominal Hypertension1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS2
4RecruitingTreatmentPatients Ongoing Elective Abdominal Laparoscopy1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-operative Residual Curarization1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Surgical Oncology1
4TerminatedPreventionDelirium on Emergence1
4TerminatedSupportive CarePain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnesthesia Recovery Period / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentCritical Illness / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4TerminatedTreatmentDisorder; Heart, Functional, Postoperative, Cardiac Surgery / Heart; Dysfunction Postoperative, Cardiac Surgery1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticCognitive Impairments1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticObesity, Morbid1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticSafety of Gastroscopy1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCerebral Hypoxia / Postoperative Delirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCognition Disorders1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDelirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Geriatric Patients1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareProcedural Sedation / Propofol1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareRespiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hemodynamics / Oxidative Stress1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Pregnancy Termination1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Arthroplasty / Gastric Resection1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBispectral Index / Etomidate / Induction / Pediatric1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCongenital Choledochal Cyst / Congenital Hydronephrosis / Fracture Bone1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDelirium1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Symptoms / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Impaired Cognition1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEmergency1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHemodynamics / Hysteroscopy / Sedation therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHyperalgesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPatients Undergoing Elective Craniotomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Target Controlled Infusion (TCI)1
4WithdrawnPreventionC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac / Delirium1
4WithdrawnPreventionMemory Disorders / Other Functional Disturbances Following Cardiac Surgery1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareAlcohol Dependence / Respiration, Artificial1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentSleep1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAortic Valve Stenosis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceBrain Activity Under Sedation1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherLung Cancers1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherSleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionIschemic Optic Neuropathy1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareAirway Remodelling1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentIntubated Requiring Sedation for Greater Than 48 Hours1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Effects of Dexmedetomidine / Elderly Patients / Emergence From Anesthesia / Recovery From Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnesthesia; Functional / Heart Rate Low1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlindness1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlood Flow / Brain Oxygenation / Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) / Intracranial Neurosurgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardioprotection / Hepatic Function / Recovery From Sedation / Renal Function / Sevoflurane Consumption1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Constipation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDepth of Anesthesia (DOA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFunctional Dyspepsia / Gastritis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGender1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHorner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIgel1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntravenous Anesthetic Agent Overdose1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLiver Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeuromuscular Monitoring1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeurotoxic Effect of Sevoflurane‑Based Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOrthopedics1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug Interaction Potentiation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSaccadic Eye Movements1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUnconscious (Psychology)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAmnesic Properties of Propofol / Pediatric Pateints1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticEGD Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticSedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchPropofol Pharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Ophthalmic1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherObese1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdverse Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Catheter Site Discomfort / Complications / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBlood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiac Diseases / Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCoughing / Elective Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEnd-stage Liver Disease (ESLD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIschemia, Cerebral1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOesophagitis, Eosinophilic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionThoracic Surgery With One-lung Ventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVitrectomy Operation Under General Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVocal Cord; Injury, Superficial1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningCerebral Palsy (CP)1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningElectroconvulsive Therapy / Physiatrics1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningMetabolic Acidosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Body Temperature Changes1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia Intubation Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareC.Delivery; Surgery (Previous), Gynecological / Delayed Emergence From Anesthesia / Inappropriate Device Stimulation of Tissue1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCataracts / Corneal Inflammation / Pterygium / Retina Detachment / Vitreous Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChildren1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareConscious Sedation Under Spinal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareDriving1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareEndarterectomy / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareIdiopathic Scoliosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareIntraocular Pressure1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePediatric Urinary Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRenal Transplant Recipient Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAmnesia / Cognition Disorders / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Delirium / Dementias / Morbidity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Bispectral Index Monitoring / Delirium / Dementias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Immunotoxicity / Inert Gas Narcosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnxiety Preoperative / Midazolam Premedication / Premedication1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBlood Loss1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiac On-pump Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCervical Spondylosis / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Lumbar Spondylosis / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentColonoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComplication of Gastrostomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDrug Usage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElective Surgery / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEmergence Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFractures, Compression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIschaemic Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Repolarization1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOptic Nerve Sheath Diameter / Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Termination / Uterine Curettage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRespiration Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRespiratory Insufficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSepsis / Shock1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStatus;Splenectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTracheal Intubation1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect / Arterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherCochlear Hearing Loss / Homocysteine / Propofol / Sevoflurane1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherThe Sedation Characteristics of Propofol and Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Brain Biopsy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionChildren / Transplantation, Liver1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionPostoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Children, Only / Electroencephalography1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableSex / TOF1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionRobotic-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionTransplantation, Liver1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Inflammatory Reaction / Postoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareFemale Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePatients Compliance1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareUterine Malignancies / Uterus Myoma1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAirway Device / Anaesthesia therapy / C.Surgical Procedure; Gastrointestinal1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Sedation therapy / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentC.Delivery; Surgery (Previous), Gynecological1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentColonic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Hallux Valgus1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNociceptive Pain / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Recovery / Transurethral Resection of the Bladder / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) / Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) / Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) / Acute Pyelonephritis / Adenovirus / Adjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Adrenal Insufficiency / Airway Swelling / Anaesthesia therapy / Anxiolysis / Arterial Hypotension / Autism, Early Infantile / Autistic Disorder / Bartonellosis / Benzodiazepine Withdrawal / Benzodiazepines / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Bloodstream Infections / Bone and Joint Infections / Brain Swelling / Bronchospasm / Brucellosis / Cardiac Arrest / Central Nervous System Infections / Cholera / Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) / Complicated Urinary Tract Infections / Convulsions / Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / Drug hypersensitivity reaction / Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders / Edema / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious / Flu caused by Influenza / Gastroparesis / Gynaecological infection / Headaches / Herpes Simplex Virus / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia / Hyperlipidemias / Infantile Hemangiomas / Infection NOS / Inflammatory Conditions / Inflammatory Reaction / Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis / Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) / Intra-Abdominal Infections / Life-threatening Fungal Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) / Meningitis, Bacterial / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Nausea / Opioid Addiction / Pain NOS / Plague / Pneumonia / Prophylaxis / Psittacosis / Q Fever / Reflux / Relapsing Fever / Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Schizophrenic Disorders / Sedation therapy / Seizures / Sepsis / Skeletal Muscle Spasms / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections / Stable Angina (SA) / Thromboprophylaxis / Thrombotic events / Toxic effect of hydrocyanic acid and cyanides / Trachoma / Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia / Tularemia / Typhus Fever / Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections / Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) / Vomiting / Withdrawal1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Burned / Operative Wound1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableCardiovascular Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableGeneral Anesthetics Toxicity / Lymphocyte Destruction / Metastatic Colorectal Cancers / Molecular Mechanism of Pharmacological Action / Survival Rate1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableGliomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableInhalation and Intravenous Anesthesia / Microcirculatory Effects of Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableLeft Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableLong-term Sedation Due to Head Injuries / Surgery Due to Expansive Processes in the Head / The Focus is to Develop a Closed-loop Control System for Anaesthesia in Vitroretinal Surgery, Surgery Due to Expansive Processes in Head, and Long-term Sedation / Vitroretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePituitary Adenomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePropofol / Sevoflurane1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableSedative Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic SciencePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceSomatosensory Evoked Potentials, and Electroencephalography1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceTransient ischemia attacks1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticTransesophageal Echocardiography Contrast Agents1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticVentricular Tachycardia (VT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherMitochondrial Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPatients Undergoing Robotic Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherSedation therapy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherShort Stature1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Lung Injury (ALI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Efficacy / ERCP / Safety1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthesia Recovery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCognitive Decline / Delirium / Post-operative Quality of Recovery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDelirium / Dexmedetomidine / Lower Extremity Problem / Propofol1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionHyperglycemia Stress1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIntubation; Difficult or Failed1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePediatric ALL1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbscesses / Joint dislocations / Perianal Abscess1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Invasive Mechanical Ventilation1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Anesthesia Morbidity / Breast Neoplasm Female / Regional Anesthesia / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Arterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional / General Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnoxic Encephalopathy / Cardiac Arrest / Refractory seizure disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBlood Loss,Surgical / Blood Transfusions1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBrain / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentElderly Patients / General Anesthetic Drug Adverse Reaction / Postoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIschemia, Brain / Strokes1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament / Tear of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThe Comparison of the I-gel and Endotracheal Tube About in Different Ventilation Settings During Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) / Open Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair / Thoracoabdominal Aneursym Repair With Cardiopulmonary Bypass / Thoracoabdominal Aneursym Stent / Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair With Cardiopulmonary Bypass / Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Stent1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableBenign/Malignant Neoplasm / Gynecology for Benign/Malignant Neoplasm / Long Bone Fracture1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionMyocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionPostoperative pain / Varicosities of the great saphenous vein1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Sleep Apnea, Obstructive1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProcedural Sedation / Procedural Sedation and Analgesia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAneurism / Intestinal Fistula / Intestinal Obstruction / Liver Cirrhosis / Neoplasms, Abdominal1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChildren Requiring Sedation for MRI/CT1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableLung Cancers / Neoplasms, Lung1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableOxidative Stress1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableFunctional disorders of the biliary tract / Pancreatic Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableTarget Controlled Infusion of Propofol1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic SciencePhobic Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionStrabismus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusScreeningAnesthesia Recovery Period / Delirium, Dementia, Cognitive Disorders / Mental Competency / Neurobehavioural Manifestation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareDiverticulosis, Colonic / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Rectal Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pharmacodynamics1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHemolysis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentArterial hypoxia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableOptic Nerve Sheath1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionRespiratory Complications / Swallowing Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
Packagers
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Sicor Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
EmulsionIntravenous1 %
EmulsionIntravenous10 mg
Injection, emulsionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Diprivan 10 mg/ml vial0.93USD ml
Propoven 1000 mg/100 ml vial0.19USD ml
Propoven 200 mg/20 ml ampul0.19USD ml
Propoven 500 mg/50 ml vial0.19USD ml
Propofol 10 mg/ml vial0.13USD ml
Propofol 1% emulsion vial0.1USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2212794No2000-09-122015-03-17Canada
US8476010Yes2013-07-022025-06-01Us
US5908869Yes1999-06-012015-09-22Us
US5731356Yes1998-03-242015-09-22Us
US5731355Yes1998-03-242015-09-22Us
US5714520Yes1998-02-032015-09-22Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)18 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)256 °CPhysProp
water solubility124 mg/LNot Available
logP3.79HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa11.1 (at 20 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.158 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.81ALOGPS
logP4.16ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity56.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9955
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9381
Caco-2 permeable+0.9153
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.722
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9343
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9883
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9036
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7352
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.7838
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5667
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9368
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9196
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7429
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9282
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7195
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7808
Rat acute toxicity2.2996 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8987
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9087
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.9 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-52d81dde2dccf378a450
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cumenes. These are aromatic compounds containing a prop-2-ylbenzene moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Cumenes
Direct Parent
Cumenes
Alternative Parents
Phenylpropanes / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Phenylpropane / Cumene / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / Phenol / Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenols (CHEBI:44915) / a small molecule (CPD-11437)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Franks NP: Molecular targets underlying general anaesthesia. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S72-81. [PubMed:16402123]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB3
Uniprot ID
P28472
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Franks NP: Molecular targets underlying general anaesthesia. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S72-81. [PubMed:16402123]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN4A
Uniprot ID
P35499
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Haeseler G, Karst M, Foadi N, Gudehus S, Roeder A, Hecker H, Dengler R, Leuwer M: High-affinity blockade of voltage-operated skeletal muscle and neuronal sodium channels by halogenated propofol analogues. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;155(2):265-75. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.255. Epub 2008 Jun 23. [PubMed:18574460]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN2A
Uniprot ID
Q99250
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Haeseler G, Karst M, Foadi N, Gudehus S, Roeder A, Hecker H, Dengler R, Leuwer M: High-affinity blockade of voltage-operated skeletal muscle and neuronal sodium channels by halogenated propofol analogues. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;155(2):265-75. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.255. Epub 2008 Jun 23. [PubMed:18574460]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Mikstacki A, Zakerska-Banaszak O, Skrzypczak-Zielinska M, Tamowicz B, Prendecki M, Dorszewska J, Molinska-Glura M, Waszak M, Slomski R: The effect of UGT1A9, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 genes polymorphism on individual differences in propofol pharmacokinetics among Polish patients undergoing general anaesthesia. J Appl Genet. 2017 May;58(2):213-220. doi: 10.1007/s13353-016-0373-2. Epub 2016 Nov 8. [PubMed:27826892]
  2. Ouchi K, Sugiyama K: Required propofol dose for anesthesia and time to emerge are affected by the use of antiepileptics: prospective cohort study. BMC Anesthesiol. 2015 Mar 15;15:34. doi: 10.1186/s12871-015-0006-z. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:25788855]
  3. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. [PubMed:17101742]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW9
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8
Molecular Weight
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Takahashi H, Maruo Y, Mori A, Iwai M, Sato H, Takeuchi Y: Effect of D256N and Y483D on propofol glucuronidation by human uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A9). Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Aug;103(2):131-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00247.x. [PubMed:18816295]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Mano Y, Usui T, Kamimura H: Substrate-dependent modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) by propofol in recombinant human UGT1A1 and human liver microsomes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Sep;101(3):211-4. [PubMed:17697043]
  2. Williams JA, Hyland R, Jones BC, Smith DA, Hurst S, Goosen TC, Peterkin V, Koup JR, Ball SE: Drug-drug interactions for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase substrates: a pharmacokinetic explanation for typically observed low exposure (AUCi/AUC) ratios. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Nov;32(11):1201-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.000794. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [PubMed:15304429]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of t...
Gene Name
FAAH
Uniprot ID
O00519
Uniprot Name
Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1
Molecular Weight
63065.28 Da
References
  1. Zhu F, Han B, Kumar P, Liu X, Ma X, Wei X, Huang L, Guo Y, Han L, Zheng C, Chen Y: Update of TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D787-91. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp1014. Epub 2009 Nov 20. [PubMed:19933260]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Chen TL, Ueng TH, Chen SH, Lee PH, Fan SZ, Liu CC: Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol. Br J Anaesth. 1995 May;74(5):558-62. [PubMed:7772432]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Chen TL, Ueng TH, Chen SH, Lee PH, Fan SZ, Liu CC: Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol. Br J Anaesth. 1995 May;74(5):558-62. [PubMed:7772432]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Chen TL, Ueng TH, Chen SH, Lee PH, Fan SZ, Liu CC: Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol. Br J Anaesth. 1995 May;74(5):558-62. [PubMed:7772432]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Current data available supporting this enzyme action are in vitro studies.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. McKillop D, Wild MJ, Butters CJ, Simcock C: Effects of propofol on human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 activities. Xenobiotica. 1998 Sep;28(9):845-53. doi: 10.1080/004982598239092 . [PubMed:9764927]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID
P19224
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6
Molecular Weight
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Gu J, Lu K, Xia P, Tang M, Dai Q, Ma D, Tao G: Pharmacokinetics of propofol and extrahepatic UGT1A6 gene expression in anhepatic rats. Pharmacology. 2009;84(4):219-26. doi: 10.1159/000236523. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:19752585]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bright DP, Adham SD, Lemaire LC, Benavides R, Gruss M, Taylor GW, Smith EH, Franks NP: Identification of anesthetic binding sites on human serum albumin using a novel etomidate photolabel. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12038-47. Epub 2007 Feb 20. [PubMed:17311911]
  2. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110]
  3. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957]
  4. Schywalsky M, Ihmsen H, Knoll R, Schwilden H: Binding of propofol to human serum albumin. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005;55(6):303-6. [PubMed:16032968]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 17, 2018 07:13