Identification

Name
Eszopiclone
Accession Number
DB00402  (APRD00431)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Eszopiclone, marketed by Sepracor under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent (viz., a sedative) used as a treatment for insomnia. Eszopiclone is the active stereoisomer of zopiclone, and belongs to the class of drugs known as cyclopyrrones.

Its main selling point is that it is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for long-term use, unlike almost all other hypnotic sedatives, which are approved only for the relief of short-term (6-8 weeks) insomnia.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-(5S)-6-(5-Chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)pyrazin-5-yl 4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate
  • (+)-(5S)-6-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate
  • (+)-Zopiclone
  • (S)-6-(5-Chloro-2-pyridinyl)- 7-oxo- 6,7-dihydro- 5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl- 4-methyl- 1-piperazinecarboxylate
  • (S)-Zopiclone
  • 1-Piperazinecarobxylic acid,4-methyl-,(5S)-6-(5-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl ester
  • Esopiclone
  • Estorra
  • Eszopiclone
External IDs
GSK-1755165
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LunestaTablet, coated3 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-04-04Not applicableUs
LunestaTablet, coated2 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2005-04-04Not applicableUs54569 569620180907 15195 o8xot8
LunestaTablet, coated2 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2009-01-01Not applicableUs
LunestaTablet, coated2 mg/1OralH.J. Harkins Company2005-04-04Not applicableUs
LunestaTablet1 mgOralSunovionNot applicableNot applicableCanada
LunestaTablet, coated2 mg/1OralSt. Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2005-04-042013-01-31Us
LunestaTablet, coated2 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-04-27Not applicableUs54868 527320180907 15195 1hotd8m
LunestaTablet, coated1 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2011-07-182014-06-01Us
LunestaTablet, coated2 mg/1OralSunovion2005-04-04Not applicableUs
LunestaTablet, coated3 mg/1OralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2005-04-04Not applicableUs68258 704920180907 15195 1fx0d1c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EszopicloneTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2014-04-152016-10-31Us
EszopicloneTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals2014-04-15Not applicableUs
EszopicloneTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2014-04-15Not applicableUs
EszopicloneTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralDirectrx2015-01-01Not applicableUs
EszopicloneTablet, film coated3 mg/1OralSt. Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2016-04-142017-09-30Us
EszopicloneTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-04-15Not applicableUs
EszopicloneTablet, film coated3 mg/1OralMesource Pharmaceuticals2014-04-15Not applicableUs
EszopicloneTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralSun Pharma Global FZE2014-04-15Not applicableUs
EszopicloneTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2014-04-15Not applicableUs
EszopicloneTablet, film coated3 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2014-04-14Not applicableUs50436 553920180907 15195 1q8q8nu
International/Other Brands
Dorplen (LKM) / Esleep (Opsonin) / Eszop (Silesia) / Fulnite (Sun) / Inductal (Roemmers) / Isoklon (Tecnoquimicas) / Nirvan (Saval) / Noptic (Andromaco) / Plessir (Medipharm) / Sanilent (Sanitas) / Sleepil (Aristopharma) / Sono (Acme) / Valnoc (Drugtech) / Wen Fei (Tasly) / Zopilone (Incepta) / Zopinon (Chile)
Categories
UNII
UZX80K71OE
CAS number
138729-47-2
Weight
Average: 388.808
Monoisotopic: 388.105066147
Chemical Formula
C17H17ClN6O3
InChI Key
GBBSUAFBMRNDJC-INIZCTEOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H17ClN6O3/c1-22-6-8-23(9-7-22)17(26)27-16-14-13(19-4-5-20-14)15(25)24(16)12-3-2-11(18)10-21-12/h2-5,10,16H,6-9H2,1H3/t16-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(5S)-6-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-5H,6H,7H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl 4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate
SMILES
CN1CCN(CC1)C(=O)O[C@@H]1N(C(=O)C2=NC=CN=C12)C1=NC=C(Cl)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of insomnia

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Eszopiclone is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, pyrrolopyrazine derivative of the cyclopyrrolone class and is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. While Eszopiclone is a hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties, it interacts with the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine (GABABZ) receptor complex. Subunit modulation of the GABABZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex is hypothesized to be responsible for some of the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepines, which include sedative, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive effects in animal models. Eszopiclone binds selectively to the brain alpha subunit of the GABA A omega-1 receptor.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of Eszopiclone is not completely understood. It is thought that Eszopiclone acts on the benzodiazepine receptors as an agonist and interacts with GABA-receptor complexes.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
agonist
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
agonist
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
agonist
Human
ATranslocator protein
agonist
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed following oral administration

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

52-59%

Metabolism

Following oral administration, eszopiclone is extensively metabolized by oxidation and demethylation.

Route of elimination

Up to 75% of an oral dose of racemic zopiclone is excreted in the urine, primarily as metabolites.

Half life

6 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Side effects include viral infection, dry mouth, dizziness, hallucinations, infection, rash, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship clearest for unpleasant taste depending on doses.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of Eszopiclone can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of Eszopiclone can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe metabolism of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be decreased when combined with Eszopiclone.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine is combined with Eszopiclone.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is combined with Eszopiclone.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Eszopiclone.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Eszopiclone.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Eszopiclone.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Methoxyamphetamine is combined with Eszopiclone.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Eszopiclone.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Marioara MENDELOVICI, Anita LIBERMAN, Alex MAINFELD, Nina FINKELSTEIN, "METHODS FOR PREPARING ESZOPICLONE CRYSTALLINE FORM A, SUBSTANTIALLY PURE ESZOPICLONE AND OPTICALLY ENRICHED ESZOPICLONE." U.S. Patent US20070270590, issued November 22, 2007.

US20070270590
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014546
PubChem Compound
969472
PubChem Substance
46505809
ChemSpider
839530
BindingDB
26265
ChEBI
53760
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1522
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000933
PharmGKB
PA162630444
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Eszopiclone
ATC Codes
N05CF04 — Eszopiclone
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.92 — Miscellaneous Anxiolytics Sedatives and Hypnotics
FDA label
Download (252 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Glucose tolerance impaired / Pre-Diabetic / Prediabetic1
1CompletedBasic ScienceMarijuana Dependence1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness2
2CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)1
2CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInsomnia Chronic / Primary Insomnia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Sleeplessness2
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness2
3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD) / Sleeplessness1
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia3
3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis / Sleeplessness1
3CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness2
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSleeplessness1
4CompletedNot AvailableMigraines / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedBasic ScienceSleeplessness1
4CompletedDiagnosticObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4CompletedSupportive CareAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Sleep Disorder1
4CompletedSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Feeling Anxious / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Sleep / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentPoor Quality Sleep1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
4CompletedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness2
4RecruitingTreatmentInsomnia Chronic1
4TerminatedTreatmentNicotine Dependence / Sleeplessness1
4TerminatedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
4WithdrawnBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSleeplessness2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePrimary Insomnia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSleep Apnea, Obstructive1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMenopause / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) / Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / Tiredness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Sleep disorders and disturbances / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentShift-Work Sleep Disorder1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Sepracor inc
  • Sepracor Inc.
Packagers
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Caremark LLC
  • Centaur Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd.
  • DispenseXpress Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Sepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral2 mg/1
TabletOral3 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral2 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral3 mg/1
TabletOral1 mg
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral3 mg
Tablet, coatedOral1 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral2 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral3 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lunesta 2 mg tablet8.08USD tablet
Lunesta 3 mg tablet7.28USD tablet
Lunesta 1 mg tablet7.24USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6444673No1994-02-142014-02-14Us
US6319926No1995-01-162012-01-16Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityvery slightly solubleNot Available
logP0.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.885 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.97ALOGPS
logP0.81ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.04ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.89ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity95.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.5805
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6917
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6381
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6785
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7158
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6775
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8995
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.689
Ames testAMES toxic0.5332
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9174
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9941
Rat acute toxicity2.6411 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7838
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5688
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0190000000-979bdecccd14f99834e7

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclopyrrolones. These are compounds belonging to a family of pyridin-2-ylpyrrole based chemicals. The pyrrole is usually fused to a benzene, pyrimidine, or dithiin.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Pyrrolopyrazines
Sub Class
Cyclopyrrolones
Direct Parent
Cyclopyrrolones
Alternative Parents
Piperazine carboxylic acids / 2-heteroaryl carboxamides / N-methylpiperazines / Pyridines and derivatives / Pyrazines / Aryl chlorides / Imidolactams / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Carbamate esters / Heteroaromatic compounds
show 9 more
Substituents
Cyclopyrrolone / Piperazine-1-carboxylic acid / 2-heteroaryl carboxamide / N-methylpiperazine / N-alkylpiperazine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Imidolactam / Pyridine / Pyrazine
show 25 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
zopiclone (CHEBI:53760)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in l...
Gene Name
TSPO
Uniprot ID
P30536
Uniprot Name
Translocator protein
Molecular Weight
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Becker PM, Sattar M: Treatment of sleep dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2009 Sep;11(5):349-57. [PubMed:19744401]
  4. Jufe GS: [New hypnotics: perspectives from sleep physiology]. Vertex. 2007 Jul-Aug;18(74):294-9. [PubMed:18265473]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Lalovic B, Phillips B, Risler LL, Howald W, Shen DD: Quantitative contribution of CYP2D6 and CYP3A to oxycodone metabolism in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):447-54. [PubMed:15039299]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Lalovic B, Phillips B, Risler LL, Howald W, Shen DD: Quantitative contribution of CYP2D6 and CYP3A to oxycodone metabolism in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):447-54. [PubMed:15039299]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 23, 2018 19:37