Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Also known as: Generalized anxiety disorder / Generalized Anxiety Disorders / Anxiety neurosis / Generalised anxiety disorder / GAD

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00404AlprazolamA triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of panic disorders, with or without agoraphobia, and in generalized anxiety disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)
DB00628ClorazepateA water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions. [PubChem]
DB00476DuloxetineDuloxetine (brand names Cymbalta, Yentreve, and in parts of Europe, Xeristar or Ariclaim) is a drug which primarily targets major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), pain related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy and in some countries stress urinary incontinence (SUI). It is manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company. Duloxetine has not yet been FDA approved for stress urinary incontinence or for fibromyalgia. Duloxetine is a selective SNRI (selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor). Duloxetine is a systemic drug therapy which affects the body as a whole. Known also under the code name LY248686, it is a potent dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE), possessing comparable affinities in binding to NE- and 5-HT transporter sites. It is a less potent inhibitor of dopamine reuptake.
DB01175EscitalopramEscitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Escitalopram may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
DB00715ParoxetineParoxetine hydrochloride and paroxetine mesylate belong to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize ⍺- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache (see Toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects). Side effects generally occur during the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Paroxetine hydrochloride and mesylate are considered therapeutic alternatives rather than generic equivalents by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); both agents contain the same active moiety (i.e. paroxetine), but are formulated as different salt forms. Clinical studies establishing the efficacy of paroxetine in various conditions were performed using paroxetine hydrochloride. Since both agents contain the same active moiety, the clinical efficacy of both agents is thought to be similar. Paroxetine may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Paroxetine has the most evidence supporting its use for anxiety-related disorders of the SSRIs. It has the greatest anticholinergic activity of the agents in this class and compared to other SSRIs, paroxetine may cause greater weight gain, sexual dysfunction, sedation and constipation.
DB01224QuetiapineQuetiapine is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as for the treatment of acute manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The antipsychotic effect of quetiapine is thought by some to be mediated through antagonist activity at dopamine and serotonin receptors. Specifically the D1 and D2 dopamine, the alpha 1 adrenoreceptor and alpha 2 adrenoreceptor, and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor subtypes are antagonized. Quetiapine also has an antagonistic effect on the histamine H1 receptor.
DB01104SertralineSertraline hydrochloride belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake [T28]. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache (see Toxicity section below for a more detailed listing of side effects). Compared to other agents in this class, sertraline may cause greater diarrheal and male sexual dysfunction effects [A1844]. Sertraline displays a better safety or tolerability profile than other classes of antidepressants [A1846]. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine oxidase inhibitors [T28]. Sertraline has shown therapeutic effectiveness as a treatment for major depressive disorder [A1836], obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) [A1838], panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [A1841], premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) [A1842] and social anxiety disorder (social phobia).
DB00285VenlafaxineVenlafaxine (Effexor) is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class first introduced by Wyeth in 1993. It is prescribed for the treatment of clinical depression and anxiety disorders. Due to the pronounced side effects and suspicions that venlafaxine may significantly increase the risk of suicide it is not recommended as a first line treatment of depression. However, it is often effective for depression not responding to SSRIs. Venlafaxine was the sixth most widely-used antidepressant based on the amount of retail prescriptions in the US (17.1 million) in 2006. [Wikipedia]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00404AlprazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00404AlprazolamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00404AlprazolamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00404AlprazolamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00404AlprazolamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00628ClorazepateTranslocator proteintarget
DB00628ClorazepateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00628ClorazepateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00476DuloxetineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00476DuloxetineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00476DuloxetineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00476DuloxetineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00476DuloxetineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00476DuloxetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01175EscitalopramSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01175EscitalopramCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01175EscitalopramCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01175EscitalopramSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01175EscitalopramSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01175EscitalopramAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01175EscitalopramMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01175EscitalopramHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01175EscitalopramCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00715ParoxetineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00715Paroxetine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01224QuetiapineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01224QuetiapineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01224QuetiapineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB01224QuetiapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01224QuetiapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01224QuetiapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01224QuetiapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01224QuetiapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Etarget
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB01224Quetiapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB01224QuetiapineD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB01224QuetiapineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01224QuetiapineCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01224QuetiapineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01224QuetiapineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01224QuetiapineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01104SertralineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01104SertralineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01104SertralineCYP2B proteinenzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01104SertralineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Benzyme
DB01104SertralineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Aenzyme
DB01104SertralineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01104SertralineSerum albumincarrier
DB01104SertralineSigma receptortarget
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00501Cimetidine1Terminated1
DB12105Imagabalin1Completed1
DB12105Imagabalin1Terminated2
DB00331Metformin1Terminated1
DB00715Paroxetine1Recruiting1
DB00404Alprazolam2Completed1
DB00404Alprazolam2Recruiting1
DB00402Eszopiclone2Completed1
DB01018Guanfacine2Completed1
DB12105Imagabalin2Completed1
DB01202Levetiracetam2Completed1
DB12238MK-07772Completed2
DB06201Rufinamide2Completed1
DB00285Venlafaxine2Completed1
DB01175Escitalopram2 / 3Completed1
DB12572Pexacerfont2 / 3Completed1
DB14357Chamomile3Completed1
DB00476Duloxetine3Completed2
DB00176Fluvoxamine3Completed1
DB12105Imagabalin3Completed1
DB12105Imagabalin3Terminated4
DB12105Imagabalin3Withdrawn1
DB00715Paroxetine3Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine3Terminated3
DB00230Pregabalin3Completed2
DB01224Quetiapine3Completed3
DB01224Quetiapine3Terminated1
DB01104Sertraline3Unknown Status1
DB00906Tiagabine3Completed2
DB06684Vilazodone3Completed2
DB05700Vortioxetine3Completed5
DB09068Vortioxetine3Completed5
DB00659Acamprosate4Completed1
DB00404Alprazolam4Completed1
DB00404Alprazolam4Unknown Status1
DB01238Aripiprazole4Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Terminated1
DB06700Desvenlafaxine4Recruiting1
DB00476Duloxetine4Completed2
DB01175Escitalopram4Completed3
DB01175Escitalopram4Recruiting1
DB00402Eszopiclone4Completed1
DB00186Lorazepam4Completed2
DB00230Pregabalin4Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine4Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine4Terminated2
DB00734Risperidone4Completed1
DB01104Sertraline4Completed2
DB00313Valproic Acid4Unknown Status1
DB00246Ziprasidone4Completed1
DB00246Ziprasidone4Terminated1
DB00476DuloxetineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00476DuloxetineNot AvailableNo Longer Available1
DB01175EscitalopramNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01175EscitalopramNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00472FluoxetineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting2
DB00472FluoxetineNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB00176FluvoxamineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01064IsoprenalineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00422MethylphenidateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00715ParoxetineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01224QuetiapineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01224QuetiapineNot AvailableTerminated1
DB01104SertralineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00285VenlafaxineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1