Identification

Name
Escitalopram
Accession Number
DB01175  (APRD00683)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Escitalopram may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-Citalopram
  • (S)-Citalopram
  • Escitalopram
  • Escitalopramum
  • S-(+)-Citalopram
  • S(+)-Citalopram
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Escitalopram oxalate5U85DBW7LO219861-08-2KTGRHKOEFSJQNS-BDQAORGHSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act EscitalopramTablet5 mgOralActavis Pharma CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Act EscitalopramTablet20 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Act EscitalopramTablet10 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Act Escitalopram ODTTablet, orally disintegrating20 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2016-08-17Not applicableCanada
Act Escitalopram ODTTablet, orally disintegrating10 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2016-08-17Not applicableCanada
Cipralex -5mgTablet5 mgOralLundbeck Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Cipralex -10mgTablet10 mgOralLundbeck Inc.2005-02-14Not applicableCanada
Cipralex -15mgTablet15 mgOralLundbeck Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Cipralex -20mgTablet20 mgOralLundbeck Inc.2005-02-14Not applicableCanada
Cipralex MeltzTablet, orally disintegrating20 mgOralLundbeck Inc.2012-10-04Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ach-escitalopramTablet20 mgOralAccord Healthcare Limited2016-06-10Not applicableCanada
Ach-escitalopramTablet10 mgOralAccord Healthcare Limited2016-06-10Not applicableCanada
Apo-escitalopramTablet20 mgOralApotex Corporation2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Apo-escitalopramTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet10 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet15 mgOralAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet5 mgOralAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-escitalopramTablet20 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2014-09-10Not applicableCanada
EscitalopramTablet, film coated10 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2013-03-19Not applicableUs
EscitalopramTablet, film coated20 mg/1OralNu Care Pharmaceuticals,inc.2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Escitalopram OxalateTablet5 mg/1OralDirectrx2017-10-30Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Cipralex / Esertia
Categories
UNII
4O4S742ANY
CAS number
128196-01-0
Weight
Average: 324.3919
Monoisotopic: 324.163791509
Chemical Formula
C20H21FN2O
InChI Key
WSEQXVZVJXJVFP-FQEVSTJZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H21FN2O/c1-23(2)11-3-10-20(17-5-7-18(21)8-6-17)19-9-4-15(13-22)12-16(19)14-24-20/h4-9,12H,3,10-11,14H2,1-2H3/t20-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S)-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-carbonitrile
SMILES
CN(C)CCC[[email protected]]1(OCC2=C1C=CC(=C2)C#N)C1=CC=C(F)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Labeled indications include major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Unlabeled indications include treatment of mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Escitalopram is one of a class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is used to treat the depression associated with mood disorders. It is also used on occassion in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder and anxiety. The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of escitalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. In vitro studies show that escitalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and has only very weak effects on norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal reuptake. Escitalopram has no significant affinity for adrenergic (alpha1, alpha2, beta), cholinergic, GABA, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotonergic (5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT2), or benzodiazepine receptors; antagonism of such receptors has been hypothesized to be associated with various anticholinergic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects for other psychotropic drugs. The chronic administration of escitalopram was found to downregulate brain norepinephrine receptors, as has been observed with other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Escitalopram does not inhibit monoamine oxidase.

Mechanism of action

The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of escitalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. Escitalopram blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT1A autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine receptors than tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
UAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
UHistamine H1 receptor
antagonist
Human
Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of citalopram is about 80% relative to an intravenous dose.

Volume of distribution
  • 12 L/kg
Protein binding

~56%

Metabolism

Mainly hepatic. Escitalopram undergoes N-demethylation to S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT). CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the enzymes responsible for this N-demethylation reaction.

Route of elimination

Following oral administrations of escitalopram, the fraction of drug recovered in the urine as escitalopram and S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) is about 8% and 10%, respectively. The oral clearance of escitalopram is 600 mL/min, with approximately 7% of that due to renal clearance. Escitalopram is metabolized to S-DCT and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT).

Half life

27-32 hours

Clearance
  • oral cl=600 mL/min [Following oral administrations]
Toxicity

Signs of overdose include convulsions, coma, dizziness, hypotension, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, sinus tachycardia, somnolence, and ECG changes (including QT prolongation).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Escitalopram Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter---(A;A)A alleleADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in SLC6A4 may potentially be associated with increased risk of adverse events from escitalopram.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2Not Available681G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2C19 is associated with poor metabolism of escitalopram.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*3Not Available636G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2C19 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of escitalopram.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2ANot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2BNot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*4Not Available1A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*5Not Available1297C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*6Not Available395G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*7Not Available19294T>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*22Not Available557G>C / 991A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*24Not Available99C>T / 991A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*35Not Available12662A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer. For individual with two non-functional alleles, alternative drug or dose reduction recommended.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcenocoumarolEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adipiplon is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
AlfentanilAlfentanil may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
AlimemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alimemazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Allopregnanolone is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolAlphacetylmethadol may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineAlphaprodine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmineptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amineptine is combined with Escitalopram.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Amphetamine.Approved, Illicit
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Artemether.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational, Vet Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Escitalopram.Illicit
BendroflumethiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Benmoxin.Withdrawn
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benperidol is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.Approved
BetrixabanThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Betrixaban is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
BezitramideBezitramide may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental, Illicit, Withdrawn
BL-1020The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when BL-1020 is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Brofaromine.Experimental
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromisoval is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromperidol is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineBuprenorphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.Approved
BuspironeBuspirone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolButorphanol may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canertinib is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Carbamazepine can be decreased when combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
CarfentanilCarfentanil may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Caroxazone.Withdrawn
CelecoxibEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorproethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorproethazine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopenthixol is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
ClorindioneEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Clorindione.Experimental
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clothiapine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe serum concentration of Clozapine can be increased when it is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineCodeine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
CyclopenthiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Escitalopram can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproheptadine.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapoxetine is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Deramciclane is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desipramine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Desmopressin.Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Dextromethorphan.Approved
DextromoramideDextromoramide may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneDextropropoxyphene may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineDezocine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DibenzepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dibenzepin is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
DicoumarolEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diethyl ether is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
DihydrocodeineDihydrocodeine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydroetorphineDihydroetorphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineDihydromorphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DiphenadioneEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diphenadione.Experimental
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateDiphenoxylate may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dixyrazine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
DosulepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dosulepin is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DPDPEDPDPE may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecopipam is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eltanolone is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsmirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmirtazapine is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
Ethyl biscoumacetateEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Escitalopram.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl chloride is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineEthylmorphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
EtodolacEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Etodolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
EtoperidoneEtoperidone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Withdrawn
EtoricoxibEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Etoricoxib.Approved, Investigational
EtorphineEtorphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FenfluramineEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
FentanylFentanyl may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Escitalopram.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluanisone is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
FluindioneEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
GalantamineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Escitalopram.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gepirone is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Harmaline.Experimental
HeroinHeroin may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Hydracarbazine.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneHydrocodone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
HydromorphoneHydromorphone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
IdelalisibThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Idelalisib.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
IndalpineIndalpine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indiplon is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Ioflupane I-123Escitalopram may decrease effectiveness of Ioflupane I-123 as a diagnostic agent.Approved
IprindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iprindole is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Iproclozide.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Withdrawn
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Isocarboxazid.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
KetobemidoneKetobemidone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
L-TryptophanL-Tryptophan may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateLevomethadyl Acetate may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
LevorphanolLevorphanol may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
LithiumLithium may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofentanilLofentanil may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Illicit
LofepramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofepramine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
LopinavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loprazolam is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lormetazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Lorpiprazole.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
LumiracoxibEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Lumiracoxib.Approved, Investigational
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
MacimorelinEscitalopram may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Macimorelin.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium Sulfate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Mebanazine.Withdrawn
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebicar is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolMeptazinol may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
MethadoneThe metabolism of Methadone can be decreased when combined with Escitalopram.Approved
Methadyl AcetateMethadyl Acetate may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Escitalopram.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Escitalopram.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethyclothiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylecgonine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
Methylene blueEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Methylene blue.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
MetoclopramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoclopramide is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
MetolazoneEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metyrosine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Mexiletine can be decreased when combined with Escitalopram.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
MoricizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moricizine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
MorphineMorphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
NabumetoneEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nabumetone.Approved
NalbuphineNalbuphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NialamideNialamide may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicomorphineNicomorphine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental
NilotinibThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
NormethadoneNormethadone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Octamoxin.Withdrawn
OlanzapineEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
OpipramolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opipramol is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
OpiumOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxethazaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
OxycodoneOxycodone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneOxymorphone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
ParecoxibEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Parecoxib.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penfluridol is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
PentazocinePentazocine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perazine is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PethidinePethidine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
PhenazocinePhenazocine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenibut is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
PhenindioneEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Pheniprazine.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoperidinePhenoperidine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Phenoxypropazine.Withdrawn
PhenprocoumonEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
PiritramidePiritramide may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Pivhydrazine.Withdrawn
PolythiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Procarbazine.Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propanidid is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
PropiopromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propiopromazine is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proxibarbal is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
QuinethazoneEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Quinethazone.Approved
QuinidineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinisocaine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Raclopride is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
RanolazineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilRemifentanil may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
RibociclibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Ribociclib is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RisperidoneThe metabolism of Risperidone can be decreased when combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritanserin is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RofecoxibEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Rofecoxib.Investigational, Withdrawn
RolapitantThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
RucaparibThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Safrazine.Withdrawn
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SarilumabThe therapeutic efficacy of Escitalopram can be decreased when used in combination with Sarilumab.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sepranolone is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineSertraline may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sultopride is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tandospirone is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrahydropalmatine is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Escitalopram.Investigational
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiazinamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiazinam is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
ThiethylperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiethylperazine is combined with Escitalopram.Withdrawn
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
TianeptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tianeptine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiapride is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
TilidineTilidine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Experimental
TioclomarolEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tioclomarol.Experimental
TipranavirThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
TopiramateThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolEscitalopram may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tricaine methanesulfonate is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideEscitalopram may increase the hyponatremic activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trichloroethylene is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluperidol is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
ValdecoxibEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Valdecoxib.Investigational, Withdrawn
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Escitalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Veralipride is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
VerapamilThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VilazodoneEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Vilazodone.Approved
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinyl ether is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Vortioxetine.Approved
WarfarinEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xenon is combined with Escitalopram.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZimelidineEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Escitalopram.Vet Approved
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Escitalopram.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Robert Dancer, "Escitalopram hydrobromide and a method for the preparation thereof." U.S. Patent US20040167209, issued August 26, 2004.

US20040167209
General References
  1. Moore N, Verdoux H, Fantino B: Prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of escitalopram versus citalopram in outpatient treatment of major depressive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 May;20(3):131-7. [PubMed:15812262]
  2. Boulenger JP, Huusom AK, Florea I, Baekdal T, Sarchiapone M: A comparative study of the efficacy of long-term treatment with escitalopram and paroxetine in severely depressed patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006 Jul;22(7):1331-41. [PubMed:16834832]
  3. Bielski RJ, Ventura D, Chang CC: A double-blind comparison of escitalopram and venlafaxine extended release in the treatment of major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;65(9):1190-6. [PubMed:15367045]
  4. Nierenberg AA, Greist JH, Mallinckrodt CH, Prakash A, Sambunaris A, Tollefson GD, Wohlreich MM: Duloxetine versus escitalopram and placebo in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder: onset of antidepressant action, a non-inferiority study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Feb;23(2):401-16. [PubMed:17288694]
  5. Chen F, Larsen MB, Sanchez C, Wiborg O: The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;15(2):193-8. [PubMed:15695064]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0005028
PubChem Compound
146570
PubChem Substance
46507040
ChemSpider
129277
BindingDB
50302225
ChEBI
36791
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1508
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000741
PharmGKB
PA10074
HET
68P
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Escitalopram
ATC Codes
N06AB10 — Escitalopram
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.20 — Selective-serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
PDB Entries
5i71 / 5i73 / 5i75
FDA label
Download (1.09 MB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Unknown StatusTreatmentPremature Ejaculation1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)2
1CompletedNot AvailableCocaine Abuse / Dependence, Cocaine / Substance Abuse1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedBasic ScienceDepression1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHepatitis C Infection1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherAnxiety Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Men1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
1CompletedTreatmentPatients With Chronic Stroke1
1RecruitingOtherMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1TerminatedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentAnxiety Disorders1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAddictions1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedPreventionChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Depression1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2CompletedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)8
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Other Psychiatric Disorders / Tbi1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
2CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
2RecruitingOtherDepression1
2RecruitingSupportive CareStrokes1
2RecruitingTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome-Constipation / Rectal Hypersensitivity1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceDependence, Cocaine1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHepatitis C Viral Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide, Attempted1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDyspepsia and Other Specified Disorders of Function of Stomach1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPhobic Disorders1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareDepression / GBM1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant / Major depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
3CompletedPreventionDepression1
3CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Disseminated Sclerosis / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Somatoform Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentAtypical Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Depressive Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Opiate Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant / Major depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
3CompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentENT Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)10
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified / Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode2
3CompletedTreatmentNight Eating Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
3CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentTreatment Outcomes1
3RecruitingTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
3RecruitingTreatmentDementias1
3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Feeling Anxious / Indigestion1
3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / MCI1
3TerminatedPreventionAnxiety Disorders1
3TerminatedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers / Depression / Esophageal Cancers / Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Gallbladder Cancer / Liver Cancer / Lung Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Tiredness1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentDepression With Prominent Agitation1
3TerminatedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)3
3TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCerebrovascular Accidents / Depression1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCarcinoma NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Depression1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Feeling Anxious1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4CompletedNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableDepression1
4CompletedNot AvailableDysphoria1
4CompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDepression2
4CompletedBasic ScienceFear Conditioning1
4CompletedBasic SciencePanic Disorders1
4CompletedDiagnosticAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAsthma Bronchial / Depression1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedOtherHealthy Controls / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedPreventionDepression3
4CompletedScreeningIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Agitation / Alzheimer's Disease (AD) / Psychosis1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Psychomotor Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentAntidepressant Activity in Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Depressive Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentDementias2
4CompletedTreatmentDementias / Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression7
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDysthymic Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentDysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)2
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedTreatmentImpulse Control Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentInternet Addiction1
4CompletedTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) / Panic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)19
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Temporal Lobe Epilepsy1
4CompletedTreatmentModerate or Severe Major Depressive Disorder / Severe Asthma1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Ischemia1
4CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)2
4CompletedTreatmentOveractive Bladder1
4CompletedTreatmentPTSD1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Polyneuropathies1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostpartum Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep disorders and disturbances1
4CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceNeuronal Plasticity / Ssri1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiagnosis and Treatment of Depression1
4RecruitingNot AvailableDepressive Disorders / Lactation1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4RecruitingDiagnosticAsthma Bronchial / Asthma: [Nos] or [Attack] / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingPreventionMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression2
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Hard of Hearing1
4RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
4SuspendedTreatmentDepression1
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis / Depression / Facial Pain Disorder1
4TerminatedTreatmentDepression2
4TerminatedTreatmentDepression / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder With Psychotic Features1
4TerminatedTreatmentPerimenopausal Depression1
4TerminatedTreatmentPremenstrual Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticSchizophrenic Disorders1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDepression2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression / Dysthymic Disorder1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentStrokes1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDepression / Low Back Pain (LBP)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableCancer, Breast / Depression / Menopausal Hot Flushes / Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingDiagnosticGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Separation Anxiety Disorder / Social Phobia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Depression / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Drug / Continuous Antidepressant Abuse / Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDepression2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnxiety Disorders / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Insulin Resistance / Low Birth Weight / Melancholic Depression / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchDepression / Depression Secondary to Other Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression5
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes / Menopause / Vasomotor Symptoms1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNight Eating Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostpartum Depression2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStress Disorders, Post Traumatic1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDepression / Inflammatory Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFeeling Anxious1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableSuspendedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPanic Disorders / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableDissociative Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePrurigo Nodularis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceDepression1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAssisted Reproductive Technology therapy / Depression / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDepression / Perimenopause1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)3
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMarijuana Dependence1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral5 mg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral20 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral10 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral20 mg
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral20 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
SolutionOral5 mg/5mL
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/21
Tablet, film coatedOral20 mg/21
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral20 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lexapro 20 mg tablet3.71USD tablet
Lexapro 10 mg tablet3.55USD tablet
Lexapro 5 mg tablet3.4USD tablet
Lexapro 5 mg/5ml Solution0.72USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
USRE34712No1994-09-142011-09-14Us
CA2373757No2010-01-052020-07-07Canada
CA1339452No1997-09-092014-09-09Canada
US7420069Yes2003-02-122023-02-12Us
US6916941Yes2003-02-122023-02-12Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00588 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.58ALOGPS
logP3.76ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area36.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity94.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9966
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9729
Caco-2 permeable+0.6099
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7597
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6361
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9789
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6993
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8401
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8949
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5054
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8994
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5223
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7602
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7452
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.9054 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7735
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8994
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-1497000000-a840cd3176ff240d74f6

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylbutylamines. These are compounds containing a phenylbutylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the fourth carbon by an butan-1-amine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenylbutylamines
Direct Parent
Phenylbutylamines
Alternative Parents
Isocoumarans / Fluorobenzenes / Aralkylamines / Aryl fluorides / Trialkylamines / Oxacyclic compounds / Nitriles / Dialkyl ethers / Organopnictogen compounds / Organofluorides
show 1 more
Substituents
Phenylbutylamine / Isocoumaran / Fluorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aralkylamine / Aryl halide / Aryl fluoride / Tertiary amine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Oxacycle
show 15 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-carbonitrile (CHEBI:36791)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Owens MJ, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: Second-generation SSRIs: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine. Biol Psychiatry. 2001 Sep 1;50(5):345-50. [PubMed:11543737]
  2. Owens JM, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: [Second generation SSRIS: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine]. Encephale. 2002 Jul-Aug;28(4):350-5. [PubMed:12232544]
  3. Burke WJ: Escitalopram. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Oct;11(10):1477-86. [PubMed:12387707]
  4. Waugh J, Goa KL: Escitalopram : a review of its use in the management of major depressive and anxiety disorders. CNS Drugs. 2003;17(5):343-62. [PubMed:12665392]
  5. Sanchez C, Bergqvist PB, Brennum LT, Gupta S, Hogg S, Larsen A, Wiborg O: Escitalopram, the S-(+)-enantiomer of citalopram, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with potent effects in animal models predictive of antidepressant and anxiolytic activities. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003 Jun;167(4):353-62. Epub 2003 Apr 26. [PubMed:12719960]
  6. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
  7. Fabre V, Hamon M: [Mechanisms of action of antidepressants: new data from Escitalopram]. Encephale. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):259-65. [PubMed:12876551]
  8. Zhong H, Hansen KB, Boyle NJ, Han K, Muske G, Huang X, Egebjerg J, Sanchez C: An allosteric binding site at the human serotonin transporter mediates the inhibition of escitalopram by R-citalopram: kinetic binding studies with the ALI/VFL-SI/TT mutant. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Oct 25;462(3):207-12. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.07.030. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19616061]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
  2. Fabre V, Hamon M: [Mechanisms of action of antidepressants: new data from Escitalopram]. Encephale. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):259-65. [PubMed:12876551]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
HRH1
Uniprot ID
P35367
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [PubMed:17916059]
  2. Fabre V, Hamon M: [Mechanisms of action of antidepressants: new data from Escitalopram]. Encephale. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):259-65. [PubMed:12876551]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Baumann P: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 Dec;31(6):444-69. [PubMed:8968657]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 23, 2018 12:16