Accession Number
DB00296  (APRD00492)
Small Molecule

Ropivacaine is an aminoamide local anaesthetic drug commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Naropin. It is present as a racemic mixture of the enantiomers containing equal proportions of the “S” and “R” forms. The marketed form contains the single S-enantiomer as the active ingredient.

  • (S)-(−)-1-propyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • (S)-ropivacaine
  • L-N-n-propylpipecolic acid-2,6-xylidide
  • Ropivacaina
  • Ropivacaine
  • Ropivacainum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ropivacaine hydrochlorideV910P86109132112-35-7VSHFRHVKMYGBJL-CKUXDGONSA-N
Ropivacaine hydrochloride anhydrous35504LBE2T98717-15-8NDNSIBYYUOEUSV-RSAXXLAASA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
NaropinSolution2 mgEpidural; InfiltrationAspen Pharmacare Canada Inc.1997-04-30Not applicableCanada
NaropinInjection, solution10 mg/1mLEpiduralFresenius Kabi USA, LLC1996-09-24Not applicableUs
NaropinInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2014-03-11Not applicableUs
NaropinInjection, solution2 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationFresenius Kabi USA, LLC1996-09-24Not applicableUs
NaropinInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; PerineuralFresenius Kabi USA, LLC1996-09-24Not applicableUs
NaropinSolution10 mgEpiduralAspen Pharmacare Canada Inc.1997-04-30Not applicableCanada
NaropinInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralFresenius Kabi USA, LLC1996-09-24Not applicableUs
NaropinSolution5 mgEpidural; InfiltrationAspen Pharmacare Canada Inc.1997-04-30Not applicableCanada
Naropin Inj 7.5mg/mlLiquidParenteralAstra Zeneca1997-04-302003-11-18Canada
ReadyfusOR Ropivacaine Fixed Rate Delivery SystemInjection, solution2 mg/1mLInfiltrationBioQ Pharma Incorporated2018-03-05Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution150 mg/30mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralMylan Institutional LLC2019-05-23Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLParenteralSandoz2014-07-24Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralAkorn, Inc.2016-04-11Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution40 mg/20mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralMylan Institutional LLC2019-05-23Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLEpiduralAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-09-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationSagent Pharmaceuticals2020-01-01Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLEpiduralSomerset Therapeutics, Llc2018-06-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLEpiduralAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-09-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLEpiduralSomerset Therapeutics, Llc2018-06-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; PerineuralAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-09-15Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DexopinRopivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (10 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.2019-06-10Not applicableUs
RopidexRopivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (10 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.2019-06-10Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HClRopivacaine hydrochloride (2 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2012-05-292015-01-14Us
CAS number
Average: 274.4011
Monoisotopic: 274.204513464
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



Used in obstetric anesthesia and regional anesthesia for surgery.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Ropivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.

Mechanism of action

Local anesthetics such as Ropivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. Specifically, they block the sodium-channel and decrease chances of depolarization and consequent action potentials. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers.

ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Bioavailability is 87%–98% following epidural administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

94%, mainly to a1-acid glycoprotein



Route of elimination

Ropivacaine is extensively metabolized in the liver, predominantly by aromatic hydroxylation mediated by cytochrome P4501A to 3-hydroxy ropivacaine. After a single IV dose approximately 37% of the total dose is excreted in the urine as both free and conjugated 3-hydroxy ropivacaine. In total, 86% of the ropivacaine dose is excreted in the urine after intravenous administration of which only 1% relates to unchanged drug.

Half life

Approximately 4.2 hours.

  • 387 +/- 107 mL/min
  • unbound plasma clearance=7.2 +/- 1.6 L/min

High systemic doses of ropivacaine can result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects, with the CNS effects usually occurring at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects occurring at higher concentrations. However, cardiovascular collapse may bee seen at low concentrations. CNS effects include CNS excitation involving nervousness, tingling around the mouth, tinnitus, tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures. CNS depressant effects may follow, associated with drowsiness, loss of consciousness, respiratory depression and apnea. Cardiovascular events may be caused by hypoxemia secondary to respiratory depression and include hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Ropivacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Ropivacaine.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
9-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
9-MethylguanineThe metabolism of 9-Methylguanine can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
AbacavirRopivacaine may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Ropivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.


Synthesis Reference

Peter Jaksch, "Process for the preparation of ropivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate." U.S. Patent US5959112, issued February, 1970.

General References
  1. Weinberg G, Ripper R, Feinstein DL, Hoffman W: Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003 May-Jun;28(3):198-202. [PubMed:12772136]
  2. Picard J, Meek T: Lipid emulsion to treat overdose of local anaesthetic: the gift of the glob. Anaesthesia. 2006 Feb;61(2):107-9. [PubMed:16430560]
  3. Rosenblatt MA, Abel M, Fischer GW, Itzkovich CJ, Eisenkraft JB: Successful use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jul;105(1):217-8. [PubMed:16810015]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
N01BB09 — Ropivacaine
AHFS Codes
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
0Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain1
0Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentFetal Malformation / Mouth Abnormalities / Palate, Cleft1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
0RecruitingOtherCoronary Artery Disease / Delirium1
0RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
0Unknown StatusTreatmentPain1
0WithdrawnPreventionGeneral Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Head and Neck / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures1
1CompletedBasic ScienceUpper Limb Nerve Block1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchAdministration, Topical / Administration, Topical Drug / Anesthetics Agent1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchUnderdosing of Local Anesthetics, Initial Encounter1
1CompletedTreatmentSurgery, Colon1
1RecruitingTreatmentBotulinum Toxins, Type A / Plantar Fascitis1
1RecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Myomectomy / Quadratus Lumborum Nerve Block1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia / Other Acute Postoperative Pain / Postoperative pain1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareInguinal Hernias1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPost-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Transverse Abdominal Plane Regional Blocks1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAppendicitis1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentPain1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHallux Valgus1
2CompletedNot AvailableTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA) / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Effects / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
2CompletedSupportive CareDentofacial Deformity1
2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnatomical Distribution / Caudal epidural block therapy / Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve / Local Anesthesia / Nervus Cutaneous Femoris Lateralis / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Chronic Bronchitis / Elderly Patients / Scheduled Cardiac Surgery / Sternotomy1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Spine Surgery / Spondylolisthesis1
2CompletedTreatmentColic / Testicular1
2CompletedTreatmentDislocation, Shoulder / Rotator Cuff Injury / Shoulder Arthritis / Shoulder Fractures1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers3
2CompletedTreatmentIndication for Surgery of the Posterior Segment Under Locoregional Anaesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Neoplasms, Lung / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Nerve / Shoulder Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFeeding Disorders / Malignancies1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
2RecruitingPreventionDelirium / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Nephrectomy1
2RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
2RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingTreatmentHip Arthropathy1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
2TerminatedNot AvailableSurgical Anesthesia1
2TerminatedTreatmentHepatic Resection / Laparotomy1
2TerminatedTreatmentSurgery, Hand1
2TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Femur Fracture1
2WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty / Knee / Replacement1
2WithdrawnTreatmentOther Reconstructive Surgery1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPost Surgical Pain1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative analgesia for TKA Parecoxib/CFB1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceAchilles Tendon Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLumbar Spine Surgery / Thoracic Spine Surgery1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentOrthopedic Disorders1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional / Ankle Arthritis / Ankle Arthropathy1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional / Bowel Diseases / Liver Diseases / Pancreas Diseases1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional / Rotator Cuff Injuries1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Pain Chronic1
2, 3RecruitingOtherLow Dose of Pethidine for Subarachnoid Anesthesia1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pancreatitis (AP)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional / Rotator Cuff Injury1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentArthritis of Hip1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentObstetrical analgesia therapy / Obstetrical Anesthesia / Postpartum Depression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionShoulder Surgery1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
2, 3Unknown StatusSupportive CareStillborn Caesarean Section2
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Postoperative pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBreakthrough Pain1
3CompletedBasic ScienceProstate Cancer1
3CompletedDiagnosticBreast Cancer1
3CompletedDiagnosticPostoperative pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareBrachial Plexus Block1
3CompletedSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Shoulder Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Forearm Injuries / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local1
3CompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Knee1
3CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate1
3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentDrug Safety / Self Efficacy1
3CompletedTreatmentFunctional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)1
3CompletedTreatmentGynecologic Laparoscopic Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentGynecological Laparoscopy1
3CompletedTreatmentIntrauterine Growth Retardation / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Injuries1
3CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy3
3CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Surgical Procedures1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentOvarian Cysts1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Caesarean Analgesia1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Intensity / Rescue Pain Requirements1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain6
3CompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Tear1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDiaphragmatic Paralysis1
3Not Yet RecruitingOtherOvarian Cancer1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Spine Erector / Surgery, Cardiac1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Thoracic Surgery1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Labor1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pain1
3RecruitingOtherAxillary nerve block therapy1
3RecruitingPreventionFracture, Ankle / Local Infiltration / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs1
3RecruitingTreatmentAmbulatory Plastic Surgery / Esthetic Prosthetic Breast Expansion1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia, Conduction / Axillary Brachial Plexus Block / Dexamethasone / Ropivacaine1
3RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Other Complications / Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentGraft Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentIntervertebral Disc Degeneration / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spondylolisthesis1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentLocoregional Analgesia / Locoregional Analgesia in Breast Surgery / Neoplasms, Breast1
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Shoulder Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
3RecruitingTreatmentUnplanned Caesarean Section1
3SuspendedSupportive CareIntraoperative Complications / Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm / Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
3TerminatedTreatmentHyperalgesia / Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Quality of Life1
3TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGoitre / Neoplasms, Thyroid1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentScheduled Caesarian Section1
3WithdrawnPreventionPostoperative pain / Satisfaction1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareBladder Carcinoma / Post Operative Pain1
3WithdrawnSupportive CarePost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentColorectal Disorders / Observation of Neuromuscular Block1
3WithdrawnTreatmentOther Complications of Obstetric Anesthesia - Delivered / Pain, Obstetric1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnkle Fracture Surgery / Pain, Chronic / Regional Anesthesia1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCompare Mid-and Distal-Thigh Adductor Canal Block Techniques Using Ropivacaine / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentFull-thickness Rotator Cuff Tear1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedNot AvailableCholecystectomy / Laparoscopy1
4CompletedNot AvailableElective Surgery of the Spine by Laparotomy1
4CompletedNot AvailableSurgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedNot AvailableTransplant, Kidney1
4CompletedBasic ScienceFetal Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHemodynamics / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy / Ropivacaine Concentration1
4CompletedBasic SciencePeripheral Nerve Blocks1
4CompletedDiagnosticAtelectasis / Pregnancy1
4CompletedPreventionCaesarean Sections1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Bypass Graft Stenosis1
4CompletedPreventionPost-Craniotomy Headache / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPost-thoracotomy Pain Syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareElective Penile Surgeries / Hypospadias / Peyronie's Disease / Urethral Fistula or Stricture After Hypospadias Repair1
4CompletedSupportive CareInterscalene Blockade in Elective Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair / Shoulder Injury1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain2
4CompletedSupportive CarePain, Labor1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareThe Duration of Motor Block for Sciatic Block Following TKR May Vary Between 12-36 Hrs Depending on the Amount of Local Anesthetic Given1
4CompletedSupportive CareUncontrolled Postoperative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareVaginal Prolapse1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) / Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominoplasty / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Arthropathy of Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shoulder Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesic Efficacy / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnatomical Distribution / Caudal epidural block therapy / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia Morbidity / Block / Respiratory Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia, Conduction / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction1
4CompletedTreatmentAppendicitis / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasties, Hip Replacement1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Knee Replacement1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Knee Replacement / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Postoperative pain / Ropivacaine / Therapeutic Uses1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cesarean Delivery / Pain Relief / Postoperative pain / Pregnancy / TAP Blocks1
4CompletedTreatmentCaesarean Sections / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4CompletedTreatmentCatheterization for Postop Analgesia / Foot/Ankle Surgery / Pain, Post-Surgical / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentDelirium / Fascia Iliaca Block / Hip Fracture / Neuromuscular Blockade / Pain / Respiratory Morbidity1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentFemur Fractures / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentForearm Injuries / Injuries, Hand / Radius Fractures / Ulna Fractures / Wrist Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Forearm Injuries / Orthopedic Procedures / Traumas / Upper Extremity1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur3
4CompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Major Abdominal Surgery / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative Outcome / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus2
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Human Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Fracture of Intertrochanteric Type1
4CompletedTreatmentInfiltration / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity / Rupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
4CompletedTreatmentIntermediate Cervical Plexus Block for Carotid Endarterectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentKidney Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Arthroplasty, Total1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy / Pain / Ropivacaine1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentLower Limb Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentMalalignment / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
4CompletedTreatmentMobility After Total Knee Arthroplasty1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentOpioid Use, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Orthopedic Procedures / Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentOther Peripheral Nerve Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentPain After Total Knee Arthroplasty1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Obstetric1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Periacetabular Osteotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Urinary Retention / Postoperative Urinary Retention1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-thoracotomy Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Complications / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain21
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Thoracic1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Ultrasound Guided Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentRegional Anesthesia2
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Deprivation1
4CompletedTreatmentSubgluteal Sciatic Block1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedTreatmentThird Molar Extraction1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip and Knee Arthroplasty / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)3
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionEmergence Agitation / Pain1
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentIncision Site Discomfort / Nephrectomy / Partial Nephrectomy1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentInjury of Upper Limb1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPostoperative pain / Satisfaction1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentTraumatic Rib Fracture(s)1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticPercutaneous Nephrolithotomy1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPain / Supratentorial Brain Tumor1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost-Craniotomy Headache / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareRotator Cuff Arthropathy of Left Shoulder / Rotator Cuff Arthropathy of Right Shoulder / Rotator Cuff Injuries / Rotator Cuff Repair / Rotator Cuff Tears / Shoulder Arthritis / Shoulder Disease / Shoulder Injury / Shoulder Pain / Shoulder Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain / Analgesia / General Surgery / Injection Site / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFemoroacetabular Impingement1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceDistribution of Ropivacaine in Erector Spinae Plane Block1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fracture1
4RecruitingPreventionChildren / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / Knee Replacement Surgery / Long-term Outcome / Postoperative Delirium1
4RecruitingPreventionNeurosurgery / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CareKnee Extension / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Pain / Physical Therapy / Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty1
4RecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis, Hip / Pain / Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis / Adhesive Capsulitis of Shoulder / Caudal epidural block therapy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthetic complication neurological / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect, Spinal and Epidural1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative3
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Block / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia, Conduction / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Pain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Leg Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate1
4RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Ductal Carcinoma In Situ1
4RecruitingTreatmentBreast Pain / Effect of Drugs / Local Anesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Hip Dysplasia / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Pain Post-Proceduraal / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentComplications / Pain2
4RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Closed / Humeral Fractures / Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / General Surgery / Shoulder Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Surgical Procedures / Hysterectomy / Narcotic Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4RecruitingTreatmentHip Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypospadias / Urethrocutaneous Fistula1
4RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
4RecruitingTreatmentOther Acute Postoperative Pain / Postoperative Pain After Breast Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
4RecruitingTreatmentPatients Scheduled for Iliac Crest Bone Graft Harvest During Upper or Lower Limb Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostherpetic Neuralgia1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain5
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Transplant; Failure, Kidney1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentSupracondylar Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Colorectal / TAP Blocks1
4RecruitingTreatmentVideo-assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) / Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)1
4TerminatedNot AvailableHip Fracture1
4TerminatedSupportive CareFoot Surgery / Fracture of Foot1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4TerminatedTreatmentGlenohumeral Arthritis / Total Shoulder Arthroplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hip1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnesthesia Conduction / Anesthetics, Local / Injuries, Hand1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCardiac Dysfunction / Myocardial Injury1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPost Operative Pain1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CarePain / Thoracotomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnesthesia; Reaction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDexamethasone / Interscalene Block / Low Volume Regional Anesthesia / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHip Arthroplasty / Postoperative pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentNeck Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4WithdrawnSupportive CareAnkle Fracture in Need of Surgical Fixation1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareChest Pain / Postoperative pain2
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management After Breast Biopsy1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Caudal epidural block therapy / Mastectomy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia / Pain, Acute / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBlood Flow Indexes / Lung Cancers1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBreast Cancer / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCaesarean Sections1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHip Fracture / Intertrochanteric Fractures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentUS-guided Sciatic Nerve Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArthritis of Knee1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Nervous System Imbalance / Brachial Plexus Block / Horner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCervical Cancers / Endometrial Cancer / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Pain / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications / Sarcomas1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHepatectomy / Metastasis / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHorner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOsteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Labor2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTransversus Abdominis Plane Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUpper Extremity Fractures / Upper Extremity Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHypotension / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticDiverticulectomy / Fistula Repair / Hydrocelectomy / Inguinal Hernioplasty / Orchiopexy / Penoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticLumbar Disc Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParesis1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchUpper Limb Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnesthetics, Local / Brachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain, Obstetric1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPostoperative Quality of Recovery and Analgesia After Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherRegional Anaesthesia / Spine Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAmbulatory Orchipexy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / General Surgery / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDiaphragmatic Paralysis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEarly Medical Intervention / Obstetrical analgesia therapy / Pain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHip Pain Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIntubation, Intratracheal / Lidocaine / Pharyngitis / Post-Operative Sore Throat / Ropivacaine1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Cataract Unilateral Pending Extraction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Hepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBrachial Plexus Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareEpidural Analgesia / Instrumental Delivery / Maternal Outcome / Neonatal Outcome1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareEpidural Block / Malignant Neoplasm of Esophagus / Oesophagectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCaudal epidural block therapy / Laparoscopic Renal Surgery / Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain2
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain Insensitivity, Congenital1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Treatment for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRotator Cuff Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdductor Canal Block / Anaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdductor Canal Block / Femoral Nerve Block / Knee Replacement Surgery / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesic Consumption / Chronic Pain, Postoperative / Late and Chronic Pain / Postoperative pain / VAS Scores of Postoperative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthesia Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAppendicitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArteriovenous Fistulas / Arteriovenous Graft / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Renal Failure, End-Stage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Fascia Iliaca Block1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Overweight and Obesity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Shoulder Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarotid Stenosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Cystic tumour of the ganglia / Fracture at Wrist and/or Hand Level / Injuries to the Wrist, Hand and Fingers (S60-S69) / Rupture of Tendon of Wrist and Hand1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComparison of Onset Time1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Skelectal Anomaly1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFoot Diseases / Injuries, Foot / Knee Injuries / Leg Injuries / Orthopedic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGynecologic Diseases2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeadache / Migraine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fracture2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fracture Surgery / Post Operative Pain Control1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Primary Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Pancreatic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOther Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain / Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPartial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPosterior Knee Infiltration1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain13
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Osteoarthritis, Unspecified Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament / Tear of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Arthroplasty in Geriatric Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSupraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherAnalgesia / Brachial Plexus Block / Motor Activities1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionIntracranial Aneurysms1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableEpidural Analgesia / Labour / Nulliparous1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchRotator Cuff Injury1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Gastrectomy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionTonsillitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLobectomy / Post Operative Pain / Regional Anesthesia / Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery / Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentColonic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentEfficacy and Safety of VATS Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentEndometriosis / Pelvic Pain / Pelvic Prolapse1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentFracture, Ankle / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentKidney Diseases / Nephrectomy, Anesthesia, Regional, Patient-controlled, Analgesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Pain, Acute / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Pain Chronic1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Liver1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade / Pain Management1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Sedation / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Total Hip Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHip Arthropathy / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceOpen Thoracotomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAchalasia / Achalasia, Esophageal1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAneurysms1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherCircumcision / Postoperative pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherColles' Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDistal Hypospadias1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherKidney Stones1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Caudal epidural block therapy / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePain Management1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAdult Disease / Liver Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Anesthesia Morbidity / Breast Neoplasm Female / Regional Anesthesia / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury / Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBenign Gynecologic Neoplasm1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentEpidermolysis Bullosa1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFemoral Nerve Block / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHemorrhoidectomy / Pudendal Nerve1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fracture2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLabour Analgesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNeoplasm of Lung / Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNephrectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Labor / Pregnancy Outcomes / Psychological Disorder / Stages of Labor1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPharmacological Action (PA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSurgery of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableOpioid Tolerance, Opioid Naive, Opioid Exposure1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailablePediatric Extremity Fracture / Pediatric Extremity Soft Tissue Injury1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareAnalgesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Hepatectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareBunions / Hallux Rigidus1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcetabular Labrum Tear / Internal Derangement of Hip1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAmputations / Phantom Limb / Stump Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBilateral Dual Transversus Abdominis Plane Block / Pain Treatment / Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Post Operative Pain Control1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInguinal Herniorrhaphy / Orchiopexy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLiver Cancer, Adult1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPost-op Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHallux Valgus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareOverweight and Obesity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Scaphoid Fractures / Wrist Injury Arthrodesis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMuscle Weakness1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnHealth Services ResearchAnalgesics, Opioid / Complications / Laparoscopy / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain / Ventral Hernias1
Not AvailableWithdrawnHealth Services ResearchPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia / Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCaesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCesarean Section1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentGallbladder Inflammation / Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHallux Valgus1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPain Control1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative Pain Control / Wrist Injury1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1


  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Astra Pharma Inc.
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
Dosage forms
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration2 mg/1mL
SolutionEpidural10 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration2 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg
Injection, solutionInfiltration2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural2 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural10 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural2 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Perineural7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural200 mg/20mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural150 mg/30mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural40 mg/20mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Perineural150 mg/20mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Perineural7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionParenteral10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionParenteral5 mg/1mL
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.5%1.84USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl 0.2% on-q pump0.99USD ml
Naropin 10 mg/ml ampule0.97USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.3%0.9USD ml
Ropivacaine-ns 0.1% on-q pump0.71USD ml
Naropin 7.5 mg/ml ampule0.62USD ml
Naropin 5 mg/ml vial0.58USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.15%0.51USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.125%0.48USD ml
Naropin 5 mg/ml ampule0.46USD ml
Naropin 2 mg/ml ampule0.44USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.1%0.39USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.25%0.34USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.2%0.29USD ml
Naropin 2 mg/ml infusion btl0.23USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more


Experimental Properties
water solubility57.6 mg/LNot Available
logP2.90HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.07Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.253 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.82ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity85.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9705
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9377
Caco-2 permeable+0.5912
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8037
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8768
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6339
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6611
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.819
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.723
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5499
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9246
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8821
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8773
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5902
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6116
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8507
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9783
Rat acute toxicity2.2964 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8009
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8438
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid amides. These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acid amides
Alternative Parents
Piperidinecarboxamides / Anilides / m-Xylenes / N-arylamides / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Alpha-amino acid amide / 2-piperidinecarboxamide / Piperidinecarboxamide / Anilide / M-xylene / Xylene / N-arylamide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Piperidine
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidinecarboxamide, ropivacaine (CHEBI:8890)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Liu BG, Zhuang XL, Li ST, Xu GH: The effects of ropivacaine on sodium currents in dorsal horn neurons of neonatal rats. Anesth Analg. 2000 May;90(5):1034-8. [PubMed:10781449]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
  1. Arlander E, Ekstrom G, Alm C, Carrillo JA, Bielenstein M, Bottiger Y, Bertilsson L, Gustafsson LL: Metabolism of ropivacaine in humans is mediated by CYP1A2 and to a minor extent by CYP3A4: an interaction study with fluvoxamine and ketoconazole as in vivo inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Nov;64(5):484-91. [PubMed:9834040]
  2. Ropivacaine FDA label [File]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
  1. Oda Y, Furuichi K, Tanaka K, Hiroi T, Imaoka S, Asada A, Fujimori M, Funae Y: Metabolism of a new local anesthetic, ropivacaine, by human hepatic cytochrome P450. Anesthesiology. 1995 Jan;82(1):214-20. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199501000-00026. [PubMed:7832304]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Oda Y, Furuichi K, Tanaka K, Hiroi T, Imaoka S, Asada A, Fujimori M, Funae Y: Metabolism of a new local anesthetic, ropivacaine, by human hepatic cytochrome P450. Anesthesiology. 1995 Jan;82(1):214-20. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199501000-00026. [PubMed:7832304]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 01, 2020 21:52

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