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Accession Number
DB00296  (APRD00492)
Small Molecule

Ropivacaine is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. The name ropivacaine refers to both the racemate and the marketed S-enantiomer. Ropivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Naropin.

  • (S)-(−)-1-propyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • (S)-ropivacaine
  • L-N-n-propylpipecolic acid-2,6-xylidide
  • Ropivacaina
  • Ropivacaine
  • Ropivacainum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ropivacaine hydrochlorideV910P86109132112-35-7VSHFRHVKMYGBJL-CKUXDGONSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
NaropinSolution5 mgEpidural; InfiltrationAspen Pharmacare Canada Inc.1997-04-30Not applicableCanada
NaropinInjection, solution2 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationFresenius Kabi2011-05-31Not applicableUs
NaropinSolution2 mgEpidural; InfiltrationAspen Pharmacare Canada Inc.1997-04-30Not applicableCanada
NaropinInjection, solution10 mg/1mLEpiduralFresenius Kabi2011-05-31Not applicableUs
NaropinInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; PerineuralFresenius Kabi2011-05-31Not applicableUs
NaropinSolution10 mgEpiduralAspen Pharmacare Canada Inc.1997-04-30Not applicableCanada
NaropinInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2014-03-11Not applicableUs
NaropinInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralFresenius Kabi2011-05-31Not applicableUs
Naropin Inj 7.5mg/mlLiquid7.5 mgParenteralAstra Zeneca1997-04-302003-11-18Canada
Ropivacaine Hydrochloride InjectionSolution2 mgEpidural; InfiltrationTevaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2014-11-07Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-09-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLEpiduralAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-09-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLEpiduralSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-09-232019-07-31Us
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralSomerset Therapeutics, Llc2018-06-19Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-09-23Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLEpiduralHospira, Inc.2014-09-23Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; PerineuralAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-09-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; PerineuralAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-09-15Not applicableUs
Ropivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLParenteralSandoz2014-07-24Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ropivacaine HClRopivacaine hydrochloride (2 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2012-05-292015-01-14Us
CAS number
Average: 274.4011
Monoisotopic: 274.204513464
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



Used in obstetric anesthesia and regional anesthesia for surgery.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Ropivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.

Mechanism of action

Local anesthetics such as Ropivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. Specifically, they block the sodium-channel and decrease chances of depolarization and consequent action potentials. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers.

ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha

Bioavailability is 87%–98% following epidural administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

94%, mainly to a1-acid glycoprotein



Route of elimination

Ropivacaine is extensively metabolized in the liver, predominantly by aromatic hydroxylation mediated by cytochrome P4501A to 3-hydroxy ropivacaine. After a single IV dose approximately 37% of the total dose is excreted in the urine as both free and conjugated 3-hydroxy ropivacaine. In total, 86% of the ropivacaine dose is excreted in the urine after intravenous administration of which only 1% relates to unchanged drug.

Half life

Approximately 4.2 hours.

  • 387 +/- 107 mL/min
  • unbound plasma clearance=7.2 +/- 1.6 L/min

Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of ropivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects – CNS effects usually occur at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects present at higher concentrations, though cardiovascular collapse may also occur with low concentrations. CNS effects may include CNS excitation (nervousness, tingling around the mouth, tinnitus, tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures) followed by depression (drowsiness, loss of consciousness, respiratory depression and apnea). Cardiovascular effects include hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest – some of which may be due to hypoxemia secondary to respiratory depression.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Ropivacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid can be increased when used in combination with Ropivacaine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Ropivacaine.
7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecinThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Ropivacaine.
Food Interactions
Not Available


Synthesis Reference

Peter Jaksch, "Process for the preparation of ropivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate." U.S. Patent US5959112, issued February, 1970.

General References
  1. Weinberg G, Ripper R, Feinstein DL, Hoffman W: Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003 May-Jun;28(3):198-202. [PubMed:12772136]
  2. Picard J, Meek T: Lipid emulsion to treat overdose of local anaesthetic: the gift of the glob. Anaesthesia. 2006 Feb;61(2):107-9. [PubMed:16430560]
  3. Rosenblatt MA, Abel M, Fischer GW, Itzkovich CJ, Eisenkraft JB: Successful use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jul;105(1):217-8. [PubMed:16810015]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
N01BB09 — Ropivacaine
AHFS Codes
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
0Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentCleft Palates / Fetal Malformation / Mouth Abnormalities1
0Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain NOS1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionGeneral Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Head and Neck / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
0RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
0RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
1CompletedBasic ScienceUpper Limb Nerve Block1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchAdministration, Topical / Administration, Topical Drug / Anesthetic Drugs1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchUnderdosing of Local Anesthetics, Initial Encounter1
1CompletedTreatmentSurgery, Colon1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures1
1RecruitingTreatmentBotulinum Toxins, Type A / Plantar Fascitis1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareInguinal Hernias1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAppendicitis1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Effects / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnatomical Distribution / Caudal epidural block therapy / Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve / Local Anesthesia / Nervus Cutaneous Femoris Lateralis / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Chronic Bronchitis / Elderly Patients / Scheduled Cardiac Surgery / Sternotomy1
2CompletedTreatmentColic / Testicular1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers3
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Neoplasms, Lung / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentNerve Pain / Shoulder Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Injury / Shoulder Arthritis / Shoulder Dislocation / Shoulder Fractures1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
2RecruitingPreventionDelirium / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
2RecruitingSupportive CareHallux Valgus1
2RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Nephrectomy1
2RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
2RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
2TerminatedNot AvailableSurgical Anesthesia1
2TerminatedTreatmentSurgery, Hand1
2TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Femur Fracture1
2WithdrawnTreatmentOther Reconstructive Surgery1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceAchilles Tendon Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLumbar Spine Surgery / Thoracic Spine Surgery1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentOrthopedic Disorders1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional / Rotator Cuff Injury1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Pain Chronic1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentArthritis of Hip1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentObstetrical analgesia therapy / Obstetrical Anesthesia / Postpartum Depression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPost Surgical Pain1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionShoulder Surgery1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
2, 3Unknown StatusSupportive CareStillborn Caesarean Section1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Postoperative pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Breast1
3CompletedDiagnosticCancer, Breast1
3CompletedDiagnosticPostoperative pain1
3CompletedPreventionPain NOS1
3CompletedSupportive CareBrachial Plexus Block1
3CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Shoulder Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
3CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local1
3CompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Knee1
3CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentDrug Safety / Self Efficacy1
3CompletedTreatmentFunctional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)1
3CompletedTreatmentGynecologic Laparoscopic Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentGynecological Laparoscopy1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Injuries1
3CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy3
3CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Surgical Procedures1
3CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pelviperineal Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentOvarian Cysts1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS2
3CompletedTreatmentPost Caesarean Analgesia1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Intensity / Rescue Pain Requirements1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
3CompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentUpper Extremity Fractures1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBladder Carcinoma / Post-Operative Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Thoracic Surgery1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntervertebral Disc Degeneration / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spondylolisthesis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingOtherAxillary nerve block therapy1
3RecruitingPreventionFracture, Ankle / Local Infiltration / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CareIntraoperative Complications / Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm / Pain NOS1
3RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreakthrough Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentLocoregional Analgesia / Locoregional Analgesia in Breast Surgery / Neoplasms, Breast1
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Shoulder Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Quality of Life1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentUnplanned Caesarean Section1
3SuspendedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3TerminatedTreatmentHyperalgesia / Pain NOS1
3TerminatedTreatmentLeg Amputation / Phantom Limb1
3TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentScheduled Caesarian Section1
3WithdrawnPreventionPostoperative pain / Satisfaction1
3WithdrawnSupportive CarePost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentColorectal Disorders / Observation of Neuromuscular Block1
3WithdrawnTreatmentOther Complications of Obstetric Anesthesia - Delivered / Pain, Obstetric1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDelirium / Fascia Iliaca Block / Hip Fractures / Neuromuscular Blockade / Pain NOS / Respiratory Morbidity1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentFull-thickness Rotator Cuff Tear1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4CompletedNot AvailableCholecystectomy / Laparoscopy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceFetal Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHemodynamics / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy / Ropivacaine Concentration1
4CompletedBasic SciencePeripheral Nerve Blocks1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionChildbirth / Parturients1
4CompletedPreventionPain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionPost-thoracotomy Pain Syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareElective Penile Surgeries / Hypospadias / Penile curvature / Urethral Fistula or Stricture After Hypospadias Repair1
4CompletedSupportive CareInterscalene Blockade in Elective Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair / Shoulder Injury1
4CompletedSupportive CareKnee Extension / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Pain NOS / Physical Therapy / Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty1
4CompletedSupportive CareLabour Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareThe Duration of Motor Block for Sciatic Block Following TKR May Vary Between 12-36 Hrs Depending on the Amount of Local Anesthetic Given1
4CompletedSupportive CareUncontrolled Postoperative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareVaginal Prolapse1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominoplasty / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shoulder Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesic Efficacy / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnatomical Distribution / Caudal epidural block therapy / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia Morbidity / Block / Respiratory Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia, Conduction / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction1
4CompletedTreatmentAortic Aneurysm, Abdominal1
4CompletedTreatmentAppendicitis / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Knee Replacement / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Postoperative pain / Ropivacaine / Therapeutic Uses1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cesarean Delivery / Pain Relief / Postoperative pain / Pregnancy / TAP Block1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4CompletedTreatmentCatheterization for Postop Analgesia / Foot/Ankle Surgery / Pain, Post-Surgical / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section1
4CompletedTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentFemur Fractures / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentForearm Injuries / Injuries, Hand / Radius Fractures / Ulna Fractures / Wrist Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Forearm Injuries / Orthopedic Procedures / Traumas / Upper Extremity1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur2
4CompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Major Abdominal Surgery / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative Outcome / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus2
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Human Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Fracture of Intertrochanteric Type1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertensive Leg Ulcer1
4CompletedTreatmentInfiltration / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity / Rupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy / Pain NOS / Ropivacaine1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentLower Limb Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentMalalignment / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
4CompletedTreatmentMobility After Total Knee Arthroplasty1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Orthopedic Procedures / Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOther Peripheral Nerve Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentPain After Total Knee Arthroplasty1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS5
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Periacetabular Osteotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain NOS / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Obstetric1
4CompletedTreatmentPatients Undergoing Lower Limb Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Urinary Retention1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain14
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Thoracic1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentRegional Anesthesia2
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Deprivation1
4CompletedTreatmentSubgluteal Sciatic Block1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedTreatmentThird Molar Extraction1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)2
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionEmergence Agitation / Pain NOS1
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CarePain NOS1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentInjury of Upper Limb1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPostoperative pain / Satisfaction1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceDistribution of Ropivacaine in Erector Spinae Plane Block1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost-Craniotomy Headache / Postoperative pain2
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Pain, Acute / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Pain / Effect of Drugs / Local Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Postoperative pain2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFemoroacetabular Impingement1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Closed / Humeral Fractures / Pain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIncision Site Discomfort / Nephrectomy / Partial Nephrectomy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOther Acute Postoperative Pain / Postoperative Pain After Breast Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff Injury1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingPreventionCaesarean Sections1
4RecruitingPreventionCoronary Bypass Graft Stenosis1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis, Hip / Pain NOS / Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthetic complication neurological / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect, Spinal and Epidural1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnkle Fracture Surgery / Pain, Chronic / Regional Anesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate1
4RecruitingTreatmentCompare Mid-and Distal-Thigh Adductor Canal Block Techniques Using Ropivacaine1
4RecruitingTreatmentComplications / Pain NOS2
4RecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / General Surgery / Shoulder Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentHip Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioid Use, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain8
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Ultrasound Guided Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block1
4RecruitingTreatmentSupracondylar Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Colorectal / TAP Blocks1
4TerminatedNot AvailableHip Fractures1
4TerminatedSupportive CareFoot Surgery / Fracture of Foot1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Pain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4TerminatedTreatmentGlenohumeral Arthritis / Total Shoulder Arthroplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hip1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnesthesia Conduction / Anesthetics, Local / Injuries, Hand1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableElective Surgery of the Spine by Laparotomy1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCardiac Dysfunction / Myocardial Injury1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPost Operative Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnesthesia; Reaction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCervical Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDexamethasone / Interscalene Block / Low Volume Regional Anesthesia / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management After Breast Biopsy1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Caudal epidural block therapy / Mastectomy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCaesarean Sections1
4WithdrawnTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentUS-guided Sciatic Nerve Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArthritis of Knee1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancer of the Ovary / Cervical Cancers / Endometrial Cancers / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Pain NOS / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications / Sarcomas1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHepatectomy / Metastasis / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHorner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOsteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceArterial Hypotension / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticLumbar Disc Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParesis1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchUpper Limb Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain, Obstetric1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPostoperative Quality of Recovery and Analgesia After Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherRegional Anaesthesia / Spine Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEarly Medical Intervention / Labour Pain / Obstetrical analgesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHip Pain Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Cataract Unilateral Pending Extraction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Hepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBrachial Plexus Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareEpidural Analgesia / Instrumental Delivery / Maternal Outcome / Neonatal Outcome1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareEpidural Block / Malignant Neoplasm of Esophagus / Oesophagectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain Insensitivity, Congenital1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Treatment for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRotator Cuff Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdductor Canal Block / Anaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdductor Canal Block / Femoral Nerve Block / Knee Replacement Surgery / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthesia Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAppendicitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArteriovenous Fistulas / Arteriovenous Graft / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Renal Failure, End-Stage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Fascia Iliaca Block1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Overweight and Obesity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Cystic tumour of the ganglia / Fracture at Wrist and/or Hand Level / Injuries to the Wrist, Hand and Fingers (S60-S69) / Rupture of Tendon of Wrist and Hand1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComparison of Onset Time1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Skelectal Anomaly1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFoot Diseases / Injuries, Foot / Knee Injuries / Leg Injuries / Orthopedic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGynecologic Diseases2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Migraine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fracture Surgery / Post Operative Pain Control1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fractures2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Primary Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOther Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPartial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPosterior Knee Infiltration1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Control / Wrist Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain12
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Osteoarthritis, Unspecified Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament / Tear of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSupraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherAnalgesia / Brachial Plexus Block / Motor Activities1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Fractures1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableEpidural Analgesia / Labour / Nulliparous1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAnalgesics, Opioid / Complications / Laparoscopy / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain / Ventral Hernias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchRotator Cuff Injury1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherAchalasia / Achalasia, Esophageal1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionTonsillitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLobectomy / Pain Post Operative / Regional Anesthesia / Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdult Disease / Liver Diseases1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentColonic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentEfficacy and Safety of VATS Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Liver1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade / Pain Management1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Sedation therapy / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAutonomic Nervous System Imbalance / Brachial Plexus Block / Horner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHip Arthropathy / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableLabour Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceOpen Thoracotomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnesthetics, Local / Brachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAneurysms1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherCircumcision / Postoperative pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDistal Hypospadias1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Caudal epidural block therapy / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAnalgesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Hepatectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareCaudal epidural block therapy / Laparoscopic Renal Surgery / Pain Management1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury / Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBenign Gynecologic Neoplasm1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Shoulder Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFemoral Nerve Block / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLabour Analgesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain5
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSurgery of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentVideo-assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) / Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableOpioid Tolerance, Opioid Naive, Opioid Exposure1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareBunions / Hallux Rigidus1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcetabular Labrum Tear / Internal Derangement of Hip1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBilateral Dual Transversus Abdominis Plane Block / Pain Treatment / Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInguinal Herniorrhaphy / Orchiopexy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPost-op Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHallux Valgus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareOverweight and Obesity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Scaphoid Fractures / Wrist Injury Arthrodesis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMuscle Weakness1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCaesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCesarean Section1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentGallbladder Inflammation / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHallux Valgus1


  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Astra Pharma Inc.
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
Dosage forms
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration2 mg/1mL
LiquidParenteral7.5 mg
Injection, solutionEpidural2 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural10 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural2 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Perineural7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Perineural7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionParenteral10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionParenteral5 mg/1mL
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration2 mg
SolutionEpidural10 mg
SolutionEpidural7.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.5%1.84USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl 0.2% on-q pump0.99USD ml
Naropin 10 mg/ml ampule0.97USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.3%0.9USD ml
Ropivacaine-ns 0.1% on-q pump0.71USD ml
Naropin 7.5 mg/ml ampule0.62USD ml
Naropin 5 mg/ml vial0.58USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.15%0.51USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.125%0.48USD ml
Naropin 5 mg/ml ampule0.46USD ml
Naropin 2 mg/ml ampule0.44USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.1%0.39USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.25%0.34USD ml
Ropivacaine hcl-ns 0.2%0.29USD ml
Naropin 2 mg/ml infusion btl0.23USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)


Experimental Properties
water solubility57.6 mg/LNot Available
logP2.90HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.07Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.253 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.82ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity85.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9705
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9377
Caco-2 permeable+0.5912
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8037
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8768
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6339
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6611
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.819
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.723
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5499
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9246
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8821
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8773
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5902
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6116
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8507
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9783
Rat acute toxicity2.2964 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8009
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8438
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid amides. These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acid amides
Alternative Parents
Piperidinecarboxamides / Anilides / m-Xylenes / N-arylamides / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Alpha-amino acid amide / 2-piperidinecarboxamide / Piperidinecarboxamide / Anilide / M-xylene / Xylene / N-arylamide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Piperidine
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidinecarboxamide, ropivacaine (CHEBI:8890)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Liu BG, Zhuang XL, Li ST, Xu GH: The effects of ropivacaine on sodium currents in dorsal horn neurons of neonatal rats. Anesth Analg. 2000 May;90(5):1034-8. [PubMed:10781449]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
  1. Arlander E, Ekstrom G, Alm C, Carrillo JA, Bielenstein M, Bottiger Y, Bertilsson L, Gustafsson LL: Metabolism of ropivacaine in humans is mediated by CYP1A2 and to a minor extent by CYP3A4: an interaction study with fluvoxamine and ketoconazole as in vivo inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Nov;64(5):484-91. [PubMed:9834040]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Ropivacaine FDA label [File]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 21, 2019 05:11