Identification

Name
Escitalopram
Accession Number
DB01175  (APRD00683)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Escitalopram may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-Citalopram
  • (S)-Citalopram
  • Escitalopram
  • Escitalopramum
  • S-(+)-Citalopram
  • S(+)-Citalopram
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Escitalopram oxalate5U85DBW7LO219861-08-2KTGRHKOEFSJQNS-BDQAORGHSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act EscitalopramTablet5 mgOralTevaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Act EscitalopramTablet20 mgOralTeva2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Act EscitalopramTablet10 mgOralTeva2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Act Escitalopram ODTTablet, orally disintegrating10 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2016-08-17Not applicableCanada
Act Escitalopram ODTTablet, orally disintegrating20 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2016-08-17Not applicableCanada
Cipralex -5mgTablet5 mgOralLundbeck Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Cipralex -10mgTablet10 mgOralLundbeck Inc.2005-02-14Not applicableCanada
Cipralex -15mgTablet15 mgOralLundbeck Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Cipralex -20mgTablet20 mgOralLundbeck Inc.2005-02-14Not applicableCanada
Cipralex MeltzTablet, orally disintegrating20 mgOralLundbeck Inc.2012-10-04Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ach-escitalopramTablet20 mgOralAccord Healthcare Limited2016-06-10Not applicableCanada
Ach-escitalopramTablet10 mgOralAccord Healthcare Limited2016-06-10Not applicableCanada
Apo-escitalopramTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Apo-escitalopramTablet20 mgOralApotex Corporation2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet20 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet15 mgOralAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet10 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet5 mgOralAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
EscitalopramTablet, film coated20 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2012-03-14Not applicableUs63629 469920180907 15195 15novho
EscitalopramTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralMajor2012-09-112014-08-31Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PramLyteEscitalopram oxalate (10 mg/1) + 1,2-docosahexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (6.4 mg/1) + 1,2-icosapentoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (800 ug/1) + Citric acid monohydrate (1.83 mg/1) + Cobamamide (50 ug/1) + Cocarboxylase (25 ug/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (13.6 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (25 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Glycine betaine (500 ug/1) + Leucovorin (2.5 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (7 mg/1) + Magnesium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + NADH (25 ug/1) + Phosphatidyl serine (12 mg/1) + Pyridoxal Phosphate (25 ug/1) + Sodium Citrate (3.67 mg/1) + Zinc ascorbate (1 mg/1)KitAllegis Pharmaceuticals, LLC2015-09-112016-01-04Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PramLyteEscitalopram oxalate (10 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (800 ug/1) + Methylcobalamin (1000 ug/1) + Pyridoxal Phosphate (5 mg/1)KitAllegis Pharmaceuticals, LLC2015-10-122017-09-09Us
International/Other Brands
Cipralex / Esertia
Categories
UNII
4O4S742ANY
CAS number
128196-01-0
Weight
Average: 324.3919
Monoisotopic: 324.163791509
Chemical Formula
C20H21FN2O
InChI Key
WSEQXVZVJXJVFP-FQEVSTJZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H21FN2O/c1-23(2)11-3-10-20(17-5-7-18(21)8-6-17)19-9-4-15(13-22)12-16(19)14-24-20/h4-9,12H,3,10-11,14H2,1-2H3/t20-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S)-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-carbonitrile
SMILES
CN(C)CCC[C@]1(OCC2=C1C=CC(=C2)C#N)C1=CC=C(F)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Labeled indications include major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Unlabeled indications include treatment of mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Escitalopram is one of a class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is used to treat the depression associated with mood disorders. It is also used on occassion in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder and anxiety. The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of escitalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. In vitro studies show that escitalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and has only very weak effects on norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal reuptake. Escitalopram has no significant affinity for adrenergic (alpha1, alpha2, beta), cholinergic, GABA, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotonergic (5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT2), or benzodiazepine receptors; antagonism of such receptors has been hypothesized to be associated with various anticholinergic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects for other psychotropic drugs. The chronic administration of escitalopram was found to downregulate brain norepinephrine receptors, as has been observed with other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Escitalopram does not inhibit monoamine oxidase.

Mechanism of action

The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of escitalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. Escitalopram blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT1A autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine receptors than tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
UAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
UHistamine H1 receptor
antagonist
Human
Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of citalopram is about 80% relative to an intravenous dose.

Volume of distribution
  • 12 L/kg
Protein binding

~56%

Metabolism

Mainly hepatic. Escitalopram undergoes N-demethylation to S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT). CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the enzymes responsible for this N-demethylation reaction.

Route of elimination

Following oral administrations of escitalopram, the fraction of drug recovered in the urine as escitalopram and S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) is about 8% and 10%, respectively. The oral clearance of escitalopram is 600 mL/min, with approximately 7% of that due to renal clearance. Escitalopram is metabolized to S-DCT and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT).

Half life

27-32 hours

Clearance
  • oral cl=600 mL/min [Following oral administrations]
Toxicity

Signs of overdose include convulsions, coma, dizziness, hypotension, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, sinus tachycardia, somnolence, and ECG changes (including QT prolongation).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Escitalopram Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter---(A;A)A alleleADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in SLC6A4 may potentially be associated with increased risk of adverse events from escitalopram.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2Not Available681G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2C19 is associated with poor metabolism of escitalopram.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*3Not Available636G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2C19 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of escitalopram.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2ANot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2BNot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*4Not Available1A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*5Not Available1297C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*6Not Available395G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*7Not Available19294T>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*22Not Available557G>C / 991A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*24Not Available99C>T / 991A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*35Not Available12662A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of hemorrhage can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of hemorrhage can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Escitalopram can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine is combined with Escitalopram.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is combined with Escitalopram.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Escitalopram.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Escitalopram.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Escitalopram.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Robert Dancer, "Escitalopram hydrobromide and a method for the preparation thereof." U.S. Patent US20040167209, issued August 26, 2004.

US20040167209
General References
  1. Moore N, Verdoux H, Fantino B: Prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of escitalopram versus citalopram in outpatient treatment of major depressive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 May;20(3):131-7. [PubMed:15812262]
  2. Boulenger JP, Huusom AK, Florea I, Baekdal T, Sarchiapone M: A comparative study of the efficacy of long-term treatment with escitalopram and paroxetine in severely depressed patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006 Jul;22(7):1331-41. [PubMed:16834832]
  3. Bielski RJ, Ventura D, Chang CC: A double-blind comparison of escitalopram and venlafaxine extended release in the treatment of major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;65(9):1190-6. [PubMed:15367045]
  4. Nierenberg AA, Greist JH, Mallinckrodt CH, Prakash A, Sambunaris A, Tollefson GD, Wohlreich MM: Duloxetine versus escitalopram and placebo in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder: onset of antidepressant action, a non-inferiority study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Feb;23(2):401-16. [PubMed:17288694]
  5. Chen F, Larsen MB, Sanchez C, Wiborg O: The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;15(2):193-8. [PubMed:15695064]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0005028
PubChem Compound
146570
PubChem Substance
46507040
ChemSpider
129277
BindingDB
50302225
ChEBI
36791
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1508
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000741
PharmGKB
PA10074
HET
68P
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Escitalopram
ATC Codes
N06AB10 — Escitalopram
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.20 — Selective-serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
PDB Entries
5i71 / 5i73 / 5i75
FDA label
Download (1.09 MB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Unipolar Depression1
0Unknown StatusTreatmentPremature Ejaculation1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)2
1CompletedNot AvailableCocaine Abuse / Dependence, Cocaine / Substance Abuse1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedBasic ScienceDepression1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHepatitis C Infection1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherAnxiety Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Men1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
1CompletedTreatmentPatients With Chronic Stroke1
1RecruitingOtherMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1TerminatedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentAnxiety Disorders1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentConstipation-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-C) / Rectal Hypersensitivity1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedPreventionChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Depression1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2CompletedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)8
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Other Psychiatric Disorders / Tbi1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
2CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlioma of Brain / Gliomas1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2RecruitingOtherDepression1
2RecruitingPreventionWithdrawal syndrome1
2RecruitingSupportive CareStrokes1
2RecruitingTreatmentMale Infertility / Sperm DNA Fragmentation1
2TerminatedTreatmentAddictions1
2TerminatedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceDependence, Cocaine1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHepatitis C Viral Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide, Attempted1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDyspepsia and Other Specified Disorders of Function of Stomach1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPhobic Disorders1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareDepression / GBM1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
3CompletedDiagnosticMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedPreventionDepression1
3CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Disseminated Sclerosis / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Somatoform Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentAtypical Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Depressive Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Depressive Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Moods Disorders / Psychiatric Disorder NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Opiate Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant / Major depressive disorder, recurrent episode2
3CompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentENT Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)10
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified / Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode3
3CompletedTreatmentNight Eating Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
3CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentTreatment Outcomes1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
3RecruitingTreatmentDementias1
3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Feeling Anxious / Indigestion1
3RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
3RecruitingTreatmentFibromyalgia1
3RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3TerminatedPreventionAnxiety Disorders1
3TerminatedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers / Depression / Esophageal Cancers / Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Gallbladder Cancer / Liver Cancer / Lung Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Tiredness1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentDepression With Prominent Agitation1
3TerminatedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)3
3TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCerebrovascular Accidents / Depression1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCarcinoma NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Depression1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Feeling Anxious1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDepression / MCI1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4CompletedNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableDepression1
4CompletedNot AvailableDysphoria1
4CompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDepression2
4CompletedBasic ScienceFear Conditioning1
4CompletedBasic SciencePanic Disorders1
4CompletedDiagnosticAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedOtherHealthy Controls / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedPreventionDepression3
4CompletedScreeningIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Agitation / Alzheimer's Disease (AD) / Psychosis1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Psychomotor Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentAntidepressant Activity in Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Depressive Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentDementias2
4CompletedTreatmentDementias / Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression7
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDysthymic Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentDysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)2
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedTreatmentImpulse Control Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentInternet Addiction1
4CompletedTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) / Panic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)20
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Temporal Lobe Epilepsy1
4CompletedTreatmentModerate or Severe Major Depressive Disorder / Severe Asthma1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Ischemia1
4CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)2
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Polyneuropathies1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostpartum Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep disorders and disturbances1
4CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDepression / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceNeuronal Plasticity / Ssri1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherACL Injury1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / Long-term Outcome / Orthopedic Procedures / Postoperative Delirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / Knee Replacement Surgery / Long-term Outcome / Postoperative Delirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiagnosis and Treatment of Depression1
4RecruitingNot AvailableDepressive Disorders / Lactation1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4RecruitingDiagnosticAsthma Bronchial / Asthma: [Nos] or [Attack] / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingPreventionMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Fear of open spaces / Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Panic Disorders / Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression2
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Hearing loss or impairment1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, NOS / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)3
4SuspendedTreatmentDepression1
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis / Depression / Facial Pain Disorder1
4TerminatedTreatmentDepression2
4TerminatedTreatmentDepression / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder With Psychotic Features1
4TerminatedTreatmentPerimenopausal Depression1
4TerminatedTreatmentPremenstrual Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticSchizophrenic Disorders1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDepression2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Pain NOS1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression / Dysthymic Disorder1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentStrokes1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Depression1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDepression / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious1
4WithdrawnTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableCancer, Breast / Depression / Menopausal Hot Flushes / Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingDiagnosticGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Separation Anxiety Disorder / Social Phobia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Drug / Continuous Antidepressant Abuse / Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDepression1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnxiety Disorders / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Insulin Resistance / Low Birth Weight / Melancholic Depression / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchDepression / Depression Secondary to Other Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDepression1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression5
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes / Menopause / Vasomotor Symptoms1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNight Eating Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostpartum Depression2
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentOxidative Stress / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAdolescents / Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Depression / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDepression / Inflammatory Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFeeling Anxious1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
Not AvailableSuspendedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPanic Disorders / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableDissociative Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePrurigo Nodularis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceDepression1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAssisted Reproductive Technology therapy / Depression / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDepression / Perimenopause1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMarijuana Dependence1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Direct Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Forest Laboratories Inc.
  • Forest Pharmaceuticals
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lundbeck Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral5 mg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral20 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral10 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral20 mg
Tablet, coatedOral20 mg/1
SolutionOral5 mg/5mL
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/21
Tablet, film coatedOral20 mg/21
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral20 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
Kit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lexapro 20 mg tablet3.71USD tablet
Lexapro 10 mg tablet3.55USD tablet
Lexapro 5 mg tablet3.4USD tablet
Lexapro 5 mg/5ml Solution0.72USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
USRE34712No1994-08-302011-09-14Us
CA2373757No2010-01-052020-07-07Canada
CA1339452No1997-09-092014-09-09Canada
US7420069Yes2008-09-022023-02-12Us
US6916941Yes2005-07-122023-02-12Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00588 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.58ALOGPS
logP3.76ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area36.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity94.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9966
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9729
Caco-2 permeable+0.6099
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7597
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6361
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9789
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6993
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8401
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8949
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5054
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8994
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5223
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7602
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7452
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.9054 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7735
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8994
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-1497000000-a840cd3176ff240d74f6

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylbutylamines. These are compounds containing a phenylbutylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the fourth carbon by an butan-1-amine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenylbutylamines
Direct Parent
Phenylbutylamines
Alternative Parents
Isocoumarans / Fluorobenzenes / Aralkylamines / Aryl fluorides / Trialkylamines / Oxacyclic compounds / Nitriles / Dialkyl ethers / Organopnictogen compounds / Organofluorides
show 1 more
Substituents
Phenylbutylamine / Isocoumaran / Fluorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aralkylamine / Aryl halide / Aryl fluoride / Tertiary amine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Oxacycle
show 15 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-carbonitrile (CHEBI:36791)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Owens MJ, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: Second-generation SSRIs: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine. Biol Psychiatry. 2001 Sep 1;50(5):345-50. [PubMed:11543737]
  2. Owens JM, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: [Second generation SSRIS: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine]. Encephale. 2002 Jul-Aug;28(4):350-5. [PubMed:12232544]
  3. Burke WJ: Escitalopram. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Oct;11(10):1477-86. [PubMed:12387707]
  4. Waugh J, Goa KL: Escitalopram : a review of its use in the management of major depressive and anxiety disorders. CNS Drugs. 2003;17(5):343-62. [PubMed:12665392]
  5. Sanchez C, Bergqvist PB, Brennum LT, Gupta S, Hogg S, Larsen A, Wiborg O: Escitalopram, the S-(+)-enantiomer of citalopram, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with potent effects in animal models predictive of antidepressant and anxiolytic activities. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003 Jun;167(4):353-62. Epub 2003 Apr 26. [PubMed:12719960]
  6. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
  7. Fabre V, Hamon M: [Mechanisms of action of antidepressants: new data from Escitalopram]. Encephale. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):259-65. [PubMed:12876551]
  8. Zhong H, Hansen KB, Boyle NJ, Han K, Muske G, Huang X, Egebjerg J, Sanchez C: An allosteric binding site at the human serotonin transporter mediates the inhibition of escitalopram by R-citalopram: kinetic binding studies with the ALI/VFL-SI/TT mutant. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Oct 25;462(3):207-12. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.07.030. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19616061]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
  2. Fabre V, Hamon M: [Mechanisms of action of antidepressants: new data from Escitalopram]. Encephale. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):259-65. [PubMed:12876551]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
HRH1
Uniprot ID
P35367
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
  2. Fabre V, Hamon M: [Mechanisms of action of antidepressants: new data from Escitalopram]. Encephale. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):259-65. [PubMed:12876551]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Sangkuhl K, Klein TE, Altman RB: PharmGKB summary: citalopram pharmacokinetics pathway. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011 Nov;21(11):769-72. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e328346063f. [PubMed:21546862]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Bishop JR, Najjar F, Rubin LH, Guter SJ, Owley T, Mosconi MW, Jacob S, Cook EH: Escitalopram pharmacogenetics: CYP2C19 relationships with dosing and clinical outcomes in autism spectrum disorder. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 Nov;25(11):548-54. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000173. [PubMed:26313485]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Baumann P: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 Dec;31(6):444-69. [PubMed:8968657]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 17, 2018 04:48