Nasal Stuffiness

Also known as: Congestion, Nasal / Nasal Congestion / Catarrh / Congestion nasal / Nose congestion

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB09488AcrivastineAcrivastine is a triprolidine analog antihistamine indicated for the treatment of allergies and hay fever. As an H1 receptor antagonist, it functions by blocking the action of histamine at this receptor thereby preventing the symptoms associated with histamine release such as pruritis, vasodilation, hypotension, edema, bronchoconstriction, and tachycardia. Acrivastine is currently available in combination with pseudoephedrine as the FDA-approved product Semprex-D.
DB01222BudesonideBudesonide is a glucocorticoid used in the management of asthma, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic rhinitis. [PubChem] The extended release oral tablet, marketed as Uceris, was FDA approved on January 14, 2013 for the management of ulcerative colitis. Budesonide is provided as a mixture of two epimers (22R and 22S). Interestingly, the 22R form is two times more active than the 22S epimer. The two forms do not interconvert.
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine salicylate is an anti-inflammatory pain reliever agent that is related to aspirin. It is used to decrease swelling and to treat mild-moderate pain. It is used to treat arthritis in both children and adults. This medicine can also be used for fever [L2129]. Choline Salicylate is the choline salt of salicylic acid, used as an analgesic, antipyretic and antirheumatic. It relieves mild to moderate pain and reduce fever and inflammation or swelling. Choline salicylate is effective in the treatment of gout, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis and muscle injuries [L2136]. This drug is also a main ingredient in teething gels to relieve pains associated with tooth growth in the infant population [L2134]. The UK government has regulated its use, due to toxicity in those under 16 years of age. Topical oral salicylate gels are no longer indicated for people younger than 16 years for pain associated with infant teething, orthodontic devices, cold sores, or mouth ulcers [L2134].
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineMethylephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine that appears in various over-the-counter cough and cold medications throughout the world [L2838], [L2839], [L2840]. The abuse of methylephedrine-containing medications has been reported in Japan. Methylephedrine is not legally available in the United States, but has been identified in cases of drug abuse [L2836].
DB00967DesloratadineDesloratadine is a second generation, tricyclic antihistamine that which has a selective and peripheral H1-antagonist action. It is the active descarboethoxy metabolite of loratidine (a second generation histamine). Desloratidine has a long-lasting effect and does not cause drowsiness because it does not readily enter the central nervous system.
DB00668EpinephrineEpinephrine, also known as _adrenaline_, is a hormone and neurotransmitter and produced by the adrenal glands that can also be used as a drug due to its various important functions. Though it has long been used in the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, epinephrine in the auto-injector form (EpiPen) has been available since 1987 in the USA. Many new products/biosimilars and dosage routes have been approved under various names over the last several decades [L4355], [L4356], [L4358]. On August 16, 2018, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained approval to market its generic epinephrine auto-injector in 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg strengths [L4353]. Dosage delivery routes for epinephrine include intravenous, inhalation, nebulization, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection. In general, the most common uses of parenteral epinephrine are to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid) reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens, and to prolong the action of infiltration anesthetics [F2136]. In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest [A37697], [A37699]. It can be used in severe cases of croup [L4824].
DB00956HydrocodoneNarcotic analgesic related to codeine, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
DB09571LevmetamfetamineLevomethamphetamine, the L-enantiomer of methamphetamine is a sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor used in some over-the-counter (OTC) nasal decongestant inhalers in the United States.
DB00764MometasoneMometasone is a medium-potency synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Studies in asthmatic patients have demonstrated that mometasone provides a favorable ratio of topical to systemic activity due to its primary local effect along with the extensive hepatic metabolism and the lack of active metabolites. Though effective for the treatment of asthma, glucocorticoids do not affect asthma symptoms immediately. Maximum improvement in symptoms following inhaled administration of mometasone furoate may not be achieved for 1 to 2 weeks or longer after starting treatment. The anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, which control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
DB06711NaphazolineNaphazoline is a rapid acting imidazoline sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor of ocular or nasal artierioles[L5804,L5807]. It acts to decrease congestion and is found in many over the counter (OTC) eye drops and nasal preparations[L5804,L5807]. Naphazoline was first developed in 1942 as a nasal formulation for congestion[A176609].
DB00935OxymetazolineA direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)
DB00388PhenylephrinePhenylephrine is a sympathomimetic amine that acts predominantly on α-adrenergic receptors. It is mainly used to treat nasal congestion, but may also be useful in treating hypotension and shock, hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, prolongation of spinal anaesthesia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, symptomatic relief of external or internal hemorrhoids, and to increase blood pressure as an aid in the diagnosis of heart murmurs.
DB01069PromethazineA phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
DB06714PropylhexedrinePropylhexedrine is an alpha-adrenergic agonist often used in nasal decongestant inhalers. It is used to give temporary relief for nasal congestion from colds, allergic rhinitis, or allergies.
DB00852PseudoephedrineAn alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
DB06764TetryzolineTetryzoline (also known as Tetrahydrozoline), a derivative of imidazoline, is found in over-the-counter eye drops and nasal sprays. Other derivatives include naphazoline, oxymetazoline, and xylometazoline. Johnson and Johnson manufactures tetryzoline eye drops under the brand Visine ®.
DB06694XylometazolineA nasal vasoconstricting decongestant drug which acts by binding to the same receptors as adrenaline. It is applied as a spray or as drops into the nose to ease inflammation and congestion of the nasal passageways. It binds alpha-adrenergic receptors to activate the adrenal system which causes systemic vasoconstriction, thereby easing nasal congestion.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB09488AcrivastineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01222BudesonideGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB01222BudesonideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01222BudesonideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01222BudesonideBile salt export pumptransporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Btarget
DB14006Choline salicylateAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Atarget
DB14006Choline salicylatePhospholipase D2target
DB14006Choline salicylateCholinesterasetarget
DB14006Choline salicylatePhospholipase D1target
DB14006Choline salicylatePhosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatasetarget
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine/ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1enzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 1transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 4transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 2transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 3transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine/ethanolamine kinaseenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine O-acetyltransferaseenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine kinase alphaenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateHigh affinity choline transporter 1transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineAlpha adrenergic receptortarget
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00967DesloratadineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00668EpinephrineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00668EpinephrineTumor necrosis factortarget
DB00668EpinephrineCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00668EpinephrineMonoamine oxidaseenzyme
DB00956HydrocodoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00956HydrocodoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00956HydrocodoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00956HydrocodoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB09571LevmetamfetaminePhenylethanolamine N-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00764MometasoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00764MometasoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00764MometasoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB00764MometasoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06711NaphazolineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB06711NaphazolineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00935OxymetazolineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00935OxymetazolineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00935OxymetazolineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00935OxymetazolineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00935OxymetazolineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00935OxymetazolineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00388PhenylephrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00388PhenylephrineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00388PhenylephrineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Aenzyme
DB00388PhenylephrineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00388PhenylephrineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01069PromethazineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01069PromethazineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01069PromethazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01069PromethazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01069PromethazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01069PromethazineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01069Promethazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01069PromethazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01069PromethazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01069PromethazineCalmodulintarget
DB01069PromethazineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01069PromethazineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01069PromethazineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01069PromethazineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01069PromethazineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB06714PropylhexedrineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB06714PropylhexedrineTrace amine-associated receptor 1target
DB00852PseudoephedrineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Aenzyme
DB00852PseudoephedrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00852PseudoephedrineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineNuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1target
DB00852PseudoephedrineTumor necrosis factortarget
DB00852PseudoephedrineNuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cellstarget
DB00852Pseudoephedrineactivator protein 1target
DB00852PseudoephedrineInterleukin-2target
DB06764TetryzolineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB06694XylometazolineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB06694XylometazolineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB06694XylometazolineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB06694XylometazolineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB06694XylometazolineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB06694XylometazolineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget